The name Sinaloa comes from a composite term of words from the Cahita, Tarascan and Nahuatl languages meaning "place of the 'pitahayas' in the water".
Despite its geographical location, far away from Precolumbian Central Mexico, the territory comprising the present State of Sinaloa received the influence of the high Mesoamerican cultures, though in a modified version.
When the Spaniards arrived, they found important ceremonial centers in the southern part of the state. These centers had pyramids, altars and ball courts for the pre-Columbian ball games known as "Hulama".
In addition to growing corn, beans and squash, the dwellers of these sites worked copper and gold and had developed sophisticated techniques in ceramics and weaving.
Sinaloa offers atractive conditions for industrial investments. The varied and abundant natural and human resourses, productive infrastructure and state's geographic location all make it one of the potentially more attractive centers for rapid expansion in northwestern Mexico.
Political Subdivisions and Demography
Sinaloa is divided into 18 municipalities, Mexico's equivalent of U.S. counties. The state capital is Culiacan. Aside from the capital, the major cities in terms of economic activity and population are Los Mochis, Guasave, Guamuchil and Mazatlan.
Acording to the figures of the Ninth Mexican National Census taken in 1990, Sinaloa had a population of 2'204,054. Sinaloa is Mexico's fourteenth most populous state, and in 1990 was home to 2.7% of Mexico's population.
Population density was 37.9 inhabitants per square kilometer in 1990, compared to the national average of 41.5; the 1996 estimate of Sinaloa's population is aproximatly 2'550,000.
The State of Sinaloa has an area of 58,092 square kilometers, encompassing 3.0% of Mexico's total territory. It is Mexico's seventeenth largest state, and extends from the foothills of the Western Sierra Madre to the Pacific Coast, with a privileged location in the Pacific Rim.
The state has eleven rivers that supply water to eleven reservoirs. The water from these reservoirs generates electrical power and form the basic irrigation infrastructure that has made it possible to develop Mexico's most highly sophisticated agriculture.
The state has an excellent highway, railroad, port and air transportation infrastructure and, generally speaking, good means of communication.
It has an ideal climate for agriculture and beautiful natural scenery for tourism development.
Water Control Infrastructure
Located between the Western Sierra Madre mountain range and the Pacific Coast, Sinaloa is part of a basin twice the size of the state. The mountains are the source of numerous streams that eventually form eleven rivers making up what is known as Mexico's Hydrological Region Numbre 10 and 11.
Eleven dams have been constructed to control and tap this potential. These dams have a storage capacity of 17,673 million cubic meters, and the state has an additional capacity of over 2,038 million cubic meters of storage capacity in smaller-scale reservoirs and artificial lakes used for water management.
Once the Sinaloa Interconnected Hydraulic Project is completed, it will be possible to irrigate all the state's lands suited for agriculture
Sinaloa's climate is hot along the coastal plain, temperate to hot in the valleys and on the slopes, temperature-cold in the low mountains, and cold at higher elevations.
Its climatic features range from semitropical, characteristic of the plains, to the climates typical of temperature mountain ranges.
Temperatures range from 22.9°C to 43,2°C with rainfall mainly in the summer months.
Sinaloa has 1'548,000 hectares of arable land, of which 1'334,165 hectares are currently used. Of the land cropped, 56.2% or 749,538 hectares, has gravity irrigation systems and advanced technology enabling good yields.
The main crops are grain, seed crops, vegetables and to a smaller extent, fruit to supply procesing plants that market their surpluses outside the state.
Sinaloa is one of Mexico's top producer in terms of volume of agriculture output. In 1995, it ranked first in production of vegetables and soybeans; second in corn, beans and safflower; third in rice; fourth in wheat and fifth in sorghum.
Livestock production, one of the state's major resources, is an activity that is steadily expanding. It ranks second among the activities in the state's GDP with surplus production of beef, pork and poeltry.
Over the past five years, livestock production has doubled as a result of programs promoting genetic improvement, grading of meat, technical assistance for maintenance, and feed-lot productions. Also, high-risk agricultural production areas have been converted into grazing and pasture lands.
Heavy investments have been made in research and in modernization of slaughterhouse systems. Federal Type Inspections Systems, meeting international food-handling standards, have been installed.
Food processing plants, vegetable and fruit canning plants, frozen vegetable processing plants, cooking oil producers, and sugar mills are located in the area of the Culiacan valley, in the state's central region. Industrial development in Mazatlan has been mainly in fish and seafood processing and packing, manufacture of small seagoinf vessels, and food processing.
In the north, particulary in the Municipality of Ahome, sugar refineries, flour mills, and food processing and cooking oilproduction plants are the main industies. Seventythree percent of the state's industry is located in these three municipalities.
A special area was set aside in the City of Los Mochis to develop the Ecological Industrial Park. With an area of 60 hectares this park will house non-polluting industries including "maquiladora" in-bond assembly plants and home appliances manufacturing plants. An investment of approximatle US$ 25,800,000 was made to provide this park with all services, including residual water treatment plants.
There are good prospects for mining in the state, both for metallic and non-metallic minerals. Included among the metallic minerals are gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, cadmium and iron. The major non-metallic minerals are limestone, pozzolan, gypsum, talc, clays, sand, gravel and salt.
San Ignacio is the leading gold-producing municipality. The Rosario municipality produces lead and zinc, and the municipalities of Choix and Mocorito are producers of cadmium, and Cosala for copper, among other minerals.
The main non-metallical mineral producing Municipalities are El Fuerte which produces limestone and puzzolans; Sinaloa for gypsum and talc; Mazatlan for clays; Culiacan for sands and gravel and Navolato, salt.
Sinaloa's natural features make it ideal for tourism development. More than one million persons visit the state each year, and nearly half the visitors are foreigners.
In 1995 Sinaloa welcomed 1',067,900 Mexicans and 449,600 foreign tourist who spent US$ 310 million. Tourism businesses are now in a process of rapid expansion. Are evidence of this trend, the number of international and domestic flights has increased substantially, in addition to the number of cruise ships calling at Mazatlan.
Fishing and Aquaculture
Sinaloa is one of Mexico's major fishing states. It ranks first in terms of commercial value of output and fourth place in terms of volume of the catch. The shrimp catch, which accounted for more than one third the national total in the past five years, is of prime importance.
The state's fishing industry is primarily a supplier of fresh products. Approximately 95% of output is for direct human consumption, and the remaining 5% is processed in 119 plants.
Spectacular growth has been seen in aquaculture in recent years. While in 1987 there were only 27 fish or shirmp farms, in 1995, that number had climbed to 138. In the same period output of shrimp farms rose from 585 metric tons to 8,725 metric tons.
With the amendments to the legal framework regulating the fishing industry that took effect in 1992, both Mexican and foreign private investment are allowed in this activity. The legal framework opens new prospects for accelerated growth in the entire fisheries sector. Rapid development of this activity is expected, and the protection of endangered species and their natural environment will be ensured.
Sinaloa's natural futures facilitate diversification of production and high unit yields.
This is seen in the production volume in seeds,cereals, oilseed and meat products which, together, total more than 8 million metric tons annually.
Thus the state is self-sufficient in basic staples and exports its surpluses to U.S. and European markets and, to a lesser degree, to the Far East.
Sinaloa, a state exporting agricultural and fisheries products, traditionally has had a favorable balance of trade.
Mazatlan and Topolobampo are the state's main ports. Mazatlan, located in the south of the state, has for many years been Mexico's major Pacific Coast port. It has service infrastructure for the fishing industry, tourism and trade. The port of Mazatlan has a ten-meter operating depth, five commercial freight wharves, 14,993 square meters of storage space, 2,300 square meters of sheltered area, and 67,564 square meters of open storage space.
The port of Topolobampo, in the northern part of the state, was formerly a port used only for coastal shipping. It was developed as a deepwater port and began providing service for large vessels in June 1991. This port has an excellent natural shelter area providing protection against squalls and storms.
The wharf is 240 meters long by 21.6 meters wide. Operating depth is 12 meters, giving it the capacity to receive vessels with up to 50,000 metric tons of dead weight.
The terminal has a space of 10.5 hectares for open air storage of containers and freight boxes up to 40 metric tons each. It was built to support cranes weghing 900 metric tons with a height of 50 meters. It has an 80,000-lb. container forklift to move 20-ft. and 40-ft. containers and another 30,000-lb. capacity container forklift for moving empty containers. The facilities include more than 4,500 square meters of covered storage space that could be adapted for equipment to handle refrigerated boxes.
Airports and Railroads
Sinaloa's three international airports, located in Mazatlan, Culiacan and Los Mochis, are served by a total of 132 routes.
Sinaloa has 978 kilometers of railroads served by 26 stations and connecting 56 of its towns and cities. Of total kilometers, 696 km belong to the Pacific Railroad, taht crosses the state from north to south and runs parallel to International Highway Number 15. This route joins Sinaloa to the United States border and central Mexico.
The Chihuahua-Pacific Railroad serves the sate with 199 kilometers and connects the Port of Topolobampo with state of Chihuahua. This route connects northern Sinaloa with north-central Mexico and the United States. It is the shortes route between the Pacific and the south-central region of the United States and some areas of the U.S. Golg Coast, such as Galveston, Texas.
Since 1950 the state's population has incresed 3.7 times, while the demand for education has multiplied eight-fold. Today, Sinaloa has an illitaricy rate of 9.7%, lower than the 12.4% national figure. One out of every three inhabitants of Sinaloa is currently enrolled at some level of the educational system.
Sinaloa has a good technical and higher education infrastructure, including five universities, five technological and mid level terminal education institutions, in addition to specialized shools in the area of fisheries, industry and other trades.
The Sinaloa Sciences Center, opened in 1993, is one of the most functional and best equipped of its type in Mexico. This center provides scientific simulation sudies that attract the curiosity of children and adolescents, encouraging learning through active visitor participation.
Sinaloa is privilege land in Mexico, so much by its territorial extension, as for the natural wealth that has. Sinaloa has a surface of 58,328 km2 that are split into 18 municipalities with a population of approximately 2'536,844 inhabitants.
Sinaloa is a natural corridor, of north to south, that possesses big rivers and rich submarine aqueous mantles, beaches, stereos, prickly jungles, mountains and deserts.
The visitor interested in knowing Sinaloa, find the maximum facilities to arrive, since the international highway Mexico - Nogales constitutes the spinal column of the communication system to the one which are connected the other roads, as the highway Mazatlan - Durango, state and municipal highways. In addition to use the Railway of the Pacific and the Chihuahua - Pacific. Several flights, national and international, they maintain it well communicate.
Sinaloa name originates of the dialect cahita, compound by the voices sina "kind of pithaya" and lobala " round house", as soon as the name sinalobaba become Sinaloa, that it means " round Pithaya".
The Cancer Tropic crosses Sinaloa about Mazatlan, and this is determinant factor to define its climate. In the coastal plain is warm and wet during the summer and spring like in the winter; near of the mountains is tempered and, in the heights of the Saw Western Mother, extremely cold.
Sinaloa it is split into three climatic regions. Southward, from the river Piaxtla until the limit with the State of Nayarit, it is tropical plain. In the north, in the municipalities of Guasave and Sinaloa, it is of steppe and about Sonora is converted into semi desert.
Angostura is located 105kms. northwest of Culiacan and just 15kms. west of Guamuchil. Angostura's main attraction is the series of island and beaches of unique beauty.
The beaches of Tachichilte, Saliaca, El Mero and Las Tunas from the largest bay of the State, the Bay of Santa Maria. Estuaries and lagoons from together a sanctuary of migratory birds that come from the north every year.
From November through February thousands of ducks, quails and white wing doves fly by the area becoming the target of many sport hunters.
Complete hunting services are provided by Patolandia Hunting Ranch, which is located in one of the best areas for hunting in the entire state. Fishing is as important and abundant as hunting, there is great variety of marine life such as sailfish and marlin that make the area an interesting place to visit.
Some of its main attractions are:
Patolandia Hunting Club
La Coyotita Islet Costa Azul Angostura
El Perihuete Beach
Badiraguato is located just 88 kms. northeast of Culiacan. It lies along the banks of the Badiraguato Stream and it is located north of Adolfo Lopez Mateos Reservoir, also known as Varejonal Dam, which is an ideal place for fishing.
A very attractive region in the municipality is Surutato, which has been proposed to become a National Park. Surutato is 78 kms. east of Baridaguato, where excellent hunting prevails: of interest is the organization of this community into domestic industries and the growing of a variety of flowers for commercial purposes.
Also found in this municipality is the extinct volcano of Batamanea with a large lake in its crater.
Another place of prime beauty is the village of Tameapa surrounded by large forests and flowers of various colors. Vestiges of old Jesuit Missions may be seen in the village of Marirato. It is interesting to note that the long Badiraguato Bridge was the first of its type built in Sinaloa an the state's second longest with a length of 244 mts.
Some of its main attractions are:
Lagoon formed on mouth of Baramanea Volcano,
Esplanade of City Hall,
Hector R. Olea Castaños House Culture
Lovely Sunset at Badiraguato River
Choix is located 123 kms. norteast of Los Mochis. This municipality bordes with the state of Sonora and Chihuahua, thus the weather of the Sierra Madre affords and enjoyable atmosphere in places such as: La Parida and El Mirador. To arrive to this town you may travel by land, taking the highway Los Mochis-El Fuerte-Choix, or by the (Cheoe) train.
Their attractive such as: the house of culture, the deserted mines abandonaded by gold seekers, you may enjoy hot spring baths in the thermal waters of Chuchaca, Agua Caliente de Boca and Agua Caliente Grande.
One can also admire rupestrian paintings located in San Pantaleon, Reparito, vinateria and Cueva Pinta. Luis Donaldo Colosio Reservoir, also known as huites Dam, is one of the largest in Mexico where many water sports, specially large mouth bass fishing, may be enjoyed.
Choix offers arts and crafts such as: basketry, pottery and leather works.
Among Choix most beautiful attractions you can visit are the following ones:
Look out Tower with clock
Choix Municipal Square
Panoramic view of Sport Fishing Camp,
Sculpture "The Guardian of the Dam",
Concordia was founded on the 20th of Junuary 1565 by the Spanish Grandee, Francisco de Ibarra. It lies in the southern part of the state of Sinaloa. Attractions are many and varied
Among Concordia most beautiful attractions you can visit are the following ones:
The Colonial Church of Saint Sebastian, built in the XVIII century whit its baroque style facade profusely carved in red stone, is really a piece of art.
The City Hall, Constructed between 1905-1910 is also an appealing structure in its old french style; a fine climes click brought from Italy is still preserved in this building.
The Antique Hospice, which is the Municipal Palace now
Typical Streets at Copala
Panoramic view of Copala
Concordia is widely know of furniture waking was begun during the colonial period and has prevailed ever since. Panuco, which together with Copala comprised rich miring region, lies 29 kilometers from the latter close by is "Herreros Reservoir", an important irragation work constructed at the turn of the past century.
Cosala is located 155 km. from Culiacan in the State of Sinaloa in Mexico. The Royal of the Eleven Thousand Virgins, shortened its name to the Royal Mines of Cosala is the municipal seat and without doubt one of the most beautiful villages of the state, keeping a quiet atmosphere that seem like you are in a story book. As if history had stopped in the times of the Spaniards. Every little street is a delight. One would want to stay at least a couple of days in Cosala. Something in the air inspires romance, an ideal place for lovers...
Francisco Iriarte y Conde, first governor of the state declared Cosala the capital of the western state in 1826. He introduced printing in the Sonora and Sinaloa and it was in Cosala that the first newspaper of Sinaloa, "The Impartial Spectator" was published.
In its surroundings there are attractive places as the Vado Hondo waterfall and town reservoirs "Comedero" and "El Salto" a few miles from town. Both these lakes are stocked with large mouth bass. The museum of Mineralogy is highly interesting, it mainly displays photographs and documents on the history of mining in Sinaloa.
Cosala was the dominant region in the social and political life of the State of Sinaloa until it became its capital in the early independent Mexico.
Cosala is a picturesque colonial town surrounded by myriad of natural attractions.
Among the major places to enjoy in the surrounding area are:
The Vado Hondo Resort, located fifteen kilometers from Cosala
The Caudal del Arroyo del Sabinal which has a large natural pool with three waterfalls that make it a perfect place for picnics
The Gruta Mexico, a giant cave with beautiful stalactites and stalagmites
The Santa Ursula Temple, built in the XVIII century which represents the most significative church of Cosala
In 1610 the Viceroy of Montesclaros ordered the construction of El Fuerte (the fort), which nowadays is the most important attraction in this town.
It possess many great natural attractions, historical, architectural and native (Yoremes) traditions and it is considered the gateway to the Copper Canyon and Sea of Cortes. The mayor tourist attractions is the colonial city of El Fuerte considered one of the most beautiful cities in Sinaloa, it was founded in 1564 by the Spanish Captain Francisco de Ibarra, who originally named it "San Juan Bautista de Carapoa" the origin of its actual named was derived from "The Fort" which was constructed by Diego Martinez de Hurdaide during the Viceroy ship of Don Juan de Mendoza and Luna, Marquis of Montesclaros.
This City was the first capital of the Western State in 1824, when the provinces of Sonora and Sinaloa were merged in to one state. This enchanting city still evoques the Colonial atmosphere. Some outstanding examples are: the City Hall, the Main Plaza or Plaza of Arms, with its wrought iron Kiosk, House of Culture, Church of the Sacred Heart, Home of Congress, Mansion of the Orrantia Family, just to mention some of them.
Some other interesting places you can visit in El Fuerte are buildings constructed in the XVIII and XIX centuries, such as:
The Sagrado Corazon de Jesus Temple, constructed in XVIII century
The Municipal Palace
The Plaza de Armas with its kiosk
Home of Congress
Petroglyph in the Mask Hill
House of Culture
The Posada Hidalgo, which is a historic building where you can admire beautiful murals
Lagoon in El Fuerte
El Quelite is located 33 kilometers north of Mazatlan just across the Tropic of Cancer between the Sierra Madre Occidente mountains and the Pacific Ocean on Highway No. 15 on the right of the El Quelite river. These natural elements create a diverse and interesting flora and fauna.3
The economy in this area is based on cattle raising, agriculture, fruit growing and dairy products. This area is a "living" museum of the architecture that existed here in the past. In its temple you can admire oil paintings from the late 17th Century. A stroll through the town square, filled with tropical palm trees, is like taking a walk up the hill called Cerro de la Cruz, admire a beautiful sunset, ride a horse, visit the biggest game cock farm in the Northwest of Mexico and also watch a charreria, (a Mexican rodeo) or a Ulama game (a game that is like soccer and has been played since ancient times in this area). The sound of band music playing El Quelite, a famous folk song composed by Francisco Terriquez, can always be heard around town.
Enjoy the fine cuisine, such as the local dishes called machaca, asado and chilorio. These will satisfy even the most discerning palate.
The municipality of Elota with its principal city "La Cruz de Elota" is located 130 kms. south of Culiacan and the same distance north of Mazatlan taking federal highway #15 and 90 km. by toll highway. El Salto Reservoir, which is just 20 kms. from La Cruz, is one of the most impressive dams in the northwest of Mexico, professional and specialized anglers from Angler's Inn provide excellent large mouth bass fishing services.
The beaches along the coastline of Elota are Ceuta Beach and Tempehuaya Bay. Ceuta Beach is 8 kms. west of La Cruz and it is the place that most locals visit because of the landscape and the great seafoof provided by the many stands on the beach.
There is a campground at Ceuta Beach for the protection of the marine turtle that started working since 1979 with the purpose of the preservation of this endangered specie.
Among Elota most beautiful attractions you can visit are the following ones:
La Cruz de Elota Main Entrance,
Church and Kiosk at La Cruz de Elota,
Panoramic View of la Cruz de Elota,
Escuinapa is for its production of shrimp and mango both of excellent export quality. 18 miles out toward the coast is Teacapan, a fishermen's Eden enclaved on an island with an access by land, and filled with thousands of palm trees; it is rich in cattle raising as well as in a wide variety of fauna: white and pink Heron, Canadian Duck and Pichihuila among others. There is Deer, Ocelot, Boar and many others wild animals.
The variety and abundance of marine species is quiet excellent. Snook, Snapper; Mackerel, Curvina, Mullet, Sailfish, and Dolphin abound in these waters.
On the way from Escuinapa to Teacapán you will be captivated by the unparalleled scenery with a profusion of coconut palms and estuaries inhabited by birds, with access to pristine beaches such as La Tambora, Las Cabras and Los Angeles.
Beyond the town is La boca de Teacapan, this is an entrance to the open sea between two strips of land that form a natural marina that meanders through mangrove swamps for more than 47 miles to the south. Visit Teacapan and be in touch with nature
Guasave is famous for the raising of thoroughbred horses and for and for being quite place with a very traditional lifestyle. Some places of interest to visit are: "Our Lady of Rosario Sanctuary": "the Heroes of Sinaloa Auditorium", which is the special site for cultural events and the old Jesuit Missions that date back to the 17th century. On the ruins of Nio one may admire the sculpturing and at the same time become acquainted with its legend.
Las Glorias Beach is just 36 Kms. west of Guasave, it is in this place where one can savor its famous charcoal broiled fish. Boca de Rio, Chamicari and Uyaqui lakes are ideal for hunting canadian duck, quail, white wing dove and other fowl species.
In this new center of attraction you can visit the antique Jesuit Missions built in the XVIII century.
Thirty kilometers from Guasave you find the beautiful Las Glorias beach facing the Sea of Cortes.
Los Mochis is the origin of the railroad route which connects the Sinaloan Coast with the Sierra Tarahumara.
The wide and clean streets of Los Mochis city are lined with attractions. Downtown you can stroll through the thickly forested Sinaloa Park which has a golf course, several hotels and excellent restaurants which specialize in meat and seafood dishes.
Hunters flock to the outskirts of town to shoot white winged pigeon.
Mazatlan has international airport which comunicates it with the major cities throughout Mexico and with the United States. It is also a port of call for cruise ships from San Diego and Los Angeles Californa.
Mocorito is located 120 km. noth of Culiacan and 17 kms. east of Guamuchil.One of the main attractions is the town of Capirato, where the old 18th century church may be admired ceiling beams from the unique ahuhuete tree provide a strange sight. Sulphur water springs are found near the villages of la Huerta, Palmerito and San Benito.
Bird hunting may also be enjoyed as there is an abundance of white wing dove.
The Mocorito River offers excellent fresh water fishing. A traditional event here is the religious festivity of the Immaculate Conception; the celebration is characterized by fireworks displays, dances, fairs and processions in honor of "Our lord of good journey". Colorful ceramics, palm leaf baskets fabrics and wooden artifacts are made by the locals. One the most delicious dishes of the state's cuisine is the savory Chilorio made in Mocorito
Among Mocorito most beautiful attractions you can visit are the following ones:
Panoramic View of Mocorito,
Kiosk of Mocorito,
The word Navolato is derived from the term "Navo" meaning "prickly pear". This is the youngest Municipality in the State. Its creation came about because of a decree issued on August 2, 1982.
Before that date Navolato was part of the Municipality of Culiacan. There is an excellent four lane highway from Culiacan to Navolato spanning the distance of 30 Kilometers.
Modern buses make runs between these two cities. Some of the highlights when visiting Navolato are touring "Ingenio La Primavera", the local sugar mill, the beautiful church of San Francisco de Asis and the central plaza.
There is a number of old colonial type homes that are of great interest. 29 Kilometers further west from Navolato is the enticing Bay of Altata with soft surf and very fine sand, here one can enjoy boat rides and swimming. The beach of El Tambor is 15 minutes away from Altata, it offers high san dunes and strong surf. Of great interest are fishing camps of "El Castillo", "Yameto", Dautillos", "Las Aguamitas", and "El Tetuan". Vegetable packing plants earmarked for exporting constitute an interesting activity as this is a predominantly farming region. The "Sugar Cane Fair" is celebrated in Navolato during the mont of May.
Among Navolato most beautiful attractions you can visit are the following ones:
Rosaio was brought up on august 3rd, 1655, upon gold and silver foundations. More than 70 kms of underground arteries were dug in a time span of 290 years; that's why it is said there are more tunnels than streets above ground. The viceroy government made Rosario an authentic colonial city. The mining activities ceased in 1945, leaving as proof of three centuries worth of riches, one of the most beautiful altar pieces in the world.
The antique church of "Mission of our Lady of Rosario" is one of a kind, with fine antique barroque styling and bears in its interiors an impressive altarpiece covered in gold. It was consecrated in 1731 and finished around 1759. Later, due to the caving in of the ground caused by the mine tunnels it was moved, stone by stone, by its faithful followers to the town square where it now rests, keeping its splendorous quarry facade intact and its marvelous altar piece.
On its outskirts one can enjoy many attractions. One of them, the natural seaside of the beaches of "Caimanero", as well as a lagoon of the same name, considered the largest natural breeding place for shrimp, with is exported to various countries. At the town of Chametla the vestiges of the Totorames can be admired at the local museum.
Rosario is one of the State's southern principal attractive of colonial origin.
The baroque-style church Nuestra Señora del Rosario, with Salomonic columns and one retable with a coat of gold
Ruins of the old El Rosario Church,
a beautiful lagoon,
Ten kilometers from here we get to the Chametla Beaches, an antique prehispanic settlement which reveals a great archaeological treasure
Lola Beltran Square
Monument Lola Beltran
Museo de la Mineria,
Besides Rosario beautiful landscapes, in Chametla you can fish sea bass and red snapper.
Nearby El Rosario you can find Teacapan with beautiful beaches and incredible sceneries.
San Ignacio is located 121 kms. north of Mazatlan and it is one of the several colonial cities of Sinaloa.
The town of San Ignacio has a relaxing atmosphere that can be felt as soon as you walk through the streets and when you visit its church and the main square.
A classic French and Spanish architecture can be admired. San Ignacio is the richest municipality in petroglyphs, along its seacoast, about 12kms. from the town of Dimas, you can find Las Labradas Beach, where you can admire interesting drawings on many large black rocks. Also inside a cave in the area of Cajon de Piaxtla, there are ancient paintings. On Barras de Piaxtla, an area that is 60kms. north of Mazatlan it offers natural beauty, cliffs and wide beaches that are perfect for fishing and surfing. Seafood in Barras de Piaxtla is exquisite, as a suggestion you can try the delicious zarandeado fish, lobster and shrimp.
Guamuchil is the head city of one of the youngest municipalities is the state, Salvador Alvarado.
Guamuchil is situated 102 kms. north of Culiacan and 98 kms. south of Los Mochis. It offers a number of attractions for all visitors. There are Archaeological areas near Cerro de Mochomos and Terreros, colonial constructions, handcrafts, sport hunting and fishing in and around Eustaquio Buelna Reservoir, where specialized hunters and anglers can make of their stay an adventure; thermal water springs at Aguascaliente de Abajo are also one of the main natural attractions.
A number of mayo and nahuatl indian descendents live in the area, they still preserve their preserve their traditional pre-columbian ways and rituals such as the centuries old "ULAMA" ball game which still played by them in this region.
Sinaloa , state (1990 pop. 2,204,054), 22,582 sq mi (58,487 sq km), W Mexico, on the Gulf of California and the Pacific Ocean. Culiacán is the capital. A long, narrow territory lying between the ocean and mountain spurs of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sinaloa has low, hot, humid plains and numerous marshes. The varying elevation, many rivers, and fertile valleys contribute to the variety of crops grown, including grains, tomatoes, cotton, sugarcane, and rice. The state's industry is mostly related to the processing of agricultural products. Fishing and livestock breeding are economically important. Sinaloa lies in a rich mining region where gold, silver, zinc, and copper are mined. Its forest products—fine woods and rubber—are not widely exploited. The state has numerous mineral springs. Sinaloa's coast has many sheltered harbors, but only Mazatlán is a major port. Sinaloa was joined with Sonora during the Spanish period; it became a separate state in 1830.
Ahome , city, Sinaloa state, W Mexico, on the Pacific Ocean. Ahome lies along the Inter-American Highway and is linked by rail with Mexico City. Sugarcane, grains, and cotton are grown in the region, which is irrigated by the Fuerte River. The city also has an important fishing industry.
Selecting the right site for an aquatic farming operation is vital, as it can greatly influence economic viability. GIS's capacity for dynamically modelling environmental parameters (Meaden and Kapetsky, 1991; Eastman, 1993), as well as its cartographic spatial capabilities, can be invaluable for aquaculture and related studies. Situated in the northwest of the Mexican Republic, Sinaloa is a long, narrow state that comprises about 58,480 square kilometers. Its coastline extends some 560 kilometers along the Gulf of California. Sinaloa is primarily an agricultural area, but its ecology makes it a particularly suitable area for aquaculture development. Vast land areas are used for shrimp farms, the most common cultured species being Penaeus vannamei. Sinaloa has led Mexico's shrimp industry for years but, unfortunately, over-exploitation and pollution hurts the country's capture fisheries. Aquaculture helps Sinaloa maintain its shrimp production, with most of the region's aquatic farms dedicated to shrimp farming.
Sinaloa has a rich, diverse variety of aquatic species, as well as some of the most productive coastal lagoons in Mexico. The farms are often associated with these lagoon systems and the need for careful resource management is perfectly suited to GIS. A very large GIS model has been developed for coastal development in Sinaloa State, Mexico. To produce the Sinaloa database, thematic maps of the area and other data from Mexican information sources were digitised at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. Spatial analysis covered the entire state of Sinaloa, as well as portions of neighbouring states such as Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, Nayarit and the Gulf of California.
To minimise environmental conflicts and economic risks, the areas suitable for aquatic development were defined spatially. Thirty resource layers were compiled into 14 environmental criteria that fell into two broad categories. The first group was concerned primarily with natural resources (water resources, climate, mangroves, temperature, soils, topography and sources of postlarvae); the second group reviewed current and potential land uses (agriculture, irrigation, livestock rearing, pasture, existing shrimp farms, industries, urban development and roads). Each selected criterion was first reinterpreted for aquaculture and agriculture developments and standardised according to a consistent numeric range from 0-15 (15 being the most suitable). The rescored criteria were then compared using multicriteria evaluation methods developed by Saaty (1977) and Eastman (1993) in which the relative importance among the criteria were scored systematically. Criteria in the GIS were developed into sub-models that logically grouped certain factors. In IDRISI, as in other systems, it is possible to construct MS-DOS batch files for the different sections of the models. Once the weights were established, the batch files were used to create and combine submodels using techniques such as averaging, summing or multiplying the images. Based on the source data, submodels were created focusing on three different themes: general environmental issues, water resources and water quality. Finally, two objective-oriented models were generated (aquaculture and agriculture) by using the Multi-Objective Land Allocation technique developed by Eastman (1993), in which such trade-offs can be evaluated objectively.
The results provide an index of the amount of land available. As shown here, there is potential for aquaculture development in many parts of the state. Major exceptions are conservation areas and sloped areas in the mountains. Even in these marginal areas (classified as poor), however, there could be sites available. Most suitable sites are found near the coastal lagoons, which primarily lie in the state's northern region; here soils and topography are suitable, and water is abundant (although seasonality may be a major constraint in some areas). Sites also are close to well-populated areas, so markets are near. Moreover, sites are located so pollution sources are avoided or minimised.
Opportunities for agriculture were found to be high in almost the entire state, as shown below, although there are similar development restrictions such as excluding conservation areas. Potential agricultural sites are located in proximity to the rivers and dams where freshwater is most abundant.
These results are supported by the fact that many pond farms already exist in the areas predicted by the GIS as maximally suitable. Although further field verification work is normally required, partial verification has been achieved by comparing the GIS outcome with data obtained in a manual survey by the combined work of two Mexican consulting companies. Figure 7 indicates comparative results from the two techniques. The GIS predicted 2,090 square kilometers of land suitable for aquaculture, and the manual survey predicted 2,093 square kilometers. Although the predicted areas are similar, exact location of the areas vary due to the different manipulations used. The coincidence of the two techniques was only 22 percent, demonstrating the need for complete objectivity in every decision-making step involved in GIS and systematic verification work.
The areas with the highest potential for both activities are found in the northern part of the state where water is most abundant Moreover, these areas are far away from pollution sources such as cities and industries. The zoomed section below, in the northwest of the state enables potential sites for both activities to be evaluated at a more detailed level. The empty spaces in white are constraints in which land-based aquaculture would be excluded and comprise features such as the actual locations of lakes, cities, roads and conservation areas. This figure enables comparison between manually-selected areas and GIS-selected areas based on our modelling. Field verification showed that our modelling methods and logic are accurate in predicting site suitability. Work continues on resolving land use conflicts and environmental impacts.
GEOLOGY OF THE MAZATLAN REGION, SOUTHERN SINALOA STATE, MEXICO April 07, 2005 3:15 PM
ARREDONDO-GUERRERO, Pedro, Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F, 04510, Mexico, email@example.com and CENTENO-GARCIA, Elena, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, Mexico, 04510, Mexico
The study area is located along the Pacific Coast and belongs to the Guerrero Terrane. The oldest rocks that crop out, the El Venadillo Formation, are a sequence of interbedded shale and sandstone, with beds mostly between 1 and 15 cm of thickness, but with some sandstone beds up to 40 cm thick. They are marine turbidites with scarce limestone lenses of unknown age. The El Venadillo Formation is cut by intrusive bodies of different ages. The oldest intrusives are gabbros that show magmatic differentiation and vary in composition from gabbro to plagiogranite. They were dated as Early Cretaceous by Henry and Fredrikson (1987). At the eastern and central-northern part of the area are banded rocks that Henry and Fredrikson (1987) define as basement formed by orthogneiss. However, this appears to be two young dioritic intrusive units, one with banding of magmatic origin and containing xenoliths of sandstone from El Venadillo Formation, and the other a protomylonite associated with strike-slip faulting. The relationship between the gabbroic rocks and the dioritic intrusives is unknown. In the northern part of the area there is a unit, strongly affected by contact metamorphism, whose original composition probably was a sequence of volcaniclastics and andesites. At the center of the area there are small outcrops of recrystallized calcareous rocks. Both, the volcaniclastic/volcanic and the recrystallized limestone are found as roof pendants within young, Cenozoic granitoids. Therefore, their stratigraphic position and age remain unknown. Resting unconformably on all the previously described rocks there is a volcanic sequence that belongs to the Sierra Madre Occidental. The El Venadillo Formation and some gabbroic dykes show structures associated with at least two compressional events of deformation. The first produced foliation, thrust faulting, and isoclinal folds. The second event originated chevron folds, kink bands, and wide folding. The granitoids and Cenozoic volcanic rocks are affected only by normal faults and north-south trending strike-slip faults.
Sinaloa, in northwestern Mexico, is located on the eastern shore of the Sea of Cortes. With its three international airports, the highway network which connects it to the United States border, and the two major seaports, Sinaloa is well communicated with the rest of the country and the world. Agriculture is the backbone of the state's economy with a large portion of its cropped areas under irrigation. The extensive irrigation network has potential for future expansion. The state is a leader in rice and vegetable production and Mexico's second wheat and bean producer. The bulk of the state's agriculture is located in the municipalities of Culiacan, Navolato, Angostura, El Fuerte and Ahome. Fishing is Sinaloa's second most important activity. The state holds first place at a national level in terms of production value, and third place in terms of volumes of fish an seafood. There is a large potential to develop aqua-culture, especially shrimp production . There is industry throughout the state; industrial parks can be found in several industrial areas, corridors and real estate developments. Sinaloa's industrial activity is linked to agricultural production and the fishing industry, and consists primarily of canning, packing and frozen food packing plants.
Sinalóa is a long, narrow state along the Gulf of California and the Pacific ocean. It is one of the chief agricultural states in México. It borders with Sonora to the North, Chihuahua and Durango to the east and Nayarit to the south. The music and dance are very similar to those found on the north coast of Nayarit.
Al reconocer su extrema paquenez en relacion con la inmensidad del- Universo y con las fuerzas, muchas veces destructoras de la Naturale- za, el Hombre ideo, desde los inicios mismos de las sociedades primi- tivas, un objeto con grandes implicaciones magicas, que lo ayudara- tanto a defenderse como a intimidar a todos aquellos seres (Humanos, Animales o espiritus malignos) que giran alredededor de su propia- existencia. Existe un grupo indigena en el Noroeste de Mexico que ha logrado conservar las costumbres y las artesanias de sus ancestros.
Ellos son los Indios Mayos de Norte de Sinaloa y que ocupan tambien parte del sur de Sonora.
UBICACION DEL GRUPO INDIGENA DE SINALOA
El Territorio donde habian asentado Los Mayo, fue conquistado por los espanoles; quienes no lograron somter a los habitantes, debido a la- belicosidad de estas tribus y fue en el ano de 1689 cuando los Mayos- aceptaron la Evangelizacion del "PADRE KINO", pero en 1772, decidieron abandonar la Religion profesada por los evangelizadores y retornaron- a su vida natural salvaje.-
El gruop Indigena Mayo situado al Norte de- Sinaloa, esta compuesto aproximadamente por 22,000 habitantes, segun- dato de 1977 del Centro Coordinador Indigenista Mayo. Hoy, flutua en- tre los 33,000 y 35,000 indigenas que viven en un total de 60 pueblos que se encuentran diseminados en los municipios de: Ahome, El Fuerte,- Choix y Sinaloa de Leyva.
Por la Organizacion y el Numbero de miembros,- esta considerado como el de mayor importancia en el Noroeste de la Re- publica, asi como el mas representativo de Sinaloa.
La mayoria de los- Mayos es bilingue: hablan tanto el espanol, como el dialecto Cahita
La Agrupacion de los Judios (Juviasi, en Mayo), se encarga de organiz y llevar conbuen cuidado el desarrollo de la Liturgia que se practio especialmente durante la semana santa, Los Judios pretenden alguna bendicion o favor divino, y para esto re curren a las mandas o promesas y cubriendose con mascaras de piel de cabra.- Obra de gran originalidad que detecta el uso de ese material a un pas do pueblo casador.- Con la piel y el talento heradado, el Mayo a hecha para el, villano de la leyenda negra del catolicismo anticuado: El Judio una mascara grotezca para ocultar y a la vez marcar el rostro del vergo de cristo.- Asi muestra un escape a las tensiones sociales y religiosas del pueblo mayo.- durante toda esta ceremonia se dedican a recolectar dinero y escenifican paradias de la vida religiosa, social y sexual, derriban maldicen la cruz.-
"Antecedentes de la Mascara Judia"
El cristianismo llego a estas tierras por via espanola con sus cristo sangrantes y sus penitentes encapuchados: la pason, acto sanguinario facino a los conversos que dejaron lentamente cultos en que se ofrec sacrificios de sereo vivos, humanos o animales la tomaron con pasion propia y le enfudieron caracteristicas muy ajenas a las importadas.- mascaras, capuchones de piel se llevan por horas en la smana santa, en temperaturas torridas, para cubrir el castigo un tormento, - asi se trasforma en los culpables de la muerte de cristo, los pecadores viles y malignos, actuando con procadidad ajena a us diarias costum por eso se catiga y pugan las penas propias y de su grupo racial.- Al terminar la cermonia se quitan las mascaras y las quenan, simbol zando asi con ello que se liberan de la maldad, sean purificados y de nuevo son mayos. LA DANZA DEL PASCOLA
La cruz de color blanco incisa en la Frente de la mascara como expresion- del sincretismo religioso.
La crin de caballo, que tradicio- nalmente es blanca o color claro- sirve para simboizar la pureza de - la mascara. Cumple tambien una funci- on estetica porque se considera que- le da realce.
Por lo general el oficio de danza- nte de pascola, es algo con el cual se familiarizan los nino desde pequeno es decir, el aprendizaje se hace por trasmicion directa, ya que no hay tien especifico para aprender, ni una persona (maestro) asignada socialmente par ensenar
El que llega hacer un gran danzante es muy admirado dentro de los mayos Es tan importante que muchos hablande la necesidad de "Pactar con el Diablo para obtener el don de ser un buen danzante.
Por otra parte, el danzante de pascola es un gran personaje indisensable en las fiestas mayos: grupo de estos confroman cofradias, dirigidas por el pascola mayo. Este es quien tiene a su cargo abrir y cerrar las fiestas. Cuando se tanta canario es el momento durante el cual la Mascara pone de fiesto su significacion real.
Las fiestas grandes de pasco las, se llevan a cabo en los centros ceremoniales hechos honor a los santos patrones. Los danzantes, musicos y veci se reunen en una ramada, la cual se construye cerca del centro ceremonial.
La Danza del Pascola se hace individual- mente; frente a los musicos, solo al prin- cipio en el Son del Canario entran todos para dar gracias al todo poderoso de te- nerlos reunidos, una vez que bendicen a-
los cuatro puntos Cardinales se estable- ce una competencia que los obliga a su-- perarse.
El danzante baila con las piernas y el- tronco semiflexionado, con la cabeza rec- ta y otras veces mirando al suelo. La-- Mascara la porta frente a la cara, a un lado y otras veces atras de la cabeza
DANZA DEL VENADO
En tiempos ancestrales la causa por la que se realizara la danza del ve- nado tuvo que obedecer a necesidades de tipo aliemntico y de ebrio, y -- para satisfacer necesidades espirituales: como propiciar la benevolencia de los dioses por medio del cultoa la naturaleza.
Actualmenta esta Danza se ha convertido en una expresion ritual generali- zada para cualquier ocacion en la cual el ejecutante hace un verdadero- ritmo teatral "relatando" con sus movimientos mimeticos a la vida del- animal citado.
La navidad es my apreciada entre los mayos, los danzantes de matachines rinden culto centro del Templo del nino Dios. La danza de matachin se efectua a partir de la ultima semana de Noviembre cada domingo simbolizando con esto la alegria y el gozo de realizar al cristo rey, culminando dicho ritual el 24 de Diciembre.
La dinamica de los movimientos corporales y zapateados es suave re marcandose esta, con el movimiento ondulatorio de ayal (sonaja) los danzantes y musicos interpetran con ternura la adoracion del ninos dios. BAILES QUE ENCIERRAN LOS SONES MAS CONOCIDOS DE SINALOA
En un principio, Sinaloa pertenecio a Nueva Galicia con sede en Guadalajara y tambiem en Nueva Vizcaya, cuya cabezera era Durango. Esta ciudad fue f tor importante en el desarrollo del sur Sinaloense. Al proliferar los as tamientos humanos en virtud del de scubrimiento y explotacion de numerosos fondos mineros a ambos lados del maziso serrano accidental, el intercambio de hombres, productos e ideas, fue cosa comun, con el consiguiente period de tranquilidas que se hizo posible, para los colonos, la practica de for de vida iguales a las que llevaban en la Espana de entonces. En estas circustancias, el mestizaje se reanizo en ambientes que resumaba costumbres de la peninzula. Para el estudio de la musica en esta parte. Estado tenemos que hurgar en el pasado, razon por la que se insiste en re lcar la vencidad con Durango, Ciudad que ya tenia varios anos de ser un- centro poblado, ademas de que perteneciamos a su jurisdiccion. Y seguramente con los primeros colonos vino la musica como parte de unace vo cultural en sus diverasas manifestaciones, por ejemplos: juego y rondas infantiles, cantos de trabajo, musica sacra o religiosa, musica profana o complemento de las festividades, etc. Naturalmente estes expresiones van tomando carta de naturalizacion por el uso, siendo adaptadas por los nuev habitantes de estas tierras, nacidos ya de la union de razas y que ya rec el nombre de criollos o mestizos
La india Bonita, El Sauce y la Palma, El Nino Perdido, La Cuichi, Los Caballo que Corrieron, El Sinaloense, El Novillo Despuntado, El Coyote y Las Brisas de Mocorito.
Este popurri de bailes Sinaloense es sin duda la mas pura manifestacion de la alegria de la musica de viento: "La Tambora". Musica que esta presente en todas las celebraciones de nuestra vida cotidiana.
El coyote se baila entre los indigenas, la actividad del danzarines la que toma el danzante mayo, cuando interpreta los movimientos del coyote.
Camisa y pantalon de uso cotidiano cobijas enrolladas al redeor del cor- so con mecates que sujeten de los hombros, faja negra de algodon alrede- dor de la cintura; paliacae doblado en triangulo y amarrado para cubrir nariz y boca, capa de tela blanca de forma rectangular. la cual colocan- encima de la cabesa, sujetandose por abajo del menton con un broche, pa- liacate enrollado y amarrado al rededor de la cabesa cinendo la capa; - tenabares enrollados en las piernas, cinturon de cuero al cual incertan piolas formando un tejido en cuyos extremos penderan canutillos de carri- zo y mascara de una sola pieza. INDUMENTARIA DEL PASCOLA
Camisa y pantalon blance, paliacate rojo al cuella, flor de papel rojo en la cabeza (- amarrada a un mechon), una manta de forma rectangular, usada a manera de panel y su- jeta por una faja de lana en la cual se int- reduce otra faja (en la parte enterior del cuerpa) suyos extremos se atan arriba de- las rodillas; sobre la primera faja se colo- ca el cinturon echo de cureo, adornado con cadenas, rematedos estos con grandes casca- beles de bronce llamados (coyoles). Llevan enrollados en toda la pierna, ayor-- ces de capullos de mariposa llamados (tene- beris). Mascara animalistica tallada en-- madera y adornada con crines de caballo:-- las facciones animalisticas son remarcadas con pintura de color rojo y negro en la -- frente lleva grabada una cruz generalemte-- de color blanco. Sonaje de madera hecha de una sola pieza en la cual se deja espacio- para meter fichas metalicas. INDUMENTARIA DEL VENADO
Consiste esta, en una camisa blanca y un calzon de manta amarrada hasta las rodillas, en los tobillos se colocan tenabaris, alrededor de las cade- ras llevan, enrrollada una manta en forma rectangulas la cual sostiene- un cinturon hecho de cuero del cual penden pezunas de venados unidas al- cintur on con correas del mismo material. Dos paliacates rojos, uno ama-- do en la cabeza para afianzar mejor la cabeza del venado, la cual lleva una flor de papel blancea (entre los cuernos), en cada mono lleva un- ayal generalmente de color rojo. INDUMENTARIA DEL MATACHIN
Se viste de camisa y pantalon de colores brillantes y preferentemente blancos, usan paliacate amarrado a la cabeza, huaraches, por tayal en la mano derecha, y palma en la mono izquierda en la cabeza un corona hecha de carrizo perforado con listones de colores y adornado con espejuelas.
En la parte trasera del mismo cuelgan listones que llegan al altura de la rodilla. INDUMENTARIA DEL SONES
El traje de la mujer, esta confeccionado en manta, te la que usan nuestros indigenas, destacando las flores de Amapa dibujadas en el y que es una de las flores caracteristicas de la serrania de nuestro Estado. Tambien esta representado en dicho traje el arte de la ceramica que cultivaron nuestros antepasados. Los hombres portan un sombrero de palma que es confeccionado en el municipio de el Fuerte y usado por los mayos que aun subsisten, la camisa la usaban y la siguen usando los labradores de nuestra tierra, al igual que el paliacate rojo con que un jugan su sudor y sus lagrimas
Los instrumentos que se usan para acompanar a las distintas evoluciones de esta comparsa son: Los tambores en distintos diametros y grosores, cu- yas percusiones son formadas por los tenabaris que llevan enrrolladas en la patorrillass, los participates llevan ademas coyoles, los cuales son- cinturones que llevan colgados canutos de carrizo que suenan al moviento cricular de las cintura.-
Los tambores son rusticos, hechos de madera de nuestro montes, con- parches de cueros de animales; Chivos, Coyote, Becerros, sin curtir y de- vidamente rasurados.- Estos tambores, que percuten con palillos (Baqueta de madera recistentes, son de diametro que van de 30 60 cmts., con un grosor de 10 cmts.- Se usan otros que tienen cierta cimilitud, con las cajas de los tambores de la banda de guerra aunque no tan grandes.- Los parches o membranas van adosados al baso de madera por me dio de correa los mas angostos, y con mecate de istle los mas gruesos.
MUSICA DEL VENADO
La musica del venado como exponente de forma musical tradicional, es intr- pretada basicamente, con los mismos instrumentos que usaron nuestros-- antepasados, esto es: El tambor de agua que viene hacer la mitad de uno los ayales, especie de calabaza de corteza dura que se da en los montes de la region, flota en el agua contenida en uno de los recipientes, -- bandeja, batea, etc. percutida por una baqueta que esta cubierta en uno de los extremos en hojas de mazorca.
Los Jiruquiass son trozos de madera resisten de palo colorado, en forma- alrgada como de 60 cmts, de lo largo por 4 de ancho y de 1 1/2 de grueso, que llevan surcos trasversales, que al correr de una vara sobre el los, pro- duce el efecto de un raspador o guiro. Los musicos de Venado se sientan en el suelo, ya que todos sus instrume- ntos se colocan presisamente sobre el piso de la enramada.
MUSICA DEL MATACHIN
Los instrumento que acompanan a la danza de matachines son; Un violin primero, un violin segundo, y un arpa; pero en los ultimos tiempos es la guitarra quien suple la armonizacion de las melodias con un ritmo bien marcado que sirve de guia a los Danzantes.
LA MUSICA POPULAR
La musica popular tiene influencias indigenas, espanolas, afrocubanas, y chilenas, y se expresa en la " Tambora", banda formada por 32 instrumentos sobre todo de viento y percusion. Se copmone de trompetas, trombones, clarinetes, tarolas, bongo, tuba y tambra, principalmente.