Friday, November 3, 2006
During this week in 1912, the Alaska Native Brotherhood was established. It helps preserve Native culture in Alaska.
Thursday, November 2, 2006
On this day in 1966, the Fur Seal Act became law. It prohibited the killing of fur seals to help protect the animal. Exceptions were made for Alaska Natives living on the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean and the Pribilof Islands.
Wednesday, November 1, 2006
During this week in 1992, Ben Nighthorse Campbell became the first Native American to serve in the U.S. Senate in more than 60-years. The Northern Cheyenne tribal member represented the State of Colorado. He served three terms and retired in 2004.
Friday, October 20, 2006
During this week in 1983, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation received its federal recognition status. The Connecticut tribe's recognition was made possible when President Ronald Reagan amended their Indian Land Claims Settlement Act.
Thursday, October 19, 2006
During this week in 1992, Rigoberta Menchu, an outspoken Indian rights activist from Guatemala won the Nobel Peace Prize.
Wednesday, October 18, 2006
On this day in 1899, a stolen Tlingit totem pole was erected in Pioneer Square in Seattle, Washington. It was stolen from Alaska by some Seattle citizens who claimed the village was deserted.
Tuesday, October 17, 2006
On this day in 1972, the Cook Inlet Region Corporation was established for the Village of Eklutna. The Athabascan village is located northeast of Anchorage, Alaska.
Monday, October 16, 2006
During this week in 1988, the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act was passed by Congress. It established standards and federal regulations for gaming. The Act also protected gaming as a means of generating tribal revenue.
Friday, October 13, 2006
During this week in 1913, Aleut, John “Benny” Benson was born in Chignik, Alaska. Benson developed the design of Alaska’s state flag when he was in seventh grade.
Thursday, October 12, 2006
On this day in 1492, Christopher Columbus landed on what he called the New World. The Taino people were the first Natives to meet Columbus on an island in the Bahamas. Columbus called the island San Salvador. The arrival of Columbus to the western hemisphere forever changed the lives of Indigenous people.
Wednesday, October 11, 2006
On this day in 1996, KNBA the first urban all-Native radio station went on the air in Anchorage, Alaska. It’s owned by Koahnic Broadcast Corporation. National Native News is also a KBC program.
Tuesday, October 10, 2006
On this day in 1894, dozens of Hopi men defied U.S. government agents by planting wheat in fields they claimed as their aboriginal lands. Nineteen of the men were found guilty of rebelling and were sent to prison on Alcatraz Island for nearly a year.
Monday, October 9, 2006
On this day in 1987, Seminole Chief James E. Billie was acquitted of state charges for killing an endangered panther. Billie killed, skinned and ate the panther in Florida, nearly four years earlier. He argued religious freedom and treaty rights.
Friday, October 6, 2006
On this day in 1986, the U.S. Congress designated the Nez Perce Historical Trail. The Nez Perce took the 1,170-mile long trail while fleeing from the U.S. Army in the late 1800’s.
Thursday, October 5, 2006
On this day in 1979, the Kijik Coproation was established for the Village of Nondalton. The Athabascan community is located nearly 200 miles southwest of Anchorage, Alaska.
Wednesday, October 4, 2006
On this day in 1990, the Indian Environmental Regulatory Enhancement Act became law. It authorized grants to help tribes regulate environmental quality on tribal lands.
Tuesday, October 3, 2006
During this week in 1920, Rika Murphy was born in Kenai, Alaska. She was the first Chief of the Kenaitze Indian Tribe. Murphy also served as President of the Salamatof Native Association and was a founding member of the Alaska Native Health Board.
Monday, October 2, 2006
During this week in 1873, Modoc Chief “Captain Jack” was hanged in Klamath, Oregon. He killed a Civil War General in order to keep his people from relocating to a reservation.
Friday, September 29, 2006
During this week in 1971, the Tanana Chiefs Conference was incorporated to offer services for the villages of Interior Alaska.
Thursday, September 28, 2006
During this week in 1973, the U-S House Interior Committee approved the Menominee Restoration bill. The legislation reestablished federal recognition of the Menominee Indians in Wisconsin.
Wednesday, September 27, 2006
During this week in 1839, the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma passed a law allowing intermarriage between Cherokee women and white men. The law protected a Cherokee woman's assets. It stated that no white man could claim his wife's property if the marriage ended.
Tuesday, September 26, 2006
During this week in 1841, Billy Caldwell a Potawatomi Chief died in Iowa. Caldwell was also a secretary to Tecumseh and a liaison to the British government.
Monday, September 25, 2006
During this week in 1973, well-known Inuit photographer, artist and historian died in Northern Canada. Peter Pitseolak is best known for capturing traditional Inuit life.
Friday, September 22, 2006
During this week in 1904, Chief Joseph died. The Nez Perce chief fought to preserve his homeland in the Pacific Northwest. Chief Joseph was renowned as a humanitarian and peacemaker.
Thursday, September 21, 2006
On this day in 2004, the National Museum of the American Indian opened its doors in Washington, D-C. Thousands of people attended the grand opening. Since then, millions more have toured through the museum on the National Mall. It offers visitors a unique perspective of Native people of the western hemisphere.
Wednesday, September 20, 2006
On this day in 1987, Pope John Paul the second visited Canada's First Nations people in the Northwest Territories. His service was translated into several different Native languages.
Tuesday, September 19, 2006
During this week in 1978, the Pascua Yaqui Tribe was federally recognized. The tribe is located in Arizona and has more than 200 acres of desert land. It has benefited from gaming and other enterprises.
Monday, September 18, 2006
During this week in 2004, the Lummi Nation of Washington State presented two totem poles titled “Liberty and Freedom” to the Pentagon.
Friday, September 15, 2006
On this day in 1903, the Fort McDowell Indian Reservation was established in Arizona. More than 24-thousand acres were designated for the Yavapai people.
Thursday, September 14, 2006
On this day in 1958, Chickasaw tribal member John Herrington was born. Harrington was the first Native American to fly in space.
Wednesday, September 13, 2006
On this day on 1984, Ojibwe activist Dennis Banks surrendered to law enforcement officials in South Dakota. Eleven years earlier, he helped lead an American Indian Movement protest in South Dakota. Banks was arrested for his involvment. He was convicted of rioting and assault. But fled the state to avoid prison. After his surrender he served 18 months.
Tuesday, September 12, 2006
On this day in 1944, Indigenous Rights Activist Leonard Peltier was born. He has served years in prison for the murder of two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents. The FBI has never released all the records in his case.
Monday, September 11, 2006
During this week in 1851, a warrior named Conquering Bear was chosen to represent the Lakota people. He was picked after the Americans insisted each tribe name a head chief who could sign treaties on behalf of their people. Conquering Bear signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie.
Friday, September 8, 2006
During this week in 1989, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma changed its tribal flag. A seven-pointed black star was added as a reminder of Cherokee people who lost their lives on the Trail of Tears.
Thursday, September 7, 2006
During this week in 1972, the Bureau of Indian Affairs was ordered to send a high school teacher to the Native village of Emmonak. It’s located on the Yukon River Delta.
Wednesday, September 6, 2006
During this week in 1877, Oglala Sioux Chief Crazy Horse died. He was reportedly stabbed in the abdomen by a soldier and was killed at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.
Tuesday, September 5, 2006
During this week 1968, Reverend Dr. Roe Lewis received the national "Indian Achievement" of the year award. The Pima and Papago Native from Phoenix, Arizona was cited for his accomplishments in educational counseling.
Monday, September 4, 2006
During this week in 1907, the Principal Chief of the Creek Nation, Pleasant Porter died. Porter served in the Confederate Army as a private. Prior to his tribal leadership he served as a tribal superintendent of schools.
Friday, September 1, 2006
During this week in 1976, the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center opened its doors. It is located in Albuquerque and owned by the 19 pueblos in New Mexico.
Tuesday, August 8, 2006
On this day in 1879, Emiliano Zapata was born in the village of San Miguel Anencuilco in the Mexican State of Morelos. Zapata was a Mestizo who spoke his Native Nahuatl language. He was elected leader of his village in 1909 and went on to become a leader in the Mexican Revolution. He is considered a national hero in his country.
Monday, August 7, 2006
During this week in 1933, George Attla was born in Huslia. He is known as “The Huslia Hustler” for being one of Alaska’s top mushers. Attla an Athabascan, won 10 world titles and eight North American titles.
Friday, August 4, 2006
During this week in 1812, Shawnee leader Tecumseh led an ambush against American forces at Brownstone Creek in what is now Michigan. The Americans were forced to retreat.
Thursday, August 3, 2006
On this day in 1990, President George Herbert Walker Bush approved a resolution designating November of that year as National American Indian Heritage month.
Wednesday, August 2, 2006
During this week in 1948, Native Americans in New Mexico won the right to vote in the case Trujillo vs. Garley. The case was brought against the state by Miguel Trujillo. He was an Isleta Pueblo man and World War II veteran who was turned away by county clerks when he tried to register to vote.
Monday, July 31, 2006
On this day in 1882, Congress passed Act 22, Statute 179 to regulate trade in Indian communities. It made it illegal for non-natives and non-licensed traders to live in Indian Country.
Friday, July 28, 2006
On this day in 1996, a skull was found on the banks of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington. The skeleton was named “Kennewick Man.” Tribes in the Northwest fought to rebury him but lost in court to scientist who then studied the remains.
Thursday, July 27, 2006
On this day in 1868, the United States and Mexico issued a joint resolution outlawing the enslavement of Navajo people. For more than 250 years Navajos were captured and sold into slavery by Spanish and Mexican colonists.
Monday, July 24, 2006
On this day in 1843, England apologized to a Hawaiian leader for the actions of an overzealous Lord who had claimed Hawaii for the Crown. King Kamehameha III was re-recognized as the leader of the Hawaiian Nation.
Monday, July 24, 2006
During this week in 1971, John Crow, a Cherokee man was appointed commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs by President Richard Nixon
Thursday, July 13, 2006
During this week in 1837, the first Mandan to die from smallpox was recorded. It was documented along the upper Missouri River. The outbreak of this disease spread rapidly and was extremely deadly to the Mandan and others in the area.
Wednesday, July 12, 2006
During this week in 1981, the Paiute Tribe in Utah adopted an official tribal membership role. The tribe had been restored to federal recognition status about a year earlier. The tribe’s recognition was terminated in 1954.
Tuesday, July 11, 2006
During this week in 1939, Alaska Native leader Frank Ferguson was born in Kotzebue. Ferguson served in the Alaska Legislature and as President of the Alaska Federation of Natives. He was instrumental in expanding rural court systems, public health and safety programs and helped improve rural telecommunications.
Monday, July 10, 2006
During this week in 1948, the Arizona Supreme Court ruled in the case Harrison v. Laveen. It gave Native Americans in the state the right to vote.
Friday, July 7, 2006
On this day in 2002, the Rodeo-Chediski fire was finally controlled. Both fires started on the Fort Apache reservation and merged to become the worst fire in Arizona history, consuming nearly 470-thousand acres of land.
During this week in 1943, Robbie Robertson, a Mohawk was born in Toronto, Canada. Robertson became a prolific musician and composed the soundtrack for “Raging Bull.” He played in the rock and roll group “The Band” during the sixties and seventies.
During this month in 1968, the American Indian Movement was founded in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The group formed to protect Native residents from police brutality and to provide job and housing assistance.
Monday, July 3, 2006
On this day in 1973, the Twin Hills village was officially incorporated. The Yup'ik Eskimo village is located at the mouth of the Twin Hills River about four-hundred miles southwest of Anchorage, Alaska.
Thursday, June 29, 2006
On this day in 1906, Mesa Verde was designated as a National Park. The ancient village was the first cultural site to be made into a national park. Mesa Verde was once home to pueblo people and is the largest cliff dwelling in North America. It is located in southwestern Colorado.
Wednesday, June 28, 2006
On this day in 1989, the Coquille Restoration Act was passed. It restored the Oregon tribe’s federal recognition status which was stripped 35 years earlier under the Termination Act.
Tuesday, June 27, 2006
On this day in 1882, the Pechanga Indian Reservation was established in California. More than 2,500 acres were reserved for the Pechanga Band of Luiseno Mission Indians. This came seven years after the band was evicted from their ancestral home by sheep ranchers. The reservation is about three miles east of the tribe's original homeland.
Friday, June 23, 2006
On this day in 1997 The United States Supreme Court agreed to hear the Venetie case. It centered around the question of whether or not “Indian Country” existed in the State of Alaska.” The following year the justices ruled no - voting in favor of the state.
Thursday, June 22, 2006
On this day in 1980, the Vatican beatified Kateri Tekakwitha. The Mohawk-Algonquin woman was born in New York. She’s the first Native American to be declared blessed by the Roman Catholic Church, which is one step away from becoming a Saint.
Wednesday, June 21, 2006
During this week in 2003, the first Indian Memeorial was dedicated at the Little Bighorn National Monument in Montana. The June 25, 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn, also known as Custer's Last Stand, was between the U.S. Army and the combined forces of Lakota and Cheyenne.
Tuesday, June 20, 2006
During this week in 1972, the Indian Education Act was passed. The Act funded programs to help American Indian students both on and off reservations.
Monday, June 19, 2006
On this day in 1934, The Indian Reorginization Act was passed. The Act aimed to restore tribal self-government and to build tribal economies.
On this day in 1938, the Port Gamble Indian Reservation was established in Washington State. More than 13-hundred acres were set aside for the Port Gamble Band of Sklalam Indians.
Thursday, June 15, 2006
On this day in 1920, Calvin John was born in Cold Spring, New York. The Seneca man was a decorated World War Two veteran. He later served as President of the Seneca Nation for four terms.
Wednesday, June 14, 2006
On this day in 2004, the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma unanimously voted to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman. This outlawed same-sex marriages. The legislation was a response to the marriage of a lesbian couple who had obtained their license from the tribe.
Tuesday, June 13, 2006
On this day 2004, the first Inuit Circumpolar Conference was held in Barrow, Alaska. Inuit people from Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Siberia addressed weapons testing and dumping in the Arctic. The annual conference helps the Inuit maintain cultural connections.
Monday, June 12, 2006
On this day 1951, Canada's House of Commons amended the Indian Act. It allowed bands to reinstate Aboriginal women as members. In the original Act women had to have an Aboriginal husband in order to receive the status of a legal Indian in Canada. If she married a non-Aboriginal, she was stripped of her Native rights.
Friday, June 9, 2006
On this day in 1921, Charles Loloma was born. He was a world renowned jewelry artist who traveled the world and lived at Third Mesa on the Hopi Reservation in Arizona. Loloma was known for working with non-traditional styles and mediums. He also died on this day in 1991.
Thursday, June 8, 2006
On this day in 1976, Dino Butler and Bob Robideau where put on trial at Cedar Rapids, Iowa for the murder of two FBI agents in South Dakota. They were acquitted on grounds of self-defense. Leonard Peltier was later convicted of the same charges.
On this day in 1913, Walter Harper an Athabascan, became the first person ever to reach the main or southern summit of Denali. Denali, also known as Mount McKinley is located in Alaska.
Tuesday, June 6, 2006
On this day in 1984, the U.S. Senate voted to make the Committee on Indian Affairs permanent. The committee looks at issues and makes recommendations for new laws and programs to address the needs of Native Americans, Native Hawaiians and Alaska Natives.
Monday, June 5, 2006
On this day in 1873, Paiute Tom, the first Native American was transferred to Alcatraz Island in California for imprisonment. He was shot and killed two days later by a prison guard. Paiute Tom had been transferred from Camp McDermit in Nebraska. It's unknown what he was serving time for.
Friday, June 2, 2006
During this week in 1942, the Japanese bombed a military base on the Aleutian Islands of Alaska during World War II, impacting the Bureau of Indian Affairs hospital in Unalaska. Fortunately, patients had been evacuated.
Thursday, June 1, 2006
On this day in 1995, U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno
signed a memorandum restating the Department of Justice’s
policy to recognize and reaffirm sovereign relations with
federally recognized tribes.
Wednesday, May 31, 2006
On this day in 1977 the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System was completed. The 800 mile pipeline was built to transport oil from the North Slope to the port of Valdez, Alaska. The pipeline was not built without controversy. Several Alaska Native Villages sued and withdrew waivers to have the pipeline built through their territories.
Tuesday, May 30, 2006
During this week in 1924, the Citizenship Act made all Native Americans and Alaska Natives U.S. Citizens. Until this time, Native people could only receive citizenship by marrying whites, completing military service or by receiving land allotments. Some tribes had previously been granted citizenship during treaty making.
Monday, May 29, 2006
During this week in 1943, Japanese resistance during World War II ends on the Aleutian Islands off the western coast of Alaska. Dozens of Natives from the Islands were held captive by the Japanese. Hundreds more were evacuated by the U.S. It was months before Aleuts started returning home.
Friday, May 26, 2006
On this day in 2003, the Voices exhibit opened at the Women's Memorial in Arlington, Virginia. It highlighted contributions made by Native American Women to the U.S. Armed Forces. Army Specialist Lori Piestewa was among those honored. She died while serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom.
During this week in 1999, the Yuut Yaqungviat program to train Alaska Native pilots began. The program was a joint effort of the Association of Village Council Presidents, Yute Air, Aero Tech Flight Service and the University of Alaska. It was proposed to counter Alaska's pilot shortage. Eleven members from the first class received private pilot licenses and six of those have earned commercial licenses.
Wednesday, May 24, 2006
During this week in 1875, three Seminole members of the U.S. Army were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Sgt. John Ward, Pvt. Pompey Factor and Trumpeter Isaac Payne braved heavy enemy fire to rescue their commander. He'd been knocked off his horse during a retreat at Pecos River, Texas. Their unit had been trying to recover stolen cattle from a group of Comanches.
Tuesday, May 23, 2006
On this day in 1944, Lt. Van Barfoot of the 45th Infantry took out two machine gun nests and captured 17 German soldiers near Carano, Italy. The Choctaw tribal member also carried two wounded soldiers to safety. Barfoot later received the Congressional Medal of Honor for his bravery.
Monday, May 22, 2006
During this week in 1979, the Constitution and Bylaws for the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma were ratified by the Acting Deputy Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Today there are nearly 150,000 members of the Choctaw Nation.
On this day in 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was ratified by the Mexican Government. This treaty impacted many Native Nations. It removed Mexican claim on Shoshone land and confirmed title for Pueblo land. It also divided the lands of some tribes along the new international border.
Thursday, May 18, 2006
On this day in 1915, Tadodaho Chief Leon Shenandoah was born in Syracuse, New York. The Onondaga leader was the chief of chiefs among the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy and a revered spiritual leader.
Wednesday, May 17, 2006
On this day in 1999, Makah whalers in Washington successfully hunted a grey whale. It was the first whale taken by the Makah in more than 70 years. John McCarty, chairman of the tribe’s whaling commission, credits the hunt for revitalizing other aspects of Makah culture. After the hunt, attendance at Makah language classes and cultural events increased.
Tuesday, May 16, 2006
On this day in 1806, two Nez Perce people returned a lost horse to the Lewis and Clark expedition. The foreigners were staying with the tribe in what is now Idaho. The Nez Perce helped Lewis and Clark in exchange for horses, guns and ammunition.
Monday, May 15, 2006
On this day in 1876, the Cabazon Reservation for the Cahuilla Indians was established by President Ulysses S. Grant. The Southern California tribe moved many times due to the Southern Pacific Railroad's claim to local water rights. Today there are less than 50 tribal members.
Friday, May 12, 2006
On this day in 1992, the Fort McDowell Yavapi Nation asserted its sovereignty from the State of Arizona. Gaming compact talks between the state and the tribe had broken down. Federal agents raided the tribe's casino, but tribal members blocked the road and kept agents from taking the video game machines. After a three week stand-off the Arizona governor signed a gaming compact with the tribe. Tribal leaders celebrate May 12th as Fort McDowell Sovereignty Day.
Thursday, May 11, 2006
During this week in 1865, the Medway reserve was established in southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. It's the smallest of five reserves in the Mi'kmaq Acadia First Nations. Very few of the 1,200 members live on the reserve.
Wednesday, May 10, 2006
On this day in 1995, the Native American Business Alliance was chartered by four Native American business owners in Ohio. The Alliance was established to promote relationships between Native businesses and top corporations. It hosts national events to help achieve its goals. It has nearly 300 members and 10-thousand companies in its database. Today the Alliance is based in Michigan.
During this week in 1995, the Alutiiq Museum and Archaeological Repository opened to the public in Alaska. The museum preserves and shares the culture of the Alutiiq people of Kodiak Island.
Monday, May 8, 2006
During this week in 1869, the Central and Union Pacific railroads connected at Promontory Point, Utah completing the first transcontinental railroad in the United States. It was one of the most destructive events that impacted the way of life of Plains tribes.
Friday, May 5, 2006
On this day in 1969, N. Scott Momaday won the Pulitzer Prize for his novel "House Made of Dawn." Momaday is Kiowa and has also published plays, essays and a memoir.
During this week in 1995, the village of Gambell was federally recognized as a tribe. Gambell is one of two villages on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska. It's located about 200 miles southwest of Nome. The village maintains the traditional Siberian Yupik Eskimo culture.
Wednesday, May 3, 2006
On this day in 1889, Jim McKinley was born in Copper Center, Alaska. He grew up to become a Chief of the Ahtna Region and a spiritual leader. He's remembered as someone who took care of the land and its resources for his people.
Tuesday, May 2, 2006
On this day in 1927, the flag of the Territory of Alaska was adopted. Its design has eight gold stars on a field of blue. The flag was created by 13-year-old John Benson an Aleut from Chignik. Seven stars represent strength and the "Big Dipper." The eighth is the North Star symbolizing Alaska as the northernmost state. The blue is for Alaska's sky and state flower.
Monday, May 1, 2006
On this day in 1999, the Alaska Native Heritage Center opened in Anchorage, Alaska. Its purpose was to develop a statewide center to represent Native people in the state.
On this day in 1988, Congress passed amendments to the Indian Education Act. The amendments aimed to improve elementary and secondary education programs and assist in shaping legislation relating to Indian education.
Thursday, April 27, 2006
During this week in 1868, several Sioux bands signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie with the United States Government. Under the treaty, the U.S. recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Nation. They set it aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people.
During this week in 1951, Corporal Clair Goodblood was killed in action during the Korean War. The Mi'kmaq Native threw himself on top of a comrade to protect him from a grenade. He stayed behind as his unit retreated but Goodblood was ultimately overwhelmed by enemy forces. He was awarded the Korean War Medal of Honor and the Purple Heart posthumously for his bravery and sacrifice.
Tuesday, April 25, 2006
On this day in 1890, Blackfoot Chief Isapo-Muxika Crowfoot died of tuberculosis on his reserve in Alberta, Canada. Crowfoot was a warrior who fought in many battles but is known for trying to keep the peace.
Monday, April 24, 2006
During this week in 1951, Mitchell Red Cloud, Junior posthumously received the Medal of Honor. The Ho-Chunk from Wisconsin served in the Korean War. He fired at the advancing enemy while his company secured its defense and evacuated the wounded. Red Cloud maintained his position until he was killed.
On this day in 1869, Seneca Chief, Ely Samuel Parker was appointed the first Native American Commissioner of Indian Affairs. His attempts to bring justice to various tribes over land deals and treaties, earned him many enemies, which ultimately led to his resignation.
Thursday, April 20, 2006
On this day in 1976, Alaska Native leader and journalist Howard Rock died. He was the founder of the statewide native newspaper the Tundra Times. The Inupiat Eskimo also helped establish the World Eskimo Indian Olympics and the Institute of Alaska Native Arts.
Wednesday, April 19, 2006
On this day in 1858, the Yankton Sioux signed a treaty with the U.S. Government that granted them access to the red pipestone in southwestern Minnesota for religious and other purposes. For centuries the tribe has gathered the smooth red rock to make pipes.
Tuesday, April 18, 2006
On this day in 1977, American Indian Movement Activist Leonard Peltier was convicted of two counts of first-degree murder for killing two FBI agents. He is currently serving two consecutive life terms at the federal prison in Leavenworth, Kansas.
On this day in 1878, the Sheldon Jackson School was founded on Baranof Island in Sitka, Alaska. Presbyterian missionaries started it as an industrial and training school for the Tlingit community.
Friday, April 14, 2006
During this week in 1934, the Johnson O-Malley Act was passed. It provided funds to states with Indian students attending public schools.
Thursday, April 13, 2006
On this day in 1933, former U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell was born in Auburn, California. The Northern Cheyenne was the first American Indian to serve in the Senate in more than 60-years. He represented the State of Colorado. Campbell was a leader in policy dealing with natural resources and public lands.
Wednesday, April 12, 2006
On this day in 1976, the Nome-Beltz Regional High School won the Ninth Annual Native Youth Olympics in Anchorage, Alaska. The event was organized for students from boarding schools to celebrate traditional games of their ancestors. They competed in the Stick Pull, the High Kick and the Seal Hop which came from the skills needed for traditional hunting. Today more than 40 teams from around the state compete every April in Anchorage.
Tuesday, April 11, 2006
On this day in 1968, the Indian Civil Rights Act was passed by Congress. Its purpose was to provide protections to federally recognized tribal members. Under the terms tribes could enforce their own rights including tribal jurisdiction and American Indian Religious Freedom.
Monday, April 10, 2006
On this day in 1945, U.S. Army Private Mathew Hawzipta was killed in action during WWII. The Kiowa from Oklahoma posthumously received a bronze star and three purple hearts for his bravery. They were sent in the mail by the Army more than 60 years later.
During this week in 1969, a group of Port Chilkoot totem carvers were contracted to carve a totem for a Japanese Expo. The spruce log was turned into a 132-foot totem to be shown a the largest in the world as part of Alaska's display in the Expo.
Thursday, April 6, 2006
On this day in 1943, Alaska Native Leader Byron Mallott was born in Yakutat, Alaska. He was a key leader in the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. He's also a former president of the Alaska Federation of Natives.
Wednesday, April 5, 2006
During this week in 1756, the proclamation known as "The Scalp Act" was enforced by Governor Robert Morris in western Pennsylvania. He declared war on the Delaware and Shawnee tribes and put a bounty on their scalps.
Tuesday, April 4, 2006
On this day in 1910, Congress passed an act that forever waived tuition for Native American students at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado. Today there are about 800 Native students who attend the four year college.
Monday, April 3, 2006
During this week in 1944, Ernest Childers, a Creek from Oklahoma was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his bravery in World War II. Although he suffered a broken foot in an assault, Childers single-handedly killed two snipers, silenced two machine gun strongholds and captured an enemy.
Friday, March 31, 2006
During this week in 1621, the first treaty between American Indians and the Pilgrims, was signed. The Wampanoag Tribe engaged in a peace treaty that stated neither party would injure or steal from one another, or make unjust war. The fourth condition stated the Wampanoag would honor the treaty.
Thursday, March 30, 2006
On this day in 1934, Native leader Janet McCloud was born on the Tulalip reservation in Washington State. She became a prominent figure in the fight for indigenous women and for Native fishing rights in the 1960s and 70s. McCloud founded the Northwest Indian Women’s Circle, Indigenous Women's Network, and Women Of All Red Nations to strengthen female Native leadership.
On this day in 1973, The US officially withdrew the last American troops in the Vietnam War. Per capita, American Indians, Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians had the highest rate of military service than any other ethnic group.
Tuesday, March 28, 2006
On this day in 1871, the first native to receive a PhD in anthropology was born. Dr. William Jones was a Meskwaki tribal member—known to provide the best early collection and account of the Meskwaki language. He practiced in the field of ethnography and curated many exhibits for the Smithsonian Museum.
Monday, March 27, 2006
On this day in 1945, Anna Mae Pictou Aquash was born in Indian Brook, Nova Scotia, Canada. A member of the Mi'kmaq Nation, she became one of the most active and prominent female members of the American Indian Movement during the early 1970s.
Friday, March 24, 2006
During this week in 1916, Ishi, known as the last survivor of his tribe, the Yahi, died of tuberculosis. The Yahi were victims of extermination following the California Gold Rush. The population of Native Americans in California was reduced from 100,000 in 1848 to a just 20,000 in 1910.
Thursday, March 23, 2006
On this day in 1910, a Tlingit fort was proclaimed a National Monument by President William H. Taft. The Sitka National Monument commemorates the “Battle of Sitka.” It was one of the last major armed conflicts between Alaska Natives and invading Europeans. The monument is located on a peninsula in southeastern Alaska.
Wednesday, March 22, 2006
On this day in 1974, the Kwakwaka'wakw First Nations established the U'mista Cultural Society in Alert Bay, British Columbia. Its purpose--to repatriate objects that were confiscated by the Canadian Government in 1921. Today the society is still repatriating those artifacts worldwide.
Tuesday, March 21, 2006
On this day in 1975, the Lac Courte Oreilles Lake Superior Band of Ojibway settled their case against the Northern State’s Power Company.The company’s dam flooded the reservation in the 1920’s.The tribes sacred wild rice beds, hunting grounds, a tribal village and a traditional burial ground were all destroyed. The power company flooded the area without the tribes consent.
On this day in 1909, The Navajo National Monument was established in northeastern Arizona. The two main cliff dwelling villages, the Betatakin and Keet Seel, were once occupied by early Pueblo Indians called the Hisat Senom.
Friday, March 17, 2006
On this day in 1814, the third ruler of the Hawaiian Nation, Kamehameha was born at Keauhou, Kona. Under his rule, he guaranteed religious freedom to Hawaiian Natives.
Thursday, March 16, 2006
On this day in 1973, the Muskogee-Creek Indian Tribe East of the Mississippi River was given sovereign recognition by the state of Georgia. The state recognized status allowed the tribe to adopt a constitution, elect a Principal Chief and a tribal council.
Wednesday, March 15, 2006
On this day in 1978, New Mexico’s Zuni Pueblo won the right to take back their lands by an act of Congress. The law—enforced by the US Court of Claims—also empowered the tribe to add the Zuni Salt Lake to lands held in trust for the tribe.
Tuesday, March 14, 2006
On this day in 1889, Susan La Flesche Picotte became the first American Indian woman doctor. The Omaha native received her medical degree from the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, graduating at the top of her class. Dr. Picotte was a leader among her Omaha people for devoting her life to health interests.
Monday, March 13, 2006
On this day in 1858, twenty-six Dakota Chiefs went to Washington to meet with President James Buchanan. The meeting focused on Minnesota land grievances and questioned treaty violations against the Lower Sioux Tribe.
"I went to a holy man and asked him for
help. He told me to get on the Red Road.
`Pray to Wakan-Tanka (Great Spirit) to
help you walk the Red Road."
--Dr. A.C. Ross (Ehanamani), LAKOTA
All Indian traditions, customs and ceremonies
help us answer three questions: who am I?,
why am I?, and where am I going? Only on
the Red Road can we find the answer to these
three questions. When we can answer these
three questions, we are on the Red Road. When
we cannot, we have gone astray. That is why
the Holy Men tell us to pray to the Great Spirit
and to seek the Red Road. Why am I? My
purpose is the serve the Great Spirit. Who am
I? I am an Indian who walks the Red Road. Where
am I going? My vision is to serve my people.
On this day in 1861, poet Emily Pauline Johnson was born on the Six Nations Reserve in Canada West Ontario. The Mohawk Native was one of the country’s first renowned poets in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She toured London, England, New England and First Nations community. She was the first Native poet to have her work published in Canada.
Thursday, March 9, 2006
On this day in 1970, more than 600 athletes participated in the first Arctic Winter Games in Yellowknife, Canada. The participants came from Northwest Territories, Yukon and Alaska. Instead of medals, winners received traditional Inuit knives in gold, silver and copper. Today, the bi-annual games include a number of traditional Inuit and Dene games called the Kneel Jump and Snow Snake.
Wednesday, March 8, 2006
On this day in 1970, the United Indians of All Tribes Foundation invaded and occupied the Fort Latwon military base near Seattle, Washington. It was an attempt by Northwest tribes to establish a land base. As a result, the city of Seattle signed a lease for a site today known as the city's Indian Cultural Center.
Tuesday, March 7, 2006
On this day in 1987, the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head received federal recognition from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The 15-year fight came only after the Interior Department accepted substantial evidence that the tribe had never lost their sense of identity. The tribe is located in Massachusetts.
Monday, March 6, 2006
During this week in 1980, Harold smith also known as the popular American Indian actor, Jay Silverheels died. Silverheels was the first American Indian actor to have a star placed in Hollywood's Walk of Fame along Hollywood Boulevard.
Friday, March 3, 2006
On this day in 1871, provisions to the Indian Appropriation Act were approved by Congress. The legislation put an end to treaty agreements made between tribes and the federal government. It also empowered Congress to create Indian reservations as well as dictate all future agreements related to Indian settlements. Before treaties were eliminated, tribes had been treated as dependent nations.
Thursday, March 2, 2006
On this day in 1992, President George Bush Sr. issued a proclamation designating it the "Year of the American Indian": It led to the present-day "National American Indian/Alaska Native Heritage Month" held every November. The proclamation was based on legislation by Congress to focus on educating the public on inter-tribal cultures, heritage and the traditions of American Indians and Alaska Natives.
Wednesday, March 1, 2006
On this day in 1920, Medal of Honor recipient Army Captain Raymond Harvey was born in Ford City, Pennsylvania. The Chickasaw native earned the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions during the Korean War. He charged through enemy fire, killing machine gunners when his company was pinned down. Though wounded and in agonizing pain he refused evacuation until his mission was accomplished.
Tuesday, February 28, 2006
On this day in 1828, the first issue of The Cherokee Phoenix rolled off the presses in New Echota, Georgia. It was the first American Indian newspaper and was cast in the Cherokee font for their non-English speaking tribal members. The Cherokee Phoenix is published today.
Monday, February 27, 2006
On this day in 1915, The Tyonek reserve was created by Executive Order by the US government. More than 26 thousand acres made up the Alaska native village and was awarded nearly 13 million dollars in oil lease sales.
Friday, February 24, 2006
On this day in 1897, long distance runner Lewis “Deerfoot” Bennett died from tuberculosis in Calgary Alberta, Canada. The Seneca Native from New York dominated the local and international long-distance racing scene in the mid-19th century. His times for ten-to twelve-mile runs set new records that lasted well into the twentieth century. A major Calgary freeway, industrial center and a shopping mall are named in his memory.
Thursday, February 23, 2006
On this day in 1945, the famous flag-raising photo on Iwo Jima Island was taken. It included, Marine Private Ira Hayes, a Pima Indian from Arizona. The World War II Veteran was recognized by President Harry Truman as a war hero. Private Hayes also paraded through 32 cities on a nation-wide war bonds tour.
Wednesday, February 22, 2006
On this day in 1944, a Cherokee soldier became a hero when he single-handedly attacked enemy forces with the 45th Infantry Division in Italy. As a result, First Lieutenant Jack C. Montgomery was awarded the World War II Congressional Medal of Honor by President Franklin Roosevelt.
Tuesday, February 21, 2006
On this day in 1935, The Mackenzie Inuit of the Western Canadian Arctic received a herd of more than 2000 domestic reindeer. It was part of an economic initiative formed by the Canadian government. Inuit natives were trained and hired as herdsmen. After several years of successful breeding, the Inuit achieved full ownership.
Monday, February 20, 2006
On this day in 1941, world-renown folk singer and songwriter Buffy Sainte-Marie was born on the Piapot Reserve, in Saskatchewan, Canada. The First Nations Cree wrote the song “The Universal Soldier.” It was one of her most popular works during the peace movement. Many of her protest and love songs became huge hits and classics of the era.
On this day in 2005, two South Carolina American Indian groups officially received state recognition as tribes. The Waccamaw Indian People and the Pee Dee Indian Nation of Upper South Carolina proved a century-long presence in the state. This status now enables the tribes to seek federal grants and authenticate their arts and crafts as native.
Thursday, February 16, 2006
On this day in 1988, "Elizabeth Peratrovich Day" was established by the Alaska legislature. It commemorates the anniversary of the signing of the Anti-Discrimination Act of 1945. As president of the Alaska Native Sisterhood, Peratrovich gave crucial testimony that led to the passage of the state act.
Wednesday, February 15, 2006
On this day in 1946, political activist John Trudell was born in Omaha, Nebraska. After serving in the Vietnam War, the Santee Sioux tribal member became actively involved in the takeover of Alcatraz Island. He joined the American Indian Movement and was its national Chairman until the late 1970’s when his family was killed in a suspicious fire.
Tuesday, February 14, 2006
On this day in 1931, Congress passed an act that authorized President Herbert Hoover to establish the Canyon de Chelly National Monument as a national park. Today, it is comprised entirely of Navajo tribal trust land that remains home to the canyon community. The National Park Service works in partnership with the Navajo Nation to manage park resources.
On this day in 1834, the first newspaper in the Hawaiian language, Ka Lama Hawai'i, ran off the presses in Maui. The name which means the Hawaiian Luminary, operated from the Lahainaluna Missionary school. The weekly papers purpose was to show the Hawaiian students how information was circulated and used as a means of communication.
Friday, February 10, 2006
On this day in 1885, the Lumbee Nation was recognized as an official Native American tribe by the State of North Carolina. Known then as the Croatan Indians of Robeson County, the recognition led to the Croatan Normal Indian School. Today it's known as The University of North Carolina at Pembroke.
Thursday, February 9, 2006
On this day in 2004, The San Francisco-based Native American Cultural Center announced its "TURN OFF CBS" campaign. Native activists charged the media company portrayed racist stereotypes of American Indians on the Grammy Awards telecast in a hip hop performance by the band “Outkast.”
Wednesday, February 8, 2006
On this day in 1945, the Alaska Senate passed the
Anti-Discrimination Bill that ordered equal rights for Alaska Natives. It provided all citizens of the state full and equal facilities, and privileges in places of public accommodations. The Alaska Native civil rights issue took place nearly twenty years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited racial discrimination on a national level.
On this day in 1983, The Inuit Circumpolar Conference was granted international status by the United Nations. Formed in 1977, delegates of the ICC General Assembly elect a president and an executive council and develop policies affecting the Inuit people of the Arctic. Today, the ICC is comprised of members from Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Russia.
Monday, February 6, 2006
On this day in 1998, activist groups worldwide declared this day as "Free Leonard Peltier Day." It came on the 22nd anniversary of the native leader's incarceration for allegedly killing 2 FBI agents on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation. Groups in more than 30 cities worldwide united for an International Day of Protest.
Friday, February 3, 2006
On this day in 1985, the Attu battlegrounds and airfields were designated as national historic landmarks. The island was once the occupied area for Japanese troops during World War II who imprisoned dozens of Aleut Natives that lived there. Most of the Aleut's were later taken to Japan as prisoners of war. Only 24 would survive and eventually return to the United States in 1945.
On this day in 1925, the Alaska serum run arrived in Nome to stop the Diphtheria outbreak. Known as the "Great Race of Mercy," it used 20 dog sled teams, driven by some Eskimo and Athabascan mushers to deliver the medication. The teams were portrayed as heroes and their trek turned into the annual Iditarod Race.
Wednesday, February 1, 2006
On this day in 1876, the Sioux and Cheyenne were removed from land known today as the Black Hills in South Dakota. The tribes were subject to military action for refusing to relocate. This led to the beginning of the 1876 War, which included the Battle of Little Big Horn.
Tuesday, January 31, 2006
On this day in 2003, Tex Hall, president of the National Congress of American Indians, gave the first State of the Indian Nations Address at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. He challenged Congress and the President to address sovereignty and self-determination among American Indian and Alaska Native people. The Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara tribal member said Tribes’ survival depends on maintaining their relationship to the U.S. as self governing peoples.
Monday, January 30, 2006
On this day in 1998, the Governor of Oklahoma proclaimed January 30th as Jim Thorpe Day. The Sac and Fox Olympic athlete was recognized statewide for his gold medals won in 1912 Olympic games. His feats on the football field also put him on the 1911 and 1912 All-American football teams.
On this day in 1951, the U.S. government detonated the first series of nuclear bombs at its Nevada test site. Atomic technicians named some of the bombs after American Indian tribes such as the Huron, Dakota, Mescalero, Navajo, and Zuni. Mojave medicine men watched the explosions as they stood down wind of the blast on a sacred site known as Newberry Mountain.
Thursday, January 26, 2006
On this day in 1949, the first Alaska Native to be named to the state’s highest law enforcement post was born. Glenn G. Godfrey served as Public Safety Commissioner and was also the director of Division of Alaska State Troopers. He became the first Alaska Native to rise above the rank of sergeant. Throughout his career, he was stationed in Anchorage, Juneau, Northway, and Bethel. Godfrey was instrumental in starting the Village Public Safety Officer program in rural native villages.
Wednesday, January 25, 2006
On this day in 1856, the Quinault River Treaty was signed in Olympia, Washington. The land exchange agreement was endorsed by Governor Isaac Stevens of the Washington territory and the Quinault and Quileute tribes. It established a 10,000-acre reservation that today protects the tribes' original ceremonial homelands.
On this day in 1984, The U.S. Court of Appeals upheld the treaty rights of the Klamath Tribes of Oregon to hunt and fish on former reservation lands. In the landmark decision of the U.S. vs. Adair, the Court held that an 1864 Treaty granted the Klamath an implied right to as much water as was necessary to preserve hunting and fishing rights.
Monday, January 23, 2006
On this day in 1907, Charles Curtis became the first Native American to serve in the U.S. Senate. The Republican representative from Kansas was a member of the Kaw Nation of Oklahoma. While in office, he championed the Curtis Act--legislation that would expand the rights of
self-determination among tribes. He later became the 31st Vice President to Herbert Hoover, but played little part in that administration.
Friday, January 20, 2006
On this day in 1891, The Kingdom of Hawaii’s King David Kalahua died in San Francisco while visiting the United States. Known as the Merrie Monarch, he restored many of the cultural traditions of his Hawaiian people. These included their myths and legends, and the sacred hula dance, which had been forbidden by the missionaries for over 70 years. His body was brought back to his homeland aboard the U.S.S. Charleston.
Thursday, January 19, 2006
On this day in 1968, the Lower Elwha Klallam's homeland was established as a reservation. It's located on the northwestern Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. It took more than 32 years before the U.S. Secretary of Interior signed the proclamation to establish their land base. Today, it includes about a thousand acres on and near the mouth of the Elwha River.
Wednesday, January 18, 2006
On this day in 1983, Jim Thorpe's Olympic titles were returned to his family at a ceremony in Los Angeles. The International Olympic Committee restored his amateur status and commemorative medals were presented to his children. The Sac and Fox native won gold medals in the 1912 pentathlon and decathlon, but were taken away because he once played semi-pro baseball.
Tuesday, January 17, 2006
On this day in 1969, U.S. Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall imposed a land freeze in Alaska. The freeze barred the state from obtaining Native land titles and protected Alaska Natives from losing any more land.
Monday, January 16, 2006
On this day in 1974, the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians in Minnesota became the first tribe in the country to issue tribal license plates. The Minnesota tribe won the land mark decision against the State. The tribal council argued that issuing license plates was an appropriate exercise as a sovereign nation.
On this day in 1902, Native American males were forced to cut their long hair at California’s Greenville Indian School. The order came from the Department of the Interior’s Office of Indian Affairs. The federal policy was seen by some lawmakers as a great step towards assimilation. The wearing of traditional clothing, face paint, dances, and Indian feasts were also prohibited.
Thursday, January 12, 2006
On this day in 1923, U.S. Marine Ira Hayes was born on the Gila River Indian Reservation in Sacaton, Arizona. The Pima native was known as one of six troops to raise the U.S. flag on Mt. Surabachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. Hayes unwilling accepted his notoriety as a war hero.
On this day in 1972, Reverend Harold S. Jones became the first Native American to be made a bishop in the Episcopal Church. The Santee Sioux tribal member of Nebraska served under the Episcopal Diocese of South Dakota for five years.
Tuesday, January 10, 2006
On this day in 1879, the Gila River Reserve in Arizona was expanded to provide the Maricopa and Pima Indians much needed water and additional land. The area was renamed and today is known as the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.
Monday, January 9, 2006
On this day in 1789, the treaty of Fort Harmer was signed in what is now Ohio. Members of the Wyandotte, Delaware, Ottawa, Chippewa, Pottawattamie, and Sac Nations all had claims in that area and signed the treaty. They gave up most of their lands and opened them to white settlers. In exchange, they were supposed to receive other lands from Governor Arthur Saint Claire. In the end, he opted to not give up the land and it led to six more years of Indian Wars.
On this day in 1943, the Director of the National Museum of the American Indian, W. Richard West was born in San Bernardino, California. He is both Cheyenne and Arapaho from Oklahoma. Mr. West was the first Executive Director of the NMAI in Washington, D.C.
Thursday, January 5, 2006
On this day in 1987, National Native News signed on the air in Anchorage, Alaska. It was the first nationally syndicated daily radio newscast to focus on the Native angle in news. Today National Native News is produced by an all-Native news staff in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Wednesday, January 4, 2006
On this day in 1975, The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act was signed into law. It allowed tribes to fully manage federal programs and services in Native communities. It also gave more control to Natives in Bureau of Indian Affairs schools.
Tuesday, January 3, 2006
On this day in 2000, the Chinook tribe in Washington state gained federal recognition status during the Bill Clinton administration. A few months later under the George Bush administration, they lost that status after being told they didn't meet all seven criteria for the status. The Chinooks continue to fight for their federal recognition status today.
Monday, January 2, 2006
On this day in 1975, President Gerald R. Ford signed legislation creating the American Indian Policy Review Commission. Its purpose was to review all aspects of policy, law, and administration relating to affairs of the United States with American Indian tribes. One crucial recommendation by the Commission established the Indian Affairs Committee in the Senate.
On this day in 1950, Inupiat Eskimo ratified their constitution to create the Native Village of Buckland, Alaska. Their home is located on Alaska's west coast, 75 miles southeast of Kotzebue.
Thursday, December 29, 2005
On this day in 19, Sandra Lovelace presented her discrimination case to the United Nations Human Rights Commission. She was a Maliseet woman from Canada's Tobique Nation. Lovelace claimed Canada's Indian Act deprived Native women of "Indian" status when they married a non-Native. She and her children were denied housing, health care and educational benefits when her marriage to an American non-Native ended. The UN Human Rights committee ruled in her favor four years later ... saying that Canada had broken the International Agreement on Civil and Political Rights.
Wednesday, December 28, 2005
On this day in 1890, Sioux Chief Big Foot and his band were captured by the U.S. Army's 7th Cavalry. They were detained at a campsite in Wounded Knee, South Dakota. When the soldiers tried to disarm the warriors they fought back. The next morning 128 Sioux were killed. The massacre would be known as the "Wounded Knee Massacre."
On this day in 1980, The United States Postal Service issued the Sequoyah stamp in honor of the Cherokee scholar. Sequoyah created the Cherokee syllabary and taught his people how to read and write in their language.
Monday, December 26, 2005
During this week in 1977, the Arctic Education Foundation was established for Northern Alaskan Inupiat People of the Arctic Slope Region. Today, it provides financial support for eligible students pursing a college degree or vocational or technical training. The foundation also helps returning students find summer employment.
Friday, December 23, 2005
During this week in 1892, Afognak Forest and Fish Culture Reserve was established on Afognak Island located south of Anchorage in the Gulf of Alaska. In 1980, part of the reserve was transferred to Native Corporations through the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.
Thursday, December 22, 2005
On this day in 1973, The Menominee Restoration Act was signed by President Richard Nixon. The Wisconsin tribe’s recognition was terminated in 1954 by the government. The tribe celebrates its sovereignty on December 23rd.
On this day in 2000, President Bill Clinton signed a bill to grant the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor to the original 29 Navajo Code Talkers. They developed a code in their language to help the U.S. fight the Japanese during World War II. The Navajo Code Talkers were never honored
individually by the U.S. Government until the bill was
Tuesday, December 20, 2005
During this week in 2000, The Indian Tribal Justice Technical and Legal Assistance Act was passed by Congress. The Act authorizes grants and technical assistance to tribal courts.
Monday, December 19, 2005
On this day in 1980, Chaco Culture National Historic Park was designated in New Mexico. More than 13-thousand acres were added to the site giving it national park status.
Friday, December 16, 2005
On this day in 1987, Congress established the "Trail of Tears" National Historical Trail. It follows the routes taken by some Cherokees who were forcibly removed from North Carolina to Oklahoma. The land and water routes they took stretched more than two-thousand miles across nine states.
Thursday, December 15, 2005
On this day in 1970, President Richard Nixon endorsed the official signing ceremony for the return of Blue Lake to the Taos Pueblo in New Mexico. The lake was taken in the early 1900's by the U.S. government and became federal forest land. The Taos Pueblo considers the lake to be sacred and
fought for its return for 64 years. Today access to Blue Lake is restricted to enrolled Taos Pueblo members.
Wednesday, December 14, 2005
On this day in 1852, Ned Christie was born in Wauhilla, Oklahoma. The Cherokee citizen was elected as a tribal senator. He was falsely accused of killing a U.S. Marshal and became the most wanted fugitive in the territory. He avoided capture for more than five years before being killed by U.S. Marshals. 18 years later Christie was found
innocent after an eyewitness came forward.
Tuesday, December 13, 2005
On this day in 1971, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was finalized by a U.S. Senate-House conference committee. It extinguished all Native claims to land and water in Alaska. As a result, Alaska Natives received
44-million acres of land and about 1-billion dollars in compensation. The Act was signed into law five days later.
On this day in 1924, the Wupatki National Monument was established in Arizona. The village ruins are 80 miles south of the Grand Canyon. It was occupied by the Hopi people in the 12th and 13th century.
On this day in 1829, President Andrew Jackson gave his first State of the Union Address. In it, he proposed the Indian Removal Act to relocate Indians in the southeastern part of the U.S. to lands west of the Mississippi River. Congress passed the Act five months later.
Wednesday, December 7, 2005
On this day in 1941, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The attack led to the round up and forced incarceration of all Japanese-Americans nationwide. This included Alaska Natives who were part Japanese. They were placed in internment camps for the duration of World War II. Aleuts from the Aleutian and Pribilof Island villages were also incarcerated.
Tuesday, December 6, 2005
On this day in 1960, the Arctic National Wildlife Range was created in Alaska, north of the Arctic Circle. It was renamed the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Today, more than 19-million acres of land are protected.
Monday, December 5, 2005
On this day in 1985, Wilma Mankiller was sworn in as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. She was the first Native women in modern history to lead a major Native American tribe. Mankiller assumed the position as a result of the resignation of the Principal Chief.
Friday, December 2, 2005
On this day in 1980, the Alaska National Interest Land Conservation Act became law. It set aside 100-million acres of public land in Alaska for conservation. The law protected subsistence hunting and fishing rights of Alaska Natives and included the implementation of the Alaska Native Claims
Thursday, December 1, 2005
On this day in 1958, Alaska Native civil rights leader Elizabeth Peratrovich died. The Tlingit Native helped get the first anti-discrimination law passed after she saw signs saying "No Natives Allowed" displayed throughout Alaska.
Wednesday, November 30, 2005
On this day in 1972, the Alaska Native Village of Teller became officially incorporated. The Inupiat village is located on the Seward Peninsula, 72 miles northwest of Nome.
Tuesday, November 29, 2005
On this day in 1949, the Alaska Native Medical Center opened in Anchorage. Today it helps care for members of the 229 tribes of Alaska.
Monday, November 28, 2005
On this day in 1922, Stella Martin was born in Kake, Alaska. She became an important Tlingit spokesperson. Martin was a leader of the Alaska Native Sisterhood and the Sealaska Heritage Foundation. She passed away in 2002.
Friday, November 24, 2005
During this week in 1807, Mohawk Chief Joseph Brandt died. He was a spokesman for his people and a British military officer during the American Revolution. Brandt founded the Six Nations Indian Reserve in Ontario, Canada.
Thursday, November 24, 2005
On this day in 1970, the First National Day of Mourning was held in Connecticut by the United American Indians of New England. Every year on Thanksgiving Day Natives gather at the top of Cole's Hill, over looking Plymouth Rock. It's a reminder of genocide of Native people.
Wednesday, November 23, 2005
On this day in 1880, the Havasupai Reservation was established in the western part of the Grand Canyon. The reservation was initially 60-square miles. Two years later it was reduced to less than 1-square mile to accommodate mining interests in the area. It took more than 90 years for the tribe to get their land back. Today the reservation is nearly 300-square miles.
Tuesday, November 22, 2005
During this week in 1989, Congress enacted the National Museum of the American Indian Act. It required the museum to inventory, document, and repatriate culturally affiliated human remains and funerary objects to federally recognized Native American tribes who requested the items.
Monday, November 21, 2005
On this day in 1993, Athabascan Chief Walter Northway died in an Alaskan village. He was well known for hunting and providing for his entire village. It was named in his honor more than 60 years ago. Chief Northway lived to be 117.
Friday, November 18, 2005
On this day in 1945, Wilma Mankiller was born in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. She was the first female Principle Chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and served for ten years.
Thursday, November 17, 2005
On this day in 2004, Navajo Code Talker Samuel Billison died in Window Rock, Arizona. Billison transmitted messages in his language during World War II. He received the Silver Medal of Honor. Billison was also a long time president of the Navajo Code Talkers Association.
On this day in 1907, Oklahoma Territory combined with Indian Territory to become the 46th state. It ended a separate Indian section under tribal government within U.S. borders. Today, there are more than 30 tribes in Oklahoma.
Tuesday, November 15, 2005
On this day in 1944, the National Congress of American Indians was established to monitor federal policies. Today, there are more than 200 member tribes.
Monday, November 14, 2005
On this day in 1993, sisters Mary and Carrie Dann received the "Right Livelihood Award." For more than forty years they helped their tribe, the Western Shoshone, fight for land rights and sovereignty. The award has become widely known as the "Alternative Nobel Prize." It is presented annually in Stockholm, Sweden.
Friday, November 11, 2005
During this week in 2003, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution to honor National Native American Veterans. It was introduced by Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell, a Northern Cheyenne. He's also a veteran.
Thursday, November 10, 2005
On this day in 1997, Annie Dodge Wauneka died. She was the first Navajo Nation councilwoman. In 1963 she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom award for her service as a health educator.
Wednesday, November 9, 2005
On this day in 1969, the second occupation of Alcatraz Island in California took place. It was led by Mohawk Native Richard Oakes. He set out on a chartered boat with a group of Native American college students. They claimed the island for Indians and represented themselves as "Indians of all tribes."
Tuesday, November 8, 2005
On this day in 1978, Congress passed the Indian Child Welfare Act. It prevents the removal of Native children from their culture and sets standards for foster care and adoptive homes.
During this week in 1868, the Lakota signed the second Treaty of Fort Laramie in Wyoming. The agreement was made to keep settlers out of Indian Territory. It also guaranteed Sioux rights to the Black Hills and hunting rights beyond the reservation. But, federal authorities focused on protecting white miners in the area.
Friday, November 4, 2005
On this day in 1924, William L. Paul became the first Alaska Native to be elected to the Alaska Territorial House of Representatives. He was a lawyer with more than forty years of experience fighting for Native land rights.
Thursday, November 3, 2005
On this day in 1992, Ben Nighthorse Campbell became the first Native American to serve in the U.S. Senate in more than 60-years. The Northern Cheyenne tribal member represented the State of Colorado. He served three terms and retired in 2004.
Wednesday, November 2, 2005
On this day in 1889, North Dakota and South Dakota were admitted to the Union as the 39th and 40th states. At the time at least eight tribes lived in the area, including the Mandan, Arikara, Hidatsa and Assiniboine.
Tuesday, November 1, 2005
On this day in 1986, the National War Monument was dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery. It's the first national memorial honoring Native Americans who served in the military. A cottonwood tree is at the base of the memorial to honor those who served during the Vietnam Era.