SINCE WE ALWAYS HAVE NEW MEMBERS - HERE ARE THE RULES - YOU CAN ONLY GUESS 1X BEFORE NYACK COMES BACK WITH THE ANSWERS AS TO WHICH LETTERS ARE CORRECT.
HOWEVER IF YOU REALLY THINK YOU KNOW THE ANSWER - YOU CAN GUESS - BUT PLEASE DON'T GUESS UNLESS YOU ARE PRETTY SURE - IT MESSES THINGS UP IF YOU GUESS PART OF IT AND NOT ALL OF IT - THEN I NEVER KNEW WHAT LETTERS TO TAKE OFF ETC. HOPE THAT MAKES SENSE!
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Good afternoon Nyack Sooo happy you didn't give up on us...Hugggs, Love N Prayers Barb ) ) ) Now ! how about a P please
Good Afternoon! No P Barbara
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How about a T Nyack
Good Morning Joan! No T
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So are we working today????
How about an E???
Good Morning Nyack An A please ) ) )
P, T, E, A
_ _ _ A _ _ E E _
Hi how about a D Please ? Good Afternoon Nyack
P, T, E, A, D
_ _ _ A _ _ E E _
Hmmmmmm K ?
P, T, E, A, D, K
_ _ _ A _ _ E E _
D please Nyack
Hiya Joan- D was guessed already, please try another!
B please Nyack?
Hello Thubten! This one might be tricky! I was suprised to find out it was actually an animal myself, not so very long ago!
P, T, E, A, D, K, B
_ _ _ A _ _ E E _
P, T, E, A, D, K, B, O
_ O _ A _ _ E E _
P, T, E, A, D, K, B, O, R
_ O R A _ R E E _
Coral Reef ??
Protect the Coral Sea
Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Coral reefs are colonies of tiny living animals found in marine waters that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups. The polyps are like tiny sea anemones, to which they are closely related. Unlike sea anemones, coral polyps secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons which support and protect their bodies. Reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated waters.
Often called “rainforests of the sea”, coral reefs form some of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. They occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean surface, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for 25% of all marine species, including fish, mollusks, worms, crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, tunicates and other cnidarians.Paradoxically, coral reefs flourish even though they are surrounded by ocean waters that provide few nutrients. They are most commonly found at shallow depths in tropical waters, but deep water and cold water corals also exist on smaller scales in other areas.
Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services to tourism, fisheries and shoreline protection. The annual global economic value of coral reefs has been estimated at $US375 billion. However, coral reefs are fragile ecosystems, partly because they are very sensitive to water temperature. They are under threat from climate change, ocean acidification, blast fishing, cyanide fishing for aquarium fish, overuse of reef resources, and harmful land-use practices, including urban and agricultural runoff and water pollution, which can harm reefs by encouraging excess algae growth.
This post was modified from its original form on 09 May, 12:50
The three principal reef types are:
- Fringing reef – this type is directly attached to a shore, or borders it with an intervening shallow channel or lagoon.
- Barrier reef – a reef separated from a mainland or island shore by a deep channel or lagoon
- Atoll reef – this more or less circular or continuous barrier reef extends all the way around a lagoon without a central island.
Other reef types or variants are:
- Patch reef – this type is an isolated, comparatively small reef outcrop, usually within a lagoon or embayment, often circular and surrounded by sand or seagrass. Patch reefs are common.
- Apron reef – a short reef resembling a fringing reef, but more sloped; extending out and downward from a point or peninsular shore
- Bank reef – a linear or semicircular shaped-outline, larger than a patch reef
- Ribbon reef – a long, narrow, possibly winding reef, usually associated with an atoll lagoon
- Table reef – an isolated reef, approaching an atoll type, but without a lagoon
- Habili – this is a reef in the Red Sea that does not reach the surface near enough to cause visible surf, although it may be a hazard to ships (from the Arabic for "unborn").
- Microatoll – certain species of corals form communities called microatolls. The vertical growth of microatolls is limited by average tidal height. By analyzing growth morphologies, microatolls offer a low-resolution record of patterns of sea level change. Fossilized microatolls can also be dated using radioactive carbon dating. Such methods have been used to reconstruct Holocene sea levels.
- Cays – are small, low-elevation, sandy islands formed on the surface of coral reefs. Material eroded from the reef piles up on parts of the reef or lagoon, forming an area above sea level. Plants can stabilize cays enough to become habitable by humans. Cays occur in tropical environments throughout the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans (including the Caribbean and on the Great Barrier Reef and Belize Barrier Reef), where they provide habitable and agricultural land for hundreds of thousands of people.
- When a coral reef cannot keep up with the sinking of a volcanic island, a seamount or guyot is formed. The tops of seamounts and guyots are below the surface. Seamounts are rounded at the top and guyots are flat. The flat top of the guyot, also called a tablemount, is due to erosion by waves, winds, and atmospheric processes.
Coral reefs are estimated to cover 284,300 km2 (109,800 sq mi),just under 0.1% of the oceans' surface area. The Indo-Pacific region (including the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia and the Pacific) account for 91.9% of this total. Southeast Asia accounts for 32.3% of that figure, while the Pacific including Australia accounts for 40.8%. Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs account for 7.6%.
Although corals exist both in temperate and tropical waters, shallow-water reefs form only in a zone extending from 30° N to 30° S of the equator. Tropical corals do not grow at depths of over 50 meters (160 ft). The optimum temperature for most coral reefs is 26–27 °C (79–81 °F), and few reefs exist in waters below 18 °C (64 °F). However, reefs in the Persian Gulf have adapted to temperatures of 13 °C (55 °F) in winter and 38 °C (100 °F) in summer.
Deep-water coral can exist at greater depths and colder temperatures at much higher latitudes, as far north as Norway. Although deep water corals can form reefs, very little is known about them.
Coral reefs are rare along the American and African west coasts. This is due primarily to upwelling and strong cold coastal currents that reduce water temperatures in these areas (respectively the Peru, Benguela and Canary streams). Corals are seldom found along the coastline of South Asia from the eastern tip of India (Madras) to the Bangladesh and Myanmar borders.They are also rare along the coast around northeastern South America and Bangladesh due to the freshwater release from the Amazon and Ganges Rivers, respectively.
This post was modified from its original form on 09 May, 12:56
- The Great Barrier Reef—largest, comprising over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometers (1,600 mi) off Queensland, Australia
- The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System—second largest, stretching 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) from Isla Contoy at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula down to the Bay Islands of Honduras
- The New Caledonia Barrier Reef—second longest double barrier reef, covering 1,500 kilometers (930 mi)
- The Andros, Bahamas Barrier Reef—third largest, following the east coast of Andros Island, Bahamas, between Andros and Nassau
- The Red Sea—includes 6000-year-old fringing reefs located around a 2,000 km (1,240 mi) coastline
- Pulley Ridge—deepest photosynthetic coral reef, Florida
- Numerous reefs scattered over the Maldives
- The Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia's West Papua province offer the highest known marine diversity
Live coral are small animals embedded in calcium carbonate shells. It is a mistake to think of coral as plants or rocks. Coral heads consist of accumulations of individual animals called polyps, arranged in diverse shapes. Polyps are usually tiny, but they can range in size from a pinhead to 12 inches (30 cm) across.
Reef-building or hermatypic corals live only in the photic zone (above 50 m), the depth to which sufficient sunlight penetrates the water, allowing photosynthesis to occur. Coral polyps do not photosynthesize, but have a symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae; these organisms live within the tissues of polyps and provide organic nutrients that nourish the polyp. Because of this relationship, coral reefs grow much faster in clear water, which admits more sunlight. Without their symbionts, coral growth would be too slow for the corals to form significant reef structures. Corals get up to 90% of their nutrients from their symbionts.
Reefs grow as polyps and other organisms deposit calcium carbonate, the basis of coral, as a skeletal structure beneath and around themselves, pushing the coral head's top upwards and outwards. Waves, grazing fish (such as parrotfish), sea urchins, sponges, and other forces and organisms act as bioeroders, breaking down coral skeletons into fragments that settle into spaces in the reef structure or form sandy bottoms in associated reef lagoons. Many other organisms living in the reef community contribute skeletal calcium carbonate in the same manner.Coralline algae are important contributors to reef structure in those parts of the reef subjected to the greatest forces by waves (such as the reef front facing the open ocean). These algae strengthen the reef structure by depositing limestone in sheets over the reef surface.
Corals reproduce both sexually and asexually. An individual polyp uses both reproductive modes within its lifetime. Corals reproduce sexually by either internal or external fertilization. The reproductive cells are found on the mesentery membranes that radiate inward from the layer of tissue that lines the stomach cavity. Some mature adult corals are hermaphroditic; others are exclusively male or female. A few species change sex as they grow.
Internally fertilized eggs develop in the polyp for a period ranging from days to weeks. Subsequent development produces a tiny larva, known as a planula. Externally fertilized eggs develop during synchronized spawning. Polyps release eggs and sperm into the water en masse, simultaneously. Eggs disperse over a large area. The timing of spawning depends on time of year, water temperature, and tidal and lunar cycles. Spawning is most successful when there is little variation between high and low tide. The less water movement, the better the chance for fertilization. Ideal timing occurs in the spring. Release of eggs or planula usually occurs at night, and is sometimes in phase with the lunar cycle (three to six days after a full moon). The period from release to settlement lasts only a few days, but some planulae can survive afloat for several weeks. They are vulnerable to predation and environmental conditions. The lucky few planulae which successfully attach to substrate next confront competition for food and space.[
Coral reefs are dying around the world. In particular, coral mining, agricultural and urban runoff, pollution (organic and inorganic), overfishing, blast fishing, disease, and the digging of canals and access into islands and bays are localized threats to coral ecosystems. Broader threats are sea temperature rise, sea level rise and pH changes from ocean acidification, all associated with greenhouse gas emissions.
In El Nino-year 2010, preliminary reports show global coral bleaching reached its worst level since another El Nino year, 1998, when 16% of the world's reefs died as a result of increased water temperature. In Indonesia's Aceh province, surveys showed some 80% of bleached corals died. Scientists don’t yet understand the long-term impacts of coral bleaching, but they do know that bleaching leaves corals vulnerable to disease, stunts their growth, and affects their reproduction, while severe bleaching kills them. In July, Malaysia closed several dive sites where virtually all the corals were damaged by bleaching.
To find answers for these problems, researchers study the various factors that impact reefs. The list includes the ocean's role as a carbon dioxide sink, atmospheric changes, ultraviolet light, ocean acidification, viruses, impacts of dust storms carrying agents to far flung reefs, pollutants, algal blooms and others. Reefs are threatened well beyond coastal areas.
General estimates show approximately 10% of the world's coral reefs are dead. About 60% of the world's reefs are at risk due to destructive, human-related activities. The threat to the health of reefs is particularly strong in Southeast Asia, where 80% of reefs are endangered. By the 2030s, 90% of reefs are expected to be at risk from both human activities and climate change; by 2050, all coral reefs will be in danger.
Current research is showing that ecotourism in the Great Barrier Reef is contributing to coral disease.
Thanx Nyack Did the petition 3/20/12 and noted all the interesting info. ) ) )
Thank you, too Nyack. Signed petition...looking forward to next game. I have always been a sucker for the Indo Pacific Coral Reef Fish, hotel run off, sun screen product, boat anchors and pollution plus careless bumping of coral causes a world of trouble for the reef systems, as well as all the other threats
Already signed the petition, but that you Nyack for all of the important petition!
Already signed the petition back in Dec/11. But thanks for posting Nyack hope you get a lot more signatures.
New game please oh Wise Nyack!!! xoxoxo
Thanx soooo much Mm this game is so much fun xo
COngrats Barbara! Signed - Did know that reefs are living things - so makes sense they are animals.