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SCHAFER AUTISM REPORT November 19, 2004 9:27 AM

SCHAFER AUTISM REPORT "Healing Autism: No Finer a Cause on the Planet" ________________________________________________________________ Friday, November 19, 2004 Vol. 8 No. 185 >> PROMOTE YOUR 2005 EVENT NOW - FREE << DEADLINE FOR DECEMBER AUTISM CALENDAR IS NEXT THURSDAY NOV. 25 FORENSIC * Dad Apologizes For Poisoned Cake At School RESEARCH * Brain Inflammation Found In Autism Part II * An Apple A Day Could Help Protect Against Brain-Cell Damage That Triggers Alzheimer's, Parkinsonism, Cornell Studies Find ADVOCACY * Parents Savage Ont. Government's Handling of Autistic Kids Program TREATMENT * Irish Fragile-X Test Results Prove Inaccurate CARE * Accused Florida Teacher Drew Complaints MEDIA * Write-Minded: 16-yr-old's One-Act Play About High Functioning Autism COMMENTARY * Time to Eliminate the National Vaccine Injury Act? LETTERS * More Clear Blue Water FORENSIC Dad Apologizes For Poisoned Cake At School 42285410.xml&storylist=national AP - The father of one of two 13-year-old girls accused of serving poisoned cake to about a dozen students said Thursday he and his daughter were sorry it happened. "It was a horrible prank that went too far and a lot of people have suffered," the father told The Associated Press. The man asked that he not be identified by name to protect his daughter. The girls were held on assault charges Wednesday, a day after handing out the cornbread cake at East Cobb Middle School. Lab tests showed the icing contained, bleach, clay and hot-pepper sauce, police said. Twelve students, mostly seventh-graders, were treated and released. Both teens were charged with 12 counts of aggravated assault with intent to commit murder. One girl was also charged with terroristic acts and interference with government property. Both are still in custody, the father said. Because the investigation is ongoing, Cobb Police Department spokesman Dana Pierce declined to comment on exactly how dangerous the cake was believed to be, saying only that it was potent enough to cause nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhea in the victims. The father said the two girls began playing around in the kitchen the night before the incident after growing bored. "It was not any kind of malicious intent," he said. "They thought it would be funny. They know it's not funny now." The father said his daughter was diagnosed this summer with Asperger's syndrome, and that doctors told him the girl should not be in a conventional school setting. * * * RESEARCH Brain Inflammation Found In Autism II Note: This is the second article we have reproduced on this subject. Just out today from a science journal, it is a little more technical, with additional details (and speculation) than the previous. Inflammation in the brain is clearly a feature of autism, according to a new study published November 15, 2004, in online edition of Annals of Neurology, , the scientific journal of the American Neurological Association. The researchers found strong evidence that certain immune system components that promote inflammation are consistently activated in people with autism. "These findings reinforce the theory that immune activation in the brain is involved in autism, although it is not yet clear whether it is destructive or beneficial, or both, to the developing brain," said senior author Carlos A. Pardo-Villamizar, M.D., at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. Autism is a disorder of the developing brain that appears in early childhood. It is estimated to afflict between 2 and 5 of every 1000 children and is four times more likely to strike boys than girls. Children with autism have difficulties in social interaction and communication and may show repetitive behaviors and have unusual attachments to objects or routines. Autism has a strong genetic component, and in some families, autism tends to be more prevalent. In identical twins with autism both are usually affected. However, the number of children with autism appears to be increasing more than expected for a genetic disorder. This suggests to scientists that genetic abnormalities require the influence of other factors to cause the disorder. Birth complications, toxins, diet, and viruses and other pathogens have been suggested, though there is no strong evidence for any of these. In recent years, there have been scientific hints of immune system irregularities in children with autism, but not all studies have confirmed this. Pardo and his colleagues sought a more definitive answer by looking not at the immune system overall, but at immune components inside the relatively sealed environment of the nervous system. Led by first author Diana L. Vargas, MD, a post-doctoral fellow working in Pardo's laboratory, the researchers examined brain tissue from 11 people with autism, aged 5 to 44 years, who had died of accidents or injuries. Compared with normal control brains, the brains of the people with autism featured immune system activation and inflammation in the brain. "This ongoing inflammatory process was present in different areas of the brain and produced by cells known as microglia and astroglia," said Pardo. When the researchers measured brain levels of immune system proteins called cytokines and chemokines, they found abnormal patterns consistent with inflammation. "The pattern of cellular and protein findings indicate that they are part of the 'innate' immune system in the brain, and do not appear to be caused by immune abnormalities from outside the brain," said Pardo. The findings in the brain tissue were corroborated by studies of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from six children with autism (ages 5 to 12 years), in which cytokines that promote inflammation were found to be elevated. It is conceivable that signs of inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid could one day be used to diagnose autism, or even that doctors could treat inflammation to prevent or combat autism, however this is still speculative, according to Andrew W. Zimmerman, a pediatric neurologist at the Kennedy-Krieger Institute in Baltimore and co-author of the paper. For one thing, it is possible that the inflammation represents the brain's efforts to combat some other process damaging to brain cells. "These findings open new possibilities for understanding the dynamic changes that occur in the brain of autistic patients during childhood and adulthood. Although they may lend themselves to development of new medical treatments for autism, much more research would be needed to establish the validity of this approach," said Pardo. Among the next steps in this line of research, Pardo and colleagues are studying how the genetic background of patients and families may influence the development of immunological reactions in the brain that confer susceptibility to autism. Article: "Neuroglial Activation and Neuroinflammation in the Brain of Patients with Autism," Diana L. Vargas, Caterina Nascimbene, Chitra Krishnan, Andrew W. Zimmerman, and Carlos A. Pardo; Annals of Neurology; Published Online: November 15, 2004 (DOI: 10.1002/ana.20315). -- > DO SOMETHING ABOUT AUTISM NOW < -- SUBSCRIBE. . . ! . . .Read, then Forward the Schafer Autism Report. To Subscribe Or No Cost! _______________________________________________________ * * * An Apple A Day Could Help Protect Against Brain-Cell Damage That Triggers Alzheimer's, Parkinsonism, Cornell Studies Find Phytochemicals to the rescue, too. A group of chemicals in apples could protect the brain from the type of damage that triggers such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's and Parkinsonism, according to two new studies from Cornell University food scientists. The studies show that the chemical quercetin, a so-called phytonutrient, appears to be largely responsible for protecting rat brain cells when assaulted by oxidative stress in laboratory tests. Phytonutrients, such as phenolic acids and flavanoids, protect the apple against bacteria, viruses and fungi and provide the fruit's anti-oxidant and anti-cancer benefits. Quercetin is a major flavanoid in apples. Antioxidants help prevent cancer by mopping up cell-damaging free radicals and inhibiting the production of reactive substances that could damage normal cells. "The studies show that additional apple consumption not only may help reduce the risk of cancer, as previous studies have shown, but also that an apple a day may supply major bioactive compounds, which may play an important role in reducing the risk of neurodegenerative disorders," says Chang Y. "Cy" Lee, Cornell professor of food science at the university's New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, N.Y. In a study that recently appeared online and is to be published in the November/December 2004 issue of the Journal of Food Science (69(9): S357-60), Lee and his co-authors compared how two groups of rat neuronal cells fared against hydrogen peroxide, a common oxidative stressor. Only one of the two groups was pretreated with different concentrations of apple phenolic extracts. The researchers found that the higher the concentration of apple phenolic extract, the greater the protection was for the nerve cells against oxidative stress. "What we found was that the apple phenolics, which are naturally occurring antioxidants found in fresh apples, can protect nerve cells from neurotoxicity induced by oxidative stress," Lee said. When Lee and co-author Ho Jin Heo, a visiting fellow at Cornell, looked at quercetin they found that it appeared to be the main agent responsible for the beneficial effect. In fact, they found quercetin works even better in protecting nerve cells against hydrogen peroxide than vitamin C, a naturally occurring antioxidant known to help prevent cell and tissue damage from oxidation. Quercetin is primarily found in apples, berries and onions. This study, which appeared online recently, will be published in the December issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. The two studies build on Lee's 2002 findings that quercetin has stronger anti-cancer activity than vitamin C, and his 2000 findings that phytochemicals in apples have stronger anti-oxidant protective effects than vitamin C against colon and liver cancer cells. Other studies have found that phytochemicals are associated with a reduced risk of cancer, heart disease and diabetes, and that they fight not only cancer but also bacterial and viral infections. In addition, they are anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory. Although Lee stresses that his studies were conducted in the laboratory, not in clinical trials with humans, he has no hesitation in recommending more apples in the diet as well as other fresh fruits and vegetables. "Indeed, I have a reason to say an apple a day keeps the doctor away," he says. The researchers used red delicious apples grown in New York state to provide the extracts to study the effects of phytochemicals. Lee said that all apples are high in the critical phytonutrients and that the amount of phenolic compounds in the apple flesh and in the skin vary from year to year, season to season and from growing region to growing region. The study on apple phenolics, which was co-authored by Heo and D.O. Kim, a postdoctoral researcher at Cornell, as well as S.J. Choi and D.H. Shin at Korea University, was supported in part by Heo's postdoctoral fellowship through the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KSEF) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The study on quercetin, authored by Lee and Heo, also was supported, in part, by the KSEF fellowship program and U.S. Apple Association. Brief comment: This is a 180 degree reverse P.R. of the big apple alar scare of over a decade ago, readers may remember. -LS * * * ADVOCACY Parents Savage Ont. Government's Handling of Program For Autistic Kids [By Gillian Livingston for the Canadian Press.] 09b9713dc89 (CP) - Growing frustration with the "crushing" burden that weighs on families with autistic children boiled over Thursday as parents savaged the Ontario government's failure to dole out nearly $17 million in funding with 1,200 kids languishing on a waiting list. It's "unconscionable" that the province neglected to spend $16.7 million it had allocated for the program over the last five years, said Bruce McIntosh, whose son Cliff, 4, has been on the waiting list for nearly two years. "They should be helping those parents," said McIntosh, who lives just north of Toronto. "It's a crushing load to bear, $20,000 (a year for treatment) and that's for our boy. . . . To just leave them literally high and dry on a waiting list is ridiculous." McIntosh was one of several parents who were on hand for a legislative committee's review of a scathing auditor's report that found the province's $44-million Intensive Behaviour Intervention program in a state of disarray. Acting provincial auditor Jim McCarter found records at the Ministry of Children and Youth Services, which is responsible for the program, were inaccurate, including at least two instances where $3 million was incorrectly recorded as spent. It also found the 547 children who are getting therapy are being shortchanged on the number of hours of treatment they should receive by four hours a week, on average. Under the program, children receive an average of $79,000 a year to cover the steep cost of intensive one-on-one therapy, regarded as the most effective treatment for training autistic children to function more normally. The audit also indicated the province couldn't track spending and waiting lists, or ensure agencies were providing the support services they were being paid for. Lillian Wagman, whose autistic sons Michael, 6, and David, 3, both waited nearly five months for treatment, gets direct funding from the province, but not enough to cover the full cost of therapy or the $150-an-hour price tag for a clinical psychologist to oversee her program - a requirement of the funding. "At $150 per hour, that's impossible for a family with two children with autism," Wagman said. New Democrat health critic Shelley Martel, a longtime critic of Ontario's autism program, urged the government to take immediate action. Martel said the province needs to cut waiting lists and choose between funding agencies to provide services or give parents the money directly to hire approved therapists. "If there are not concrete policy decisions made within the next number of months, you will continue to see children who will sit on a waiting list and never get service because they're going to turn six," Martel said. "We just can't have that happen anymore. . . . We can't wait 18 months or even a year for those important issues to be resolved." + Full story here: 09b9713dc89 * * * TREATMENT Irish Fragile-X Test Results Prove Inaccurate 52 people in Galway who have been tested to find out if they were at risk of having a child with a form of intellectual disability have been told that they may have to repeat the procedure. It has emerged they may have received inaccurate results from the Diagnostic Testing Centre at NUI Galway, and will have to be retested at Our Ladies Hospital for Sick Children in Crumlin, Dublin. The patients were genetically tested for 'Fragile X', a syndrome which can cause autism. The procedure has now been suspended at the Diagnostic Testing Centre after a patient tested in Galway and given the all-clear subsequently received abnormal results from a test in Crumlin. This development could have very serious consequences for NUIG as one of the 52 is currently pregnant and some of the others may have already had children. Testing started there in 1994. * * * CARE Accused Florida Teacher Drew Complaints Parents say they raised concerns about the veteran teacher but were ignored or shut down. [By Dave Weber for the Sun Sentinel. This report has disturbing, graphic elements. Thanks to Leah Pardee.] 18,1,776233.story?coll=orl-news-headlines A mother who accused a Seminole County teacher of abusing handicapped students in her class said Wednesday she was scared off four years ago by a threatening letter from a powerful teachers union. Carol Goings of Casselberry said the letter from the Florida arm of the National Education Association made her drop her crusade against teacher Kathleen Garrett, who was arrested last week on nine counts of child abuse. Garrett has been unwilling to talk about the allegations against her. The letter warned Goings not to "impugn the reputation of this fine teacher," or "it will be necessary for us to consider formal legal action against you and pursue whatever damages are available to Ms. Garrett." "I was petrified," said Goings, who had accused Garrett of hitting her mentally handicapped daughter on the head. "We're a young family struggling to raise three kids on my husband's salary." She settled for getting her child transferred into another class, she said. Meanwhile, school officials disclosed Wednesday that a computer in Garrett's classroom at South Seminole Middle School contained "adult-rated materials," and will be turned over to police investigating complaints against the veteran teacher. Officials would not describe what was found on the computer's hard drive, except to say it involved e-mail that could figure in a possible criminal case against Garrett. Casselberry police say Garrett, 48, beat and humiliated students, sat on some, knocked one child's teeth out when she slammed his head on a desk and pushed another's face into vomit. They say she also took children into the bathroom, where sounds of screaming could be heard. Since the arrest, parents have come forward to say they had complained repeatedly to school officials about Garrett, even as she received year after year of good job-performance evaluations from principals. Superintendent Bill Vogel said Wednesday that he has called in a special investigator to look into allegations of a cover-up. He said Drew Thomas, an Orange County attorney familiar with school and exceptional-education law, would get to the bottom of accusations of abuse going back many years. "Whatever the outcome is, this needs to be resolved," Vogel said. Goings said she has been waiting for years to resolve incidents she says occurred in Garrett's class at Indian Trails Middle School in 1999 and 2000. She said she went to school officials after her daughter Melody, now 17 and a student at Winter Springs High, told her that Garrett had struck her on the head. Goings said she was silenced when she received a stern letter in March 2000 from the Florida Teaching Profession-National Education Association, which merged later that year with the Florida Education Association United to become the Florida Education Association. The letter from attorney Pamela Cooper, now the general counsel for the merged organization, said Goings "falsely made formal allegations that Ms. Garrett mistreated your child." The Seminole Education Association, the local teachers union, had asked Cooper to intervene on Garrett's behalf. Cooper called Goings' allegations "malicious and actionable," as well as "categorically false," a stand union officials softened Wednesday. "The action Pam took at that time was warranted," said Mark Pudlow, union spokesman. "Whatever the parents were alleging was not proven." Pudlow said he has no idea whether the new charges against Garrett are true. A union representative would neither confirm nor deny the organization is representing Garrett in legal matters. The union letter four years ago came after several parents, including Goings, asked to have their children taken out of Garrett's class. Goings has copies of a four-page letter of complaints that she said she sent at the time to Indian Trails Principal Eugene Petty, district human resources director John Reichert, and Exceptional Education Director Tom McDowell. School officials looked into Goings' complaints and dismissed them. However, Larnell Watford, assistant principal at Indian Springs, noted in a letter to Goings that Garrett had been reprimanded for calling Melody "a liar" in front of her new teacher after the girl was transferred to another room. Garrett's personnel files have been stripped of all complaints, however. School officials say the records have been closed to the public because they are part of the current investigation. School district officials said earlier they had no indications anything might be amiss in Garrett's classroom, but a growing number of parents and others have stepped forward to list complaints. Greg Griffis, a senior at Winter Springs High, said he saw Garrett abuse a child in 2000 while he was a seventh-grade peer tutor in her class at Indian Trails. He said he told school officials, who did not believe him, creating the most indelible memory of his middle school years. "I witnessed her grab a student by the neck and throw him into a closed closet door," he said. The boy used a walker and was crossing the room without permission, Greg said. Other parents raised complaints about Garrett that same year, including Brenda Alexander, who said Garrett hit her son with a ruler until his head was bloody. School officials and Winter Springs police said they found no proof of abuse, after Garrett said the boy had fallen down. Garrett, who worked in a half-dozen Seminole schools during her 26-year career, was transferred to South Seminole Middle for the following school year. IF YOU WITNESS ABUSE OF CHILDREN OR THE DISABLED. . . National number to report child abuse and neglect 800 422-4453 Discrimination complaints, Dept. Health and Human Services 800 368-1019 Also, if it is your child or yourself who is the victim, contact the US Department of Justice And or, contact the children's protection agency in your county. It's listed under a similar name, usually in the front of the white page telephone books, or available through your local police or sheriffs department. -- > THE SCHAFER AUTISM REPORT IS < -- 0 Canada's widest read autism publication 0 United Kingdom's widest read autism publication 0 The United States' widest read autism publication.* A Calendar of Events makes sense. _______________________________________________________ * Whew! That's a pretty tall claim. Here are more details: ~200 editions, times 8 pages each, times ~20,000 circulation comes to 32 million electronic pages per year * * * MEDIA Write-Minded: 16-year-old's One-Act Play About High Functioning Autism [By Ivette M. Yee.],0,245626 7.story?coll=sfla-news-palm It's not easy being George. A mailman in his mid-30s who lives with his sister, he has just been fired from his job. George is autistic and the fictional subject of a play of the same name written by Kate Reynolds, 16, of Delray Beach, the top winner among three in the 2004 VSA arts Playwright Discovery Program. The contest was open to all high school students who submitted one-act plays that included some aspect of disability. Sponsored by the Kravis Center for the Performing Arts and VSA arts of Florida-Palm Beach County, an organization that promotes education and creative expression among children and adults with disabilities, the winning plays were performed recently by professional actors at the Kravis Center. Other student plays selected were written by Sofie Tamayo, 17, of Lake Worth, a student at the private Elles School, and Casey Hopkins, 15, of Palm Beach Gardens, a student at the Alexander W. Dreyfoos Jr. School of the Arts. VSA arts officials said the contest, now in its fourth year, promotes awareness about disabilities among young people. This year's crop of playwrights explored topics including mental illness and deafness. "I was really trying to write a story that wasn't depressing, but uplifting," said Reynolds, an 11th-grader at Dreyfoos. "I wanted to write a story about a person living with a disability and how they are able to function in society." Reynolds said her goal was to create a different view of autism than the memorable performance by Dustin Hoffman in the film Rain Man. Hoffman's character, Raymond, was a child-like man with a brilliant mind, but wasn't self-sufficient. In George, the main character is more capable, Reynolds said. He is fascinated with literature, memorizes whole books and quotes phrases from Alice in the Wonderland. But his disability makes it hard for him to socialize. The play looks at what happens when a prejudiced new boss fires George from his job, and how he copes with the loss. "George is quirky and he's real," Reynolds said. "You automatically sympathize with him." To write the play, she researched information about autism and spoke with the ARC of Palm Beach, an organization that provides services to people with developmental and mental disabilities. She also spent time with a member of her church whose son has autism. "I was really tickled at how she was able to portray this character and how she made the play entertaining and educational at the same time," said Alison Reynolds, Kate's mom. She has kept her daughter's earliest creative writings, including Garbage Can, a story written in second grade about a puppy and a raccoon stuck in a garbage can. An avid reader, Kate Reynolds said she began writing at a young age because she was inspired by the Harriet the Spy children's books. "I wanted to be Harriet the Spy when I was 8," she said. "I tried the whole spying thing around my neighborhood. It didn't work out, but I kept the journal and kept observing and writing things down." Julie Gilbert, an author and the Kravis Center's professional playwright in residence, praised Reynolds' work. "Kate's play is very well done," Gilbert said. "She was successful at creating a play in which the character is very likable. It has a lot of humor in it and is never preachy." As part of the Playwright Discovery Program, Gilbert instructed high school teachers in playwriting so they could teach their students for the contest. More than 50 Palm Beach County high school students participated. Gilbert also helped both select the winning plays and the young playwrights polish their work. The winners will be submitted to the national contest for a chance to be performed next year at The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. Reynolds said she already feels rewarded because she succeeded in showing just how capable people with disabilities are. "People with autism have a wide range of capabilities," Reynolds said. "My character can hold a job and he is very high functioning. He proves that the disability doesn't necessarily define the person." * * * COMMENTARY Time to Eliminate the National Vaccine Injury Act? By Sherri Tenpenny, DO The most recent drug debacle surrounding Vioxx lays bare the irresponsible actions of Merck. The FDA estimates that more than 27,000 cases of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death occurred in the USA between 1999 and 2003 due to Vioxx. [1] Could this be a direct result of Merck changing its core values from "People above Profits" [2] to "profits above all else"? Already feeling the economic hit as stock values tumble, more bloodletting is bound to follow as the lawsuits filed against Merck start pouring in. Merck's likely litigation bill is targeted to be a staggering US$10-15billion.[3] Highlights from a recent editorial in the Lancet [4] regarding Merck and the FDA include the following statements: ".[the Vioxx issue] points to astonishing failures in Merck's internal systems of post-marketing surveillance, as well as lethal weaknesses in the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory oversight." "But, too often, the FDA sees and continues to see the pharmaceutical industry as its customer-a vital source of funding for its activities-and not as a sector of society in need of strong regulation." "For with Vioxx, Merck and the FDA acted out of ruthless, short-sighted and irresponsible self-interest." Merck certainly should be held accountable for its actions, which includes a multi-year cover-up of known dangers regarding its high dollar-producing drug, Vioxx. Hopefully, the ensuing punitive damages will send a chilling message to all drug manufacturers, putting them on notice that cover-ups are eventually uncovered, and profits gained deceptively are ultimately lost. But what about being held responsible for cover ups and damages caused by other products? Shouldn't Merck, along with other vaccine manufacturers, be held accountable for damages caused by vaccines? Admittedly, vaccines are known to have problems. The CDC's introductory statement regarding the general use of vaccines states, "[Both] benefits and risks are associated with using all immunobiologics. No vaccine is completely safe nor 100% effective." [5] But is admitting that vaccines have problems justification for continuing to use a vaccine shown to be associated with serious consequences? Case in point: It has been estimated that the hepatitis B vaccine is associated with a threefold increase in the incidence of MS within the three years following vaccination. [6] Merck, the vaccine's manufacturer, must be acutely aware of this study. Or, is imperfection a justification for careless execution? Case in point: This year's flu vaccine was found to be contaminated with the bacteria, Serratia marcescens. And there is evidence to suggest that last year's flu vaccine may also have been contaminated and passed on to the general public. [7, 8] Or, is the real reason that vaccine manufacturers appear unconcerned about vaccine injuries due to the protection conferred by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Act (NVICA)? The NVICA, a "no-fault" compensation system, was passed in 1986 to shield the pharmaceutical industry from civil litigation due to problems associated with vaccines. Under the law, families of vaccine-injured persons are required to file a petition which may be heard by a Special Master in the vaccine court. Successful claims are paid from a Trust Fund that is managed by the Department of Health and Human Services, with Justice Department attorneys acting as the legal representatives of the Fund. Sadly, it is estimated that less than 25% of those who qualify for a hearing actually receive compensation. + Complete commentary with references here: [The opinions expressed in commentaries are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Schafer Autism Report.] * * * LETTERS More Clear Blue Water Regarding this new comic, a cursory Google search would have resulted in anyone being able to read the artist's bio and see that she has an autistic child. Personally, I think if anyone subscribing to this newsletter didn't go through all sorts of turmoil whilst getting their child's diagnosis, then good for them. But I know that the storyline I have thus far followed closely mirrors the events in my family when we were getting my son's diagnosis. Let's all watch and see how she does with this storyline. -Shannon T. Ahern _______________________________________________________ LOOKING FOR SOMETHING - ANYTHING - ABOUT AUTISM? Search The Most Complete Autism News & Info Database The Schafer Autism Report -- Updated Fresh Daily ________________________________________________________ COPYRIGHT NOTICE: The above items are copyright protected. They are for our readers' personal education or research purposes only and provided at their request. Articles may not be further reprinted or used commercially without consent from the copyright holders. To find the copyright holders, follow the referenced website link provided at the beginning of each item. _________________________________________________________________ Lenny Schafer, Editor Edward Decelie Debbie Hosseini Richard Miles Ron Sleith Kay Stammers _______________________________________________ SAReport mailing list You can unsubscribe at: You can change your options at: delivered to:  [ send green star]
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