"Preservation of Kiowa culture and history. Documentation of historic sites relevant to the historic nomadic Kiowa prior to 1900."
Carnegie, OK, USA
male, age 65
divorced, 3 children
Joined Aug 25, 2006
My Page Billboard
TWO HUNDRED YEARS IN INFAMY
During the 17th Century, and even before that period, the historic Kiowa had lived on the Great Plains of North America. This has been documented by the Smithsonian ethnologist James Mooney and recorded in his book "Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians". After Mooney's careful documentation of the Kiowa, gathered from personal interviews of the Kiowa themselves in and around Anadarko, OK during the early 1890s, his study of the Kiowa's residence on the northern Great Plains was later published in the "Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology" and printed by the Washington D.C. Government Printing Office copywrited in 1898. (1)
As shown by James Mooney, there was an historic Kiowa. Therefore, if there was an historic Kiowa then there certainly was an archaic Kiowa, and certainly a paleo-Kiowa. What is known about the history of the Kiowa is aptly documented in Mooney's study which places the Kiowa in the northern Rocky Mountains in what is known as the "Kootenai Region" of the Idaho panhandle. This residence was prior to their stay in the "Three Rivers" region of Montana. But, even before this period Kiowa oral tradition may have placed them throughout the southern Great Plains, the Four Corners Region, the Great Basin Region, and all throughout the northern Great Plains which for a supposed horseless culture must have seemed vast and endless.
"The leading facts in the traditional history of the Kiowa are those of their early residence at the extreme head of the Missouri and their subsequent removal to the east and alliance with the Crows. It is impossible to assign any definite date to this early migration from the mountain country, but it was probably about or before 1700." - Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians
Suffice it to say that the historic and archiac Kiowa had always lived on or near the Great Plains; had been engaged in a vast migration from the Great Plains of Canada, through the Mississippi Valley, into the Great Plains of the continental United States; and according to oral tradition had undertaken an epic expedition traveling from the North Pole to the South Pole venturing through Central and South America in the fullfillment of their destiny. But as the saying goes, I'm getting a little behind myself. (O.T.)
Oral tradition was the primary means of documenting and communicating past tribal events for nearly all the tribal groups prior to the advent of the methods used by the white culture to communicate, principally reading and writing. Eventually, native people were indoctrinated into these methods by the dominant society by way of governmental decree through government and mission school systems. However, before the Kiowa were exposed to the dominant culture's assimilation process they used a different means of communication during their life on the Great Plains.
Aside from oral tradition the Kiowa used pictographic writing or what anthropologist have termed "Pictographic Winter Counts". For the historic Kiowa these documents told of significant tribal events as they migrated from one encampment site to the next while recording important social and political events that occurred within the tribe or to the tribe.
The question might be asked, "Why does an ancient society or a contemporary society want to document their past?" Isn't it enough to just live your life and to just take care of your own little corner of the world?
Leaving historical records began eons ago with the Sumerian culture in hieroglyphic writings left on clay tablets and ancient walls. The first four chapters of the Holy Bible are called "The Gospel" and were originally written on papyrus. However, the influence of The Gospel spread throughout the entire world. All ancient writings were meant to document man's communication with his creator and the Creator's "original instructions". Today, we have daily periodicals which detail every facet of the society in which we live. We all know that communication is vital. Therefore, in regards to native pictographic writing, it can literally be said that a picture is worth a thousand words.
The only other plains tribal group which used so-called winter counts were the Sioux (The term Sioux being the catch-all word for the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota people). The Sioux were essentially new arrivals onto the Northern Plains during the last part of the 18th Century and it is debatable whether they came by the practice of using winter counts until after their arrival on the Plains. By way of their own tribal pictographic winter counts the Sioux recorded the "discovery" of the Black Hills to not have occurred for the Tribe until 1775. The most notable of these artifacts being the "American Horse" winter count. (2)
Also, the question arises which tribe's use of winter counts and chronology of events is older and more accurate? The following is Mooney's comment on the Kiowa vs. the Sioux pictographic winter counts:
"In all these Dakota calendars there is only a single picture for each year, with nothing to mark the division of summer and winter. As they call a year a "winter", and as your year begins in the middle of winter, it is consequently impossible, without some tally date from our own records, to know in which of two consecutive years any event occurred, i.e., whether before or after New Year. In this respect the Kiowa calendars, here published, are much superior to those of the Dakota." - James Mooney, Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians
Mooney makes a fine point. In the Kiowa Little Bear Pictographic Calendar summer and winter are designated with a figure of the "Ka-do" (Sundance Lodge) for the summer months while the winter months were designated with a vertical bar. The format used by Little Bear to suggest yearly passage of time suggests a "profound association" with the Kiowa Sundance which permeated their daily lives--an association which can be thought of as being deeply traditional. In fact, it can be said that the Kiowa were so culturally, sociologically, and spiritually devoted to the practice of their faith and religion that their identity as Kiowa is derived from the practice of their beliefs.
Furthermore, it is the belief of the writer that the Sundance of the Plains, which was usually held around the summer solstice, was born out of the culture of the historic Kiowa who brought their religion with them when they migrated up from the Four Corners area and then introduced the Sundance onto the Northern Plains.
If the Sioux, who were authors of dozens and dozens of pictographic winter counts, were the originators of the Sundance why did they not use a significant tribal event, such as the Sundance, to represent summer in their calendars? Some of the Sioux pictographic winter count keepers were "American Horse", "Rosebud", "Swift Bear", "Battiste Good", "Iron Shell", "Wounded Bear", just to name a few. Even so, of the numerous Sioux calendars not one of its keepers thought to use this format to represent the passage of time.
Historically and culturally, the Black Hills was an ancient landmark which seemed to resonant thoroughly and completely with the spirit and identity of the historic Kiowa. It was a "sacred landmark" (traditional cultural property in today's terms) which was held in reverence and respected by its original stewards. It was an ancient land invested with their stories of creation. It was a holy place, the ground of which was anointed with their tears, their prayers, their offerings, and the remains of their people. The Kiowa called it "Saudle-Khoye-Kxope". (3)
During the 1790s the Kiowa were driven out of this sacred land through warfare and eventually came to the North Platt River. Here, they took an inventory of their situation. Shown no mercy by the Sioux, a band of their people who chose to make a stand, rather than leave the land of their ancestors, had fought valiantly but were overrun and wiped out. The Sioux far out-numbered any one tribe. The Kiowa had been part of a six nation confederacy which included the Crow, Hidatsa, Mandan, Arikara, Kiowa-Apache, and themselves. Even with all these tribal groups combined the Sioux easily out-numbered them 2 to 1.
This was the era of the so-called "Cold Kiowa" [T'o-kyahu'] and the "Warm Kiowa" [Tsadlek'ihu or Guhale]. (4) A group led by the Kiowa "Gui-Kau" [Wolf Lying Down] (5) came onto the Southern Plains settling around the headwaters of the Arkansas River and encountered the Comanche, Mescalero, and Jicarilla.
After several years of conflict the Southern Kiowa finally made peace with the Comanche near present day Las Vegas, NM in 1807 through treaty negotiations supported by Spanish Governor Joequin del Real Alencaster and facilitated by interpreter Juan Lucero. This Southern Kiowa group, therefore, became known as the Guhale (Goo-ha-lee) band.
The Northern Kiowa continued to stay on the North Platt River preferring to remain near the Black Hills. They continued their cultural association with the Crow exchanging children who would be returned to their respective parents the following year. (6) It was here where the Kiowa were camped when the Lewis and Clark expedition and the Corp of Discovery traveled up the Missouri River eventually encountering the Sioux in 1804.
Congratulations, we have reached the topic of this discourse.
In numerous Sioux pictographic winter counts an incident is recorded and determined to have taken place in 1814 near a landmark known as Scotts Bluff in western Nebraska. It is an historical event which the Sioux have entitled "Wita Pahantu wan kahuhu gape" [Kiowa. They clubbed him.] (7) It has also been called "Crushed a Witapanhatu's [Kiowa's] head". (8)
In 1814 a group of Kiowa met with the Sioux near Scotts Bluff to ask for peace. The purpose for the peace treaty with the Sioux was for the Kiowa to remain near the sacred Black Hills. A leader of the Kiowa was addressing the leaders of the Sioux. According to the various pictographs commemorating the incident the treaty did not have the desired results which the Kiowa wanted. In several of the Sioux winter counts the incident shows the image of a man being struck on the top of his head from behind by a club or a hatchet.
There isn't much else known about what occurred seconds after the infamous act but one can imagine that all hell must have broke loose. (Excuse the phrasing.)
However, one thing is known about the Kiowa leader who was assaulted. He was not killed. He actually survived the attack. His name was "Tdo-hau" who was the father of the renowned Kiowa leader "Dohason". (9)
This act of treachery by the Sioux convinced the Northern Kiowa that there could be no peace. The Kiowa moved to the South Platt River for a time before finally joining the Southern Kiowa along the Arkansas River. (5)
It is an interesting cultural and historical footnote that the Sioux referred to the Kiowa as "Wita Pahantu". Wita Pahantu means "Island People" or "Black Hills People". From several miles away, on the plains of South Dakota, the Sioux had described the Black Hills as appearing like an "Island" on the rolling plains. (10)
During the infamous Cut-Throat Mountain Massacre of 1833 in the Wichita Mountains of southwest Oklahoma--where the Osage killed and decapitated several Kiowa women, children, and old people--the principal Kiowa leader of the time was said to have fled from the enemy and was later deposed for his cowardness. The great Dohason was selected to replace him. This man who fled from the enemy was called "Au-jau-je" or "Island Man". (11)
The Kiowa are not the only tribal group displaced from their homeland. The Delaware, the Cherokee, the Fort Sill Apache, the Kickapoo were all torn from their mother's womb as aborted fetus'. Yet, there is one undeniable truth. The spirit of our ancestors still reside in these ancient homelands and in the sacred sites of our people. We may not have the legal right to walk these lands but our inherent rights cannot and are not extinguished. They live on as long as we know who we are as a people, understanding the ways of our ancestors, and why they viewed their association with the earth as sacred. The Kiowa have had an old saying. "Behold, I stand in good relation with all things". (O.T.)
In closing, "...for the sacred finally transcends definition. The mind does not comprehend it; it is at last to be recognized and acknowledged in the heart and soul. Those who seek to study or understand the sacred in academic terms are misled. The sacred is not a discipline. It is a dimension beyond the ordinary and beyond the mechanics of analysis. For those who come to the sacred, to sacred ground, it is a kind of mystical experience, a deep and singular encounter." - N. Scott Momaday
Even after 200 years the Saudle-Khoye-Kxope Kxai-Khoam-Baw (3) [Black Hills People] have not forgotten.
1. Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians - James Mooney
2. The Sioux: Life and Customs of a Warrior Society - Royal B. Hasserick
3. Thaum Khoiye Tdoen Gyah: Beginning Kiowa Language - Alecia Keahbone Gonzales
4. Kintadl, informant - Jane Richardson, recorder for the Weston La Barre Manuscript
5. Atwater Onco
6. Lavern Satepeahtaw
7. The Wounded Bear Winter Count - Stephen E. Feraca
8. Inconstant Companions: Archaeology & North American Indian Oral Traditions - Ronald J. Mason
9. Modine Toppah Waters
10. Elaine Quiver
11. Parker McKenzieO.T. - Oral Tradition
(Dedicated to the memory of Grace Lone Bear Tsonetokoy, Linda Tsonetokoy, and Leona "Babe" Tahlo Geimahsaddle.)
Printed in the Anadarko Daily News. August 6. 2014.
||Carnegie-- the Kiowa Capital of the World
Oct 05, 1948
||An observer and a critic I guess. I very rarely become involved unless the situation affects me or my brood directly. I depend on people possessing the intelligence to always do the right thing. Most of the time I'm disappointed but no matter what happens it doesn't prevent me from keeping the faith.
NOT SYMPATHETIC TOWARD THE HOMOSEXUAL LIFESTYLE.
||Introduce yourself to Dewey
No personal pets
Christian - Methodist
Meat and Potatoes
|Wild Fact About Me
||That I'm not going to be everyone's "cup of tea". I've been called a purist, a stinker, a historian, a SOB, a medicineman, a wanker, a renaissance man, a jackass, a tower of strength, a vagabond, a prince, a martyr, Sheherezad, a rock star, and even Jesus. I am none of these.
||My late father had a favorite saying which I have adopted: "Tell it like it is." I have also adopted other adages such as, "If you talk the talk you had better walk the walk", also, "Credit must be put where credit is due". All other wisdoms proceed from these.
|What Gives Me Hope
||That one day I won't have to live in such a corrupt world.
|If I were Mayor, I'd make the world a better place by
||This question asked if I was President.--Send all the non-native people in America back to their lands of origins then erect a thousand foot high wall around the country's perimeter. Or, make it possible for space travel so that all non-natives can leave to settle other planets and leave this world to its native people--All I really want is to just take care of my own little acre of the world.
|What/who changed my life and why
||Event: Attending the National Indian Youth Council in 1969 & receiving my traditional Kiowa name in 1972. Book: "The Holy Bible". Movie: "Flap" with Anthony Quinn. Person(s): My Auntie & Uncle. Because: Each helped me to define who I was and the world in which I had to live.
|What Bugs Me
Non-Indians posing as urban-medicinemen,
That in '06 America still doesn't get it,
Sport teams that use Indian mascots,
Being called "chief",
Geico's Caveman ad.It's based on Indians,
Non-Kiowa plagerzing our culture/history
Trips to Wyoming and Montana,
Trips to Hueco Tanks,
Texas iceberg Pepsi or Coke,
Skillet popped popcorm w/ real butter,
Black Cow sucker,
Napping near a windy window,
Winning free spins on my favorite slot,
Cherry spots on wooden stove
Seeing dedication embodied in people,
Seeing the Creator working in my life,
Natural landmarks and natural events,
Elder saying that they want to go home
|What Scares Me
That one day all my elders will be gone,
Being here for the end of the world,
Violence of the so-called rap culture,
Stupidity of America to perpetuate rap,
The arrogance of the Euro-American
People standing up for their people,
People preserving their unique cultures,
People who live their lives tradittional,
People who know themselves,
accept themselves for who they are
||"More Trees--Less Bush"
Indian Givers-Jack Weatherford,
Remember We Are Kiowas-Tocakut,
When The Legends Die-Hal Borland,
In The Spirit Of Crazy Horse-Matthiesson,
The Vanishing Whiteman-Stan Steiner,
Nobody Loves A Drunken Indian-C.Huffaker
Stevie Ray Vaughn,
No Country For Old Men,
Defending Your Life,
The Station Agent,
Last of the Mohicans,
Last of the Dogmen,
Fried Pork Chops,
Club Steaks-well done.,
Beans w/ hamhocks &,
Black Walnut Ice Cream,
Any site or place that draws my spirit
|Can't Live Without
||Introduce yourself to Dewey
It's easy to embed a video hosted by one of the following sites on your
MyPage. Simply add the URL of the video you want to share, from one of
• Google Video
• MySpace Videos
Hit the "edit" button on the "My Video"
module. and add the URL of the video you want to share. Not
sure what the URLs look like? Here are examples from each of the