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May 29, 2013

THE ENDANGERED SPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA
North America is a large continent with very specific habitats of endangered species. Although it may seem that there a an abundance of one species, it may well be that the various habitats have sub-species of one name, e.g. a wolf. If wolves seem to a common species as nationwide, it is much more complicated.

PART II

THE HISTORY OF EXTINCTION IN NORTH AMERICA

Source: Endangered Species Handbook:

Plants

Extinctions of plants and trees can have a direct impact on human society. A sap found in 1997 by Dr. John Burley, research director of Harvard University's Arnold Arboretum, was tested by the National Cancer Institute and determined to be 100 percent effective in preventing cell replication of the AIDS virus. The plant sample came from an ancient swamp forest tree in Sarawak, a Malaysian state on the island of Borneo. When Dr. Burley returned to the spot a year later for another specimen from the tree, only a stump remained, and no other trees of the same species could be found. The substance is being reproduced synthetically, but it is not known whether it will be as effective as the original compound.

Plant extinctions have accelerated in the past few centuries. An estimated 5,050 taxa of plants, including species, varieties and other taxonomic groups, have become extinct worldwide since 1700, according to Ghillean T. Prance of the Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. This implies at least 17 plants have been lost per year since 1700. Yet however high this rate appears to be, it is probably a low estimate. A 1998 study by botanists Kerry S. Walter and Harriet J. Gillett for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) found that 380 species, a number that does not include varieties and other taxa, have recently become extinct.

Near Centinela Ridge is Rio Palenque; once an extensive cloud forest, it is now diminished. Cloud forests are found in tropical Asia, Africa and Latin America. These ecosystems shelter such rarities as the iridescent green and red resplendent quetzal of Central America, but this ecosystem has nearly disappeared.

Introduction of alien species of plants can overwhelm native species and cause their extinction. Plants have also disappeared as a result of pollution in the form of acid rain caused by power plant emissions, heavy metal (especially lead) accumulations and other toxins in the air.

Common Name Range ***

Acritodon nephophilus Mexico

Adiantum spp. Puerto Rico

Aegiphila spp. (3) Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

Alabama Canebrake Pitcher-plant Alabama

Alabama Leather Flower Alabama

Albizia spp. Mexico

Aleutian Shield Fern Alaska

Alfaroa spp. Mexico

Allenanthus hondurensis Honduras, Mexico

Amargosa Niterwort California, Nevada

American Chaffseed Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia

American Mahogany Central and South America, Florida

Andira galeottiana Mexico

Antioch Dunes Evening-primrose California

Antirhea spp. (3) Mexico, Puerto Rico

Apalachicola Rosemary Florida

Applegate's Milk-vetch Oregon

Ariocarpus bravoanus Mexico

Arizona Cliff-rose Arizona

Arizona Hedgehog Cactus Arizona

Artichoke Cactus Mexico

Ashy Dogweed Texas

Autumn Buttercup Utah

Baker's Cypress California, Oregon

Baker's Larkspur California

Banara spp. Puerto Rico

Barneby Reed-mustard Utah

Beach Jacquemontia Florida

Beach Layia California

Beautiful Goetzea Puerto Rico

Beautiful Pawpaw Florida

Bedstraw (2) California

Ben Lomond Spineflower California

Ben Lomond Wallflower California

Berberis spp. (2) California

Beruquillo Puerto Rico

Betula spp. Virginia

Big Leaf Mahogany Central America, North America, South America

Big-cone Pinyon Mexico

Bitterwood Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Venezuela

Black Lace Cactus Texas

Blowout Penstemon Nebraska

Boreal Felt Lichen Canada

Bradshaw's Desert-parsley Oregon, Washington

Brady Pincushion Cactus Arizona

Braun's Rock-cress Kentucky, Tennessee

Braunton's Milk-vetch California

Bristlecone Pine California, Nevada, Utah

Britton's Beargrass Florida

Brooksville Bellflower Florida

Brunfelsia spp. Puerto Rico

Bully Tree (5) Guatemala, Mexico

Bunched Arrowhead North Carolina, South Carolina

Burke's Goldfields California

Buxus spp. Puerto Rico

California Jewelflower California

California Orcutt Grass California

California Seablite California

California Taraxacum California

Calistoga Allocarya California

Cana Gorda Girdlepod Puerto Rico, Saba

Canby's Dropwort Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina

Canelo Hills Ladies'-tresses Arizona

Capa rosa Puerto Rico

Caper Shrub Mexico

Carex spp. (2) California, North Carolina

Carter's Mustard Florida

Catalina Island Mountain-Mahogany California

Celtis spp. Mexico, Texas

Central American Walnut Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua

Ceratozamia spp. (17) Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Chase's Threeawn Puerto Rico

Chiangiodendron mexicanum Mexico

Chihuahua Spruce Mexico

Chrysophyllum spp. Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

Chupacallos Puerto Rico

Cigar-box Wood Central America, North America, South America

Clara Hunt's Milk-vetch California

Clay Phacelia Utah

Clay-loving Wild-buckwheat Colorado

Clover Lupine California

Coachella Valley Milk-vetch California

Coast Redwood California, Oregon

Coastal Dunes Milk-vetch California

Cobana Negra Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

Coccoloba spp. (2) Mexico, Puerto Rico

Commoner Lignum Vitae Central and South America, Puerto Rico, Thailand, Virgin Islands (British and U

Contra Costa Goldfields California

Contra Costa Wallflower California

Cook's Lomatium Oregon

Cooley's Meadowrue Florida, North Carolina

Cordia spp. (3) Central America, North America

Cornus spp. Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama

Coryphantha spp. (8) Arizona, Mexico, New Mexico, Texas

Coussarea spp. Mexico

Coyote Ceanothus California

Crenulate Lead-plant Florida

Crotalaria spp. Florida

Cushenbury Milk-vetch California

Cushenbury Oxytheca California

Cushion Buckwheat California, Nevada

Cyathea spp. Puerto Rico

Cymbopetalum spp. Mexico

Dahlia Cactus Mexico

Dalea spp. Alabama, Illinois, Tennessee

Daphnopsis spp. Puerto Rico

Davis' Green Pitaya Texas

Decazyx spp. Honduras, Mexico

Del Mar Manzanita California, Mexico

Deltoid Spurge Florida

Dendropanax spp. Honduras, Mexico

Dioon spp. (10) Mexico

Diospyros spp. (2) Mexico

Donrichard Moss Texas

Dwarf Bear-poppy Utah

Elaeagia spp. Mexico

Erigeron spp. Oregon

Erythrina spp. (2) Mexico, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

Eschweilera spp. Mexico

Escobaria aguirreana Mexico

Etonia Rosemary Florida

Eugenia spp. (7) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico

Eureka Dune Grass California

Eureka Valley Evening-primrose California

Few-flowered Navarretia California

Fig Tree Mexico

Flordia Torreya Florida, Georgia

Florida Golden Aster Florida

Florida Perforate Cladonia Florida

Florida Yew Florida

Fountain Thistle California

Four-petal Pawpaw Florida

Fragrant Prickly-apple Florida

Franklin Tree Georgia

Fraser Fir North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia

Fringe Tree Florida

Frye's Limbella Moss Oregon

Furbish Lousewort Canada (New Brunswick), Maine

Furry Hesper Palm Mexico

Gambel's Watercress California

Garrett's Mint Florida

Gaussia gomez-pompae Mexico

Gavilan Blanco Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama

Gaviota Tarplant California

Gentian Pinkroot Alabama, Florida

Gentner's Fritillary Oregon

Geothallus tuberosus California

Giant Sequoia United States (California)

Gilia California

Ginoria nudiflora Mexico

Golden Barrel Mexico

Gowen Cypress California

Green Pitcher-plant Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee

Greene's Tuctoria California

Gregg's Pine Mexico

Guadalupe Island Cypress California, Mexico

Guadalupe Palm Mexico

Guatemalan Fir El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico

Guthrie's Ground-plum Tennessee

Hairy Orcutt Grass California

Hairy Rattleweed Georgia

Hampea spp. (2) Mexico

Harper's Beauty Florida

Harperella Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia

Hartweg's Golden Sunburst California

Hedyosmum spp. Guatemala, Mexico

Henriettea spp. Puerto Rico

Hickel's Fir Mexico

Hickman's Potentilla California

Higuero de sierra Puerto Rico

Hoffmann's Rock-cress California

Holly (4) Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico

Holmgren Milk-vetch Arizona, Utah

Holy Ghost Ipomopsis New Mexico

Holywood Lignum Vitae Central and South America, Florida, Mexico, Puerto Rico

Honduras Mahogany Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

Howell's Spineflower California

Huachuca Water-umbel Arizona, Mexico

Hyperbaena spp. Mexico

Indian Knob Mountain Balm California

Inga spp. (6) Mexico

Ione Buckwheat California

Island Malacothrix California

Island Phacelia California

Jaffueliobryum arsenei Mexico

Jamaican Broom Puerto Rico

Jatropha spp. (2) Mexico

Jesup's Milk-vetch New Hampshire, Vermont

Johnston's Frankenia Mexico (Nuevo Leon), Texas

Juniper (6) Guatemala, Mexico

Kansas Aschisma Moss Kansas

Kearney's Blue-star Arizona

Keck's Checker-mallow California

Kern Mallow California

Kneeland Prairie Penny-cress California

Knowlton Cactus Colorado, New Mexico

Kodachrome Bladderpod Utah

Kuenzler Hedgehog Cactus New Mexico

La Graciosa Thistle California

Lake County Stonecrop California

Lakela's Mint Florida

Lancepod (2) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua

Lane Mountain Milk-vetch California

Large-flowered Fiddleneck California

Large-fruited Sand-verbena Texas

Lennea viridiflora Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

Lepidium spp. Utah

Leucaena spp. (5) Mexico

Licaria spp. Mexico

Lidflower (4) British Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

Little Aguja Creek Pondweed Texas

Living Rock Cactus Mexico

Living Stone Cactus Mexico

Llume Palm Puerto Rico

Loch Lomond Coyote Thistle California

Logwood Puerto Rico

Lompoc Yerba Santa California

Longleaf Pine Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia

Longspurred Mint Florida

Luquillo Mountain Babyboot Orchid Puerto Rico

Lyon's Pentachaeta California

Lyonia spp. Puerto Rico

Magnolia (4) Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico

Maiden Fern (3) Puerto Rico

Malheur Wire-lettuce Oregon

Mammillaria spp. (24) Mexico

Mancos Milk-vetch Colorado, New Mexico

Manilkara Tree Puerto Rico

Many-flowered Navarretia California

Mappia racemosa Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Panama, Puerto Rico

Marsh Earwort Austria, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greenland, Korea, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom

Martinez Spruce Mexico

Matudaea trinervia Mexico

Maxwell's Girdlepod Puerto Rico

Maya Palm Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Maytenus spp. (4) Mexico, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands (British and U

McDonald's Rock-cress California

Menzies' Wallflower California

Metcalf Canyon Jewelflower California

Mexican Flannelbush California, Mexico

Mexican Pistachio Guatemala, Mexico

Michigan Monkey-flower Michigan

Milkwood Puerto Rico

Milkwort (2) United States (Florida)

Minnesota Dwarf Trout Lily Minnesota

Monte Guilarte Hollyfern Puerto Rico

Monterey Clover California

Monterey Cypress California

Morefield's Leather Flower Alabama

Mountain Sweet Pitcher-plant North Carolina, South Carolina

Munz's Onion California

Myrcia spp. Puerto Rico

Napa Bluegrass California

Navasota Ladies'-tresses Texas

Nectandra spp. (4) Antigua, Barbuda, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies

Nichol's Turk's Head Cactus Arizona

Nipomo Mesa Lupine California

North Park Phacelia Colorado

Northeastern Bulrush Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia

Northern California Black Walnut California

Ocotea spp. Mexico

Okeechobee Gourd Florida

Orcutt's Spineflower California

Oregon Checker-mallow California

Oreopanax spp. (4) Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico

Osterhout Milk-vetch Colorado

Otay Mesa-mint California, Mexico (Baja California)

Ouratea spp. Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico

Ozobryum ogalalense Kansas

Palmate-bracted Bird's-beak California

Palo de nigua Puerto Rico

Palo de rosa Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico

Pedate Checker-mallow California

Peebles Navajo Cactus Arizona

Pelos del diablo Puerto Rico

Penland Beardtongue Colorado

Pennell's Bird's-beak California

Persea spp. (3) Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

Persistent Trillium Georgia, South Carolina

Peter's Mountain Mallow Virginia

Peyote Mexico

Pilosocereus spp. Cuba, Florida

Pine Hill Ceanothus California

Pine Hill Flannelbush California

Pinus nelsoni Mexico

Pinus tecunumanii Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

Pismo Clarkia California

Pitkin Marsh Lily California

Platanthera spp. Canada, United States

Podocarpus spp. Central America, North America

Pondberry Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina

Populus spp. North America (Mexico)

Port Orford Cedar California, Oregon

Potosi Pinyon Mexico

Pouteria Tree (4) Central America, North America

Presidio Clarkia California

Presidio Manzanita California

Prickly Pear (4) California, Mexico

Prunus spp. North America

Psidium spp. Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico Helmet Orchid Puerto Rico

Quercus spp. (32) Alabama, Arkansas, Belize, California, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Honduras, Louisiana, Mexico, Mississippi, Nicaragua, Oklahoma, Panama, South Carolina, Texas

Quillwort (3) Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina

Radiator Plant Puerto Rico

Recchia simplicifolia Mexico

Relict Trillium Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina

Rhododendron spp. Florida

Rhus spp. United States (GA, NC, SC, VA)

Rinorea spp. Mexico

Roan Mountain Bluet North Carolina, Tennessee

Robinsonella spp. (3) Mexico

Robust Spineflower California

Rock Gnome Lichen North Carolina, Tennessee

Rondeletia spp. Mexico

Rosewood (2) Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

Rough Popcornflower Oregon

Royal Palmetto Mexico

Roystonea spp. Honduras, Mexico

Rugel's Pawpaw Florida

Running Buffalo Clover Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, West Virginia

Ruth's Golden Aster Tennessee

Rzedowski's Pine Mexico

Sabal gretheriae Mexico

Sacramento Orcutt Grass California

Sacramento Prickly Poppy New Mexico

Salix spp. United States (FL, GA)

Salt Marsh Bird's-beak California, Mexico (Baja California)

San Bernardino Bluegrass California

San Bernardino Mountains Bladderpod California

San Clemente Island Broom California

San Clemente Island Bush-mallow California

San Clemente Island Indian Paintbrush California

San Clemente Island Larkspur California

San Clemente Island Woodland-star California

San Diego Ambrosia California, Mexico

San Diego Button-celery California

San Diego Mesa-mint California

San Francisco Lessingia California

San Jacinto Valley Crownscale California

San Joaquin Wooly-threads California

San Mateo Thornmint California

San Mateo Woolly Sunflower California

San Rafael Cactus Utah

Sandlace Florida

Sandplain Gerardia Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island

Sandwort (2) California, Kentucky, Tennessee

Santa Ana River Woolly-star California

Santa Barbara Island Liveforever California

Santa Catalina Island Manzanita California

Santa Clara Valley Dudleya California

Santa Cruz Cypress California

Santa Cruz Island Bush-mallow California

Santa Cruz Island Fringepod California

Santa Cruz Island Malacothrix California

Santa Cruz Island Rock-cress California

Santa Rosa Island Manzanita California

Santa Rosa Island Pine California

Sapium spp. Mexico

Saurauia spp. (5) Guatemala, Mexico

Schoepfia spp. Puerto Rico

Schweinitz's Sunflower North Carolina, South Carolina

Scotts Valley Polygonum California

Scrub Blazingstar Florida

Scrub Lupine Florida

Scrub Mint Florida

Sebastopol Meadowfoam California

Visibility: Everyone
Posted: Wednesday May 29, 2013, 2:13 am
Tags: animals human nature wildlife protective an destruction and endangered environmental threatened global warming conservation fossil fuel risks preservation Environment. habtats legislationd [add/edit tags]

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