This article tells me that the origins of FGM, as well as the male counterpart, are in slavery.
It also says that it surives as a "family practice."
I am concluding that families are practing "human captial," that is treating their family members as assets-- physical objects-- capital assets.
This dispels the concept that FGM is a male-oriented domination strategy.
What this does prove is that roots of family abuse is ancient indeed !!
I think it is time to throw away the supposedly well intentioned stupidity that is really a red herring deployed to protect the family control strategies.
The origin of Female Genital Mutilation
According to some experts, excision dates back to ancient Egypt but
was also practiced on slaves in ancient Rome, and was viewed as an
expression of the right of property on the slave’s body. Infibulation
was also found in Rome, though originally performed only on males. A
sort of pin, fibula, was applied to young men to keep them from having
sexual relations. Female infibulation, on the other hand, seems to have
been practiced in Egypt since the Pharaonic era, as suggested by the
name “Pharaonic circumcision”.
Although different theories have been put forward, the real origin
of female genital mutilation remains unknown for now. We do know for
certain that the practice already existed in sub-Saharan and
Central-Eastern Africa well before the spread of Christian or Islam
religions and that, consequently, there are no links at all between the