I am into an array of different things, but My primary issue is Sexual Assault of all facets.
I intend on using this forum to spread important information, as well and personal information I may want to share. If I run across something i feel important, I will post it. Always watch my shares for updates. I tend to do that, and try to fit them on the original post, unless the original post is too long already. I am also avid about the treatrment and disrespect of Ameican Indian people, and support proper education about Indians from Ameican Indians. I had, had a hard life, and am still having a hard life, but I am proud of who I am, and what I have become. In spite of all these bad experiences, I still came out with my head above water, and have no hateful attributes. I still have a heart, but protect it vigeriously. Thank you for your time and taking an interest in me.
Kicka aka Regina
P.S. I will also always try to set my shares readible for the vision impaired. If anyone is having trouble reading them, let me know and I will raise the fonts larger.
Civilian grave diggers bury the Lakota dead in a mass grave. Ask a Jew if this look Familiar to them.
The Wounded Knee Massacre White officials became alarmed at the religious fervor and activism and in December 1890 banned the Ghost Dance on Lakota reservations. When the rites continued, officials called in troops to Pine Ridge and Rosebud reservations in South Dakota. The military, led by veteran General Nelson Miles, geared itself for another campaign.
The presence of the troops exacerbated the situation. Short Bull and Kicking Bear led their followers to the northwest corner of the Pine Ridge reservation, to a sheltered escarpment known as the Stronghold. The dancers sent word to Sitting Bull of the Hunkpapas to join them. Before he could set out from the Standing Rock reservation in North Dakota, however, he was arrested by Indian police. A scuffle ensued in which Sitting Bull and seven of his warriors were slain. Six of the policemen were killed.
General Miles had also ordered the arrest of Big Foot, who had been known to live along the Cheyenne River in South Dakota. But, Big Foot and his followers had already departed south to Pine Ridge, asked there by Red Cloud and other supporters of the whites, in an effort to bring tranquility. Miles sent out the infamous Seventh Calvary led by Major Whitside to locate the renegades. They scoured the Badlands and finally found the Miniconjou dancers on Porcupine Creek, 30 miles east of Pine Ridge. The Indians offered no resistance. Big Foot, ill with pneumonia, rode in a wagon. The soldiers ordered the Indians to set up camp five miles westward, at Wounded Knee Creek. Colonel James Forsyth arrived to take command and ordered his guards to place four Hotchkiss cannons in position around the camp. The soldiers now numbered around 500; the Indians 350, all but 120 of these women and children.
The following morning, December 29, 1890, the soldiers entered the camp demanding the all Indian firearms be relinquished. A medicine man named Yellow Bird advocated resistance, claiming the Ghost Shirts would protect them. One of the soldiers tried to disarm a deaf Indian named Black Coyote. A scuffle ensued and the firearm discharged. The silence of the morning was broken and soon other guns echoed in the river bed. At first, the struggle was fought at close quarters, but when the Indians ran to take cover, the Hotchkiss artillery opened up on them, cutting down men, women, children alike, the sick Big Foot among them. By the end of this brutal, unnecessary violence, which lasted less than an hour, at least 150 Indians had been killed and 50 wounded. In comparison, army casualties were 25 killed and 39 wounded. Forsyth was later charged with killing the innocents, but exonerated.
Here Chief Big Foot lies in frozen state
Here Stands one of the Proud Soldiers gazing at his accomplishments, and only thinking about the medal of honor he will recieve for murdering innocent women, children, and frail Elders. You can be sure he had a Bible in his saddle bag, even if he couldn't read it. The US Government STILL to this day, calls this a Battle.
Born: 20 December 1946-New York, New York, USA Death: 16 December 2005-Los Angeles, California, USA. At 58 from a Heart Attack
[ John was the only son of a lower middle-class family. His father, John Speshock, was a truck driver. His mother, Mildred, was a homemaker and an occasional waitress. He grew up near Paterson, New Jersey, but left at age 16 to attend the Professional Children's School. In 1963, he landed a recurring role on "The Patty Duke Show" (1963). After that ended, he attended Fairleigh Dickenson University and later New York University, but dropped out to return to acting. John had been an acknowledged alcoholic, who remained sober ever since getting therapy. He had quit smoking in 1999, which he described as "hell on earth".]
LOS ANGELES -John Spencer, who played a tough and dedicated politico on "The West Wing" who survived a serious illness to run for vice president, died of a heart attack Friday. He was 58.
Spencer died after being admitted to a Los Angeles hospital during the night, said his publicist, Ron Hofmann. He would have been 59 on Tuesday.
He was "one of those rare combinations of divinely gifted and incredibly generous," said Richard Schiff, who plays Toby Ziegler on the NBC series.
"There are very few personal treasures that you put in your knapsack to carry with you for the rest of your life, and he's one of those," Schiff said. He said Spencer had been struggling with health issues but seemed to have rebounded.
Spencer played Leo McGarry, the savvy and powerful chief of staff to President Josiah "Jed" Bartlet (Martin Sheen). In a sad parallel to life, Spencer's character suffered a heart attack that forced him to give up his White House job.
McGarry recovered and was picked as a running mate for Democratic presidential contender Matt Santos, played by Jimmy Smits; the campaign against Republican Arnold Vinick (Alan Alda) has been a central theme for the drama this season.
"John was an uncommonly good man, an exceptional role model and a brilliant actor," said Aaron Sorkin, who created the series, and Tommy Schlamme, one of the original executive producers, in a joint statement.
"We feel privileged to have known him and worked with him. He'll be missed and remembered every day by his many, many friends," they said.
Actress Allison Janney, C.J. Cregg on the series, described Spencer as a consummate professional actor. "Everyone adored him," she said.
"We have all lost a dear, dear brother," said Bradley Whitford, who plays Josh Lyman.
NBC and producer Warner Bros. Television praised Spencer's talent but did not address how his death would affect the Emmy Award-winning series, in production on its seventh season.
Spencer, who also starred on "L.A. Law" as attorney Tommy Mullaney, received an Emmy Award for his performance on "The West Wing" in 2002 and was nominated four other times for the series.
The actor, whose world-weary countenance was perfect for the role of McGarry, mirrored his character in several ways: Both were recovering alcoholics and both, Spencer once said, were driven.
"Like Leo, I've always been a workaholic, too," he told The Associated Press in a 2000 interview. "Through good times and bad, acting has been my escape, my joy, my nourishment. The drug for me, even better than alcohol, was acting."
Spencer grew up in Paterson, N.J., the son of blue-collar parents. With his enrollment at the Professional Children's School in Manhattan at age 16, he was sharing classes with the likes of Liza Minnelli and budding violinist Pinchas Zukerman.
As a teenager, he landed a recurring role on "The Patty Duke Show" as the boyfriend of English twin Cathy. Stage and film work followed. Then his big break: playing Harrison Ford's detective sidekick in the 1990 courtroom thriller "Presumed Innocent." That role led to his hiring for the final four years of "L.A. Law."
Spencer played a streetwise lawyer on the David E. Kelley drama that was in sharp contrast to the show's otherwise glamorous cast and setting.
After attending the Manhattan performing arts school, Spencer studied at Fairleigh Dickenson University. He then began working on stage in New York and in regional theaters, in plays including David Mamet's "Lakeboat" and Tennessee Williams' "The Glass Menagerie."
Spencer won an Obie Award for the 1981 off-Broadway production of "Still Life," about a Vietnam veteran, and received a Drama Desk nomination for "The Day Room."
His made his feature film debut with a small role in "War Games," which was followed by roles in "Sea of Love" and "Black Rain." Spencer said his work in "Presumed Innocent" represented a "watershed role."
In recent years, he worked both in studio and independent films, including "The Rock," "The Negotiator," "Albino Alligator," "Lesser Prophets" and "Cold Heart."
Spencer, an only child, is survived by "cousins, aunts, uncles, and wonderful friends," Hofmann said.
Actor - filmography
"The West Wing" (1999) TV Series .... Leo McGarry
Ravenous (1999) .... Gen. Slauson ... aka Voraz (Mexico)
LOS ANGELES (AP) Comedian Richard Pryor has died at his home, his ex-wife said Saturday.
Easily the foremost comedian of his generation, Richard Pryor brought a distinctively ribald tradition in African-American comedy to mainstream audiences. Often cited as a major inspiration by a roster of younger black comedy writer-performers (including Eddie Murphy, Keenan Ivory Wayans, Robert Townsend and Martin Lawrence), Pryor's influence has transformed American comedy by expanding
LOS ANGELES - Richard Pryor, the caustic yet perceptive actor-comedian who lived dangerously close to the edge both on stage and off, has died, his ex-wife said Saturday. He was 65.
Pryor died of a heart attack at his home in the San Fernando Valley sometime late Friday or early Saturday, Flyn Pryor said. He had been ill for years with multiple sclerosis, a degenerative disease of the nervous system.
The comedian was regarded early in his career as one of the most foul-mouthed comics in the business, but he gained a wide following for his expletive-filled but universal and frequently personal insights into modern life and race relations.
His audacious style influenced an array of stand-up artists, including Eddie Murphy, Arsenio Hall and Damon Wayans, as well as Robin Williams,David Letterman and others.
A series of hit comedies in the '70s and '80s, as well as filmed versions of his concert performances, helped make him Pryor one of the highest paid stars in Hollywood. He was one of the first black performers to have enough leverage to cut his own Hollywood deals. In 1983, he signed a $40 million, five-year contract with Columbia Pictures.
His films included "Stir Crazy," "Silver Streak," "Which Way Is Up?" and "Richard Pryor Live on the Sunset Strip."
Easily the foremost comedian of his generation, Richard Pryor brought a distinctively ribald tradition in African-American comedy to mainstream audiences. Often cited as a major inspiration by a roster of younger black comedy writer-performers (including Eddie Murphy, Keenan Ivory Wayans, Robert Townsend and Martin Lawrence), Pryor's influence has transformed American comedy by expanding our notions of what may be perceived as funny. Long before the vogue for "performance art", Pryor's material was profane, socially astute and confessional, provoking thought and anger as well as laughter. Though a veteran of 40 films between 1967 and 1991, only his comedy performance films--particularly the first two, "Richard Pryor Live in Concert" (1979) and "Richard Pryor Live on the Sunset Strip" (1982)--accurately conveyed the nature of his genius. A gifted mimic, Pryor often focused on such marginal members of the black community as bums, winos, junkies and street corner philosophers. However, he rarely settled for easy ridicule or condemnation but instead unerringly found the humanity of his characters. His harshest criticism was reserved for his own foibles, be they with drugs, drink or women.
After surviving a childhood that would have given Dickens nightmares (raised in a brothel run by his grandmother where his mother was a prostitute beaten by his ne'er-do-well father; a victim of sexual molestation at age six; abandoned by his mother at age ten; a high school drop-out by 14; a father himself by 17), Pryor began performing stand-up comedy in his native Peoria, IL. He moved to NYC in 1963 and established himself as a successful performer in night clubs and on TV. The young Pryor idolized Bill Cosby and his early stand-up was similarly nice and non-confrontational. Legend has it that, in 1969, he experienced what amounted to a nervous breakdown while performing onstage in Las Vegas. Pryor fled the stage and never performed "safe" comedy again. The following year, Pryor moved to Berkeley, CA, where he became heavily involved in the counterculture and socialized with cutting-edge black writers like Ishmael Reed and Cecil Brown. Pryor reinvented his stand-up routine and went on to win five Grammys for his comedy recordings (reissued on CD in 1995). Unfortunately, his screen career was never as epochal.
After making his feature debut in William Castle's comedy, "The Busy Body" (1967), Pryor gained notice as the militant Stanley X in the teen exploitation classic "Wild in the Streets" (1968). He earned acclaim for his dramatic supporting role as "Piano Man" in "Lady Sings the Blues" (1972) and went on to enliven a host of urban romps such as "Uptown Saturday Night" (1974) and "Car Wash" (1976). Pryor co-scripted the classic Mel Brooks western spoof, "Blazing Saddles" (1974), but lost the promised lead role to Cleavon Little. One of his better comic character roles was playing Negro League ballplayer Charlie Snow in "The Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars and Motor Kings" (1976). African-American director Michael Schultz helmed Pryor's early star vehicles "Greased Lightning", a comedy-drama biopic about black racecar driver Wendell Scott, and "Which Way Is Up?" (both 1977), an American version of Italian director Lina Wertmuller's 1972 comedy "The Seduction of Mimi". Both films were deemed flawed and did disappointing business. He also played the title role in Sidney Lumet's reviled film version of "The Wiz" (1978). Pryor's powerful portrayal of a Detroit auto worker driven to rob his own union in Paul Schrader's "Blue Collar" (also 1978) suggested that his talents would have been better served by more dramatic film roles.
TV was another medium which provided an uncomfortable fit for Pryor. The squeaky clean comic was a regular on "Kraft Summer Music Hall" (NBC, 1966), a family-oriented variety series. Fellow comic Lily Tomlin took a chance and hired the transformed Pryor as a writer and performer for her two acclaimed comedy-variety specials "The Lily Tomlin Show" and "Lily" (both CBS, 1973). The writing team was nominated for an Emmy for the first outing and took home the prize for the second. Pryor received more exposure on two specials starring Flip Wilson in 1974 and 1975. He wrote and hosted his own hilarious showcase, "The Richard Pryor Special?" (NBC, 1977), before being briefly afforded his own comedy-variety series "The Richard Pryor Show" (NBC, 1977). Network interference and disappointing ratings soon sent Pryor back to the movies.
Pryor teamed with Gene Wilder in a series of mild but (initially) popular buddy movies including "Silver Streak" (1976) and "Stir Crazy" (1980). He segued to feature directing with "Richard Pryor Here and Now" (1983), his third and least impressive concert film. Pryor became less active as the 80s progressed, due partly to ongoing substance abuse and personal problems and the serious burns he suffered in 1980 while drinking and freebasing cocaine. Matters were made worse by the onset of multiple sclerosis in 1986 (which he did not publicly acknowledge until 1991). At the peak of his commercial powers, Pryor's choice of material was often appalling but audiences kept coming long after the work warranted attention. He was reportedly paid more ($4 million) for his role in the forgettable "Superman III" (1983) than was the star Christopher Reeve ($3 million). The profoundly insensitive would-be comedy "The Toy" (1982)--in which Pryor became the willing slave of the young son of millionaire Jackie Gleason--was viewed as the artistic nadir of his film acting career.
Ironically, while Pryor points to Walter Hill's lackluster 1985 remake of "Brewster's Millions" as the first film he made totally sober (though some associates claim that the comic was never totally sober), his earlier film appearances in which he was often drunk or stoned were far more compelling. Pryor served as producer, writer, director and star of the semi-autobiographical but highly sanitized "Jo Jo Dancer, Your Life Is Calling" (1986). Critical and commercial reception was lukewarm to what Pryor apparently viewed as his "All That Jazz". By the time of "See No Evil, Hear No Evil" (1989), a limp pairing with Wilder, his reign as a box office champ was definitely over. Later that year, he looked frail and sickly as Eddie Murphy's mentor in "Harlem Nights" (1989). Pryor was paired with Wilder again for "Another You" (1991) but it hardly registered.
Despite persistent rumors of being near death, a broken but unbowed Pryor has remained on the scene to make rare TV guest shots ("Martin", "Chicago Hope") and receive heartfelt tributes from his peers. He co-wrote a memoir of his remarkable life entitled "Pryor Convictions and Other Life Sentences" in 1995. The following year there was even talk of him returning to the screen in several projects at various stages of development.
Children: has seven children by six different women
Daughter: Elizabeth Pryor. born c. 1967
Daughter: Rain Pryor. mother Shelly Bonus; born July 16, 1969; co-star of "Head of the Class"
Daughter: Renee Pryor. born 1957; fathered by Pryor when he was 17
Father: Buck Carter. WWII veteran; married Pryor's mother when Pryor was three; reportedly beat Pryor's mother and other prostitutes; died in 1968
Grandmother: Marie Carter. paternal; one of 21 children; supervised prostitution in a series of brownstones on Peoria's North Washington Street; gained custody of Pryor after mother left
Mother: Gertrude Pryor. left Pryor and his father due to the latter beating her when Pryor was ten years old; died in 1967
Son: Franklin Matthew Mason. born c. 1987; in 1991 court upheld prior decision that Pryor must pay $4,500 in child support for his son by Geraldine Mason
Son: Kelsey Pryor. born c. 1987
Son: Richard Pryor. born c. 1962; mother Patricia Price
Son: Stephen Michael Pryor. born c. 1984
Step-mother: died in 1969
Wife: Deboragh McGuire. fourth wife; married in 1977; divorced in 1978; born c. 1955
Wife: Flynn Pryor. married in October 1986; divorced; remarried on April 1, 1990; slated to produce, direct, write and star in "The Three Muscatels" for Peacock Films; separated; Pryor took out an order of protection against her
Wife: Jennifer Lee. fourth wife; married in 1982; divorced; wrote autobiography, "Tarnished Angel: Surviving in the Dark Curve of Drugs, Violence, Sex and Fame" (1991) in which she claimed that Pryor physically abused her during their 14-month marriage and 14-year relationship (date approxmate)
Wife: Patricia Price. married in 1960; divorced
Wife: Shelly Bonus.
Companion: Geraldine Mason. had one son together in 1987
Companion: Pam Grier. together in the 1970s
1956 As a teen, impregnated his girlfriend (who gave birth to his first daughter); subsequently learned that his father had also been having sex with her (date approximate)
1958 In West Germany with airborne division of US Army; discharged for slashing another soldier with a switchblade
1963 Moved to New York, began performing at "Cafe Wha?" in Greenwich Village
1964 First TV appearance, "On Broadway Tonight", a variety show hosted by Rudy Vallee featuring new talent
1966 Appeared as standup comic on the Johnny Carson, Merv Griffin and Ed Sullivan shows (date approximate)
1967 Film acting debut, "The Busy Body", a comedy directed by William Castle
1968 Gained critical notice as Stanley X in the classic youth exploitation film, "Wild in the Streets"
1969 Reportedly suffered a nervous breakdown of sorts while performing his popular Bill Cosby-like standup routine onstage at the Aladdin Hotel in Las Vegas; fled the building
1970 Moved to Berkeley, CA; began socializing with writers Ishmael Reed and Cecil Brown (date approximate)
1974 First film as screenwriter (with Mel Brooks), "Blazing Saddles"; lost promised lead role to Cleavon Little
1977 Suffered his first heart attack while dallying with a prostitute
1978 Shot up the car of Deboragh McGuire, then his wife, with a gun when she attempted to leave him
1980 "Accidentally" set himself on fire while freebasing cocaine; suffered third-degree burns over half his body; later revealed that he began freebasing again three weeks after leaving the hospital; admitted to Barbara Walters in a 1986 interview that the incident was a suicide attempt
1980 Started his own production company, Indigo, at Columbia Pictures; put Jim Brown, his best friend at the time, in charge (date approximate)
1981 First film as co-producer, "Bustin' Loose"
1983 First film as director, "Richard Pryor Here and Now"
1986 First diagnosed with multiple sclerosis; went public in 1991
1988 Made an abortive attempt to put together a standup routine
1990 Suffered a heart attack on an Australian golf course
1991 Underwent triple-bypass heart surgury
1993 Received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
1995 Appeared with daughter Rain in episode of CBS medical drama "Chicago Hope" as a patient with multiple sclerosis in November
1995 Wrote autobiography "Pryor Convictions"
2003 Hosted "Richard Pryor: I Ain't Dead Yet", featured clips of his concert appearances, recordings and diary excerpts as well as his comic pals
Began performing a more honest, confessional and profane brand of standup comedy
Began performing as nightclub comedian in Peoria's Harold's Club, owned by the most powerful black man in town
Began performing for classmates at age 11
Molested in an alley at age six
Named after a series of "uncles" (actually pimps); raised in a brothel owned by his grandmother; watched his mother perform "tricks" with white men
Performed as professional nightclub drummer from age 7
Set to produce an upcoming biopic based on his life (lensed 2005)
Stage acting debut in little theater production of "Rumpelstiltskin" at age 12
Worked in a meat packinghouse
Wrote TV scripts for "Sanford and Son," "The Flip Wilson Show" and Lily Tomlin specials and Flip Wilson
In this undated photo released by weSPARK, actress Wendie Jo Sperber is seen. Sperber, who starred opposite Tom Hanks on TV's 'Bosom Buddies,' and who in his words became 'a walking inspiration' after she contracted breast cancer, died on Tuesday, Nov. 29, 2005, at her home. She was 46.
LOS ANGELES - Actress Wendie Jo Sperber, who starred opposite Tom Hanks on TV's "Bosom Buddies" and who in his words became "a walking inspiration" after she contracted cancer, has died. She was in her 40s. Sperber died at home Tuesday after an eight-year battle with breast cancer, publicist Jo-Ann Geffen said Wednesday.
A Los Angeles native, Sperber appeared in dozens of television shows and movies, including all three "Back to the Future" films.
Her publicist first said Sperber was 46, but later said she was 43 based on an Internet resource. The Associated Press in September reported Sperber's age as 47.
Sperber also had roles in Steven Spielberg's "1941," Robert Zemeckis' "I Wanna Hold Your Hand," and Neal Israel's "Moving Violations" and "Bachelor Party." Her television credits include "Murphy Brown," "Private Benjamin," "Will & Grace" and "8 Simple Rules for Dating My Teenage Daughter."
After being diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997, the actress became an advocate for cancer care. In 2001, she founded the weSPARK Cancer Support Center, which provides free emotional support, information and social activities for individuals and families affected by cancer.
Sperber helped unveil and promote a breast cancer stamp for the U.S. Postal Service in 1998, Geffen said.
"The memory of Wendie Jo is that of a walking inspiration," Hanks said in a statement. "She met the challenges of her illness with love, cheer, joy and altruism. We are going to miss her as surely as we are all better for knowing her."
Sperber is survived by a son and daughter, her parents, two sisters and a brother.
Actor Pat Morita is shown in the this undated file photo. Morita died Thursday, Nov. 24, 2005 at his home in Las Vegas of natural causes. He was 73.
LOS ANGELES - Actor Pat Morita, best known for helping teach a boy martial-arts mastery through household chores as the wise Mr. Miyagi in "The Karate Kid," has died. He was 73.
There were conflicting reports about the cause of death. His daughter Aly Morita said he died Thursday of heart failure at a Las Vegas hospital; longtime manager Arnold Soloway said the actor died of kidney failure at a hospital while awaiting a transplant.
His wife of 12 years, Evelyn, said in a statement that her husband, who first rose to fame with a role on "Happy Days," had "dedicated his entire life to acting and comedy."
His role in the 1984 film defined his career. As Kesuke Miyagi, the mentor to Ralph Macchio's "Daniel-san," he taught karate while trying to catch flies with chopsticks and offering such advice as "wax on, wax off" to help Daniel improve his karate hand movements while doing his chores.
A generation of young fans mimicked Morita's famous "crane kick" technique from the finale of the movie, which surprised many by grossing $91 million and establishing a popular franchise.
"It was both my honor and privilege to have worked with him and create a bit of cinema magic together," Macchio said in a statement. "My life is all the richer for having known him. I will miss his genuine friendship."
"Forever my Sensei," Macchio added, referring to Morita's role in "The Karate Kid."
The role earned Morita an Academy Award nomination for best supporting actor, but he lost to Haing S. Ngor, who appeared in "The Killing Fields."
Morita said in a 1986 interview with The Associated Press he was billed as Noriyuki (Pat) Morita in the film because producer Jerry Weintraub wanted him to sound more ethnic. He said he used the billing because it was "the only name my parents gave me."
For years, Morita played small and sometimes demeaning roles in such films as "Thoroughly Modern Millie" and TV series such as "The Odd Couple" and "Green Acres." His first breakthrough came with "Happy Days," and he followed with his own brief series, "Mr. T and Tina."
"The Karate Kid" led to three sequels, the last of which, 1994's "The Next Karate Kid," paired him with a young Hilary Swank.
Morita was prolific outside of the "Karate Kid" series as well, appearing in "Honeymoon in Vegas," "Spy Hard," "Even Cowgirls Get the Blues" and "The Center of the World." He also provided the voice for a character in the Disney movie "Mulan" in 1998.
Born in northern California on June 28, 1932, the son of migrant fruit pickers, Morita spent most of his early years in the hospital with spinal tuberculosis. He later recovered only to be sent to a Japanese-American internment camp in Arizona during World War II.
"One day I was an invalid," he recalled in a 1989 AP interview. "The next day I was public enemy No. 1 being escorted to an internment camp by an FBI agent wearing a piece."
After the war, Morita's family tried to repair their finances by operating a Sacramento restaurant. It was there that Morita first tried his comedy on patrons.
Because prospects for a Japanese-American standup comic seemed poor, Morita found steady work in computers at Aerojet General. But at age 30 he entered show business full time.
"Only in America could you get away with the kind of comedy I did," he said. "If I tried it in Japan before the war, it would have been considered blasphemy, and I would have ended in leg irons."
Morita was to be buried at Palm Green Valley Mortuary and Cemetery.
He is survived by his wife and three daughters from a previous marriage.
Scholar Vine Deloria Jr., a Standing Rock Sioux member who died Sunday at age 72 in Golden, galvanized social and institutional change with his 1969 manifesto, "Custer Died for Your Sins."
His seminal work forced anthropologists and government officials to amend their relationships with tribal people, from returning human remains and artifacts to shifting federal control to tribal officials.
A descendant of Sitting Bull and of legendary Yanktonal medicine man Saswe, and son of a Christian minister, Deloria was born in Martin, S.D., in 1933. He served in the U.S. Marines and graduated from Iowa State University and the Lutheran School of Theology.
Deloria earned a law degree from the University of Colorado. He taught at the University of Arizona from 1978 to 1990 and then at CU's law school and in the history, ethnic-studies, religious-studies and political-science departments until his retirement in 2000.
He served as director of the National Congress of American Indians from 1964 to 1967. Under his guidance, an organization hemorrhaging members and influence became a strong presence in Washington, D.C. His 1965 editorial "Now Is the Time" helped establish tribal autonomy and installed Deloria as "our Martin Luther King," in the words of Indian-rights attorney Charles Wilkinson.
Deloria published "Custer Died for Your Sins" and its 1970 sequel, "We Talk, You Listen," at the apex of the Indian-rights movement. Wilma Mankiller, former principal chief of Cherokee Nation, called Deloria's books the clearest articulation of "the unspoken emotions, dreams and lifeways of our people."
Reaction to "Custer Died for Your Sins" instigated the American Anthropological Association's first ethics panel on tribes and sacred artifacts, and inspired the wry Floyd Red Crow Westerman song "Here Come the Anthros," from the 1970 album named after Deloria's book.
The gauntlets Deloria flung before anthropologists included challenging the postulate that American Indians had immigrated to the U.S. via what Deloria called "the imaginary Bering Strait bridge, which comes and goes at the convenience of the scholar."
Deloria remained an activist while focusing on his writing, which earned the 2002 Wallace Stegner Award, the 1999 Woodcraft Circle Writer of the Year award and other honors he accepted with humility.
In his speech for the 2005 American Indian Visionary Award, Deloria suggested others, including Westerman, as more appropriate honorees.
"I think you just jump back and forth between the poles of radical and moderate," he once said, explaining his philosophy of using humor and candor to advance his causes. "You can bring up very radical things by using a moderate style."
Survivors include his wife, Barbara Deloria, of Golden; sons Phil Deloria of Ann Arbor, Mich., and Daniel Deloria of Moore, Okla.; daughter Jeanne Deloria of Tucson; brother Philip Samuel Deloria of Albuquerque; sister Barbara Sanchez of Tucson; and seven grandchildren.
Services are at 3:30 p.m. Friday at Mount Vernon Event Center in Golden. Second Write up:
Vine Deloria Jr., 72; Native American Activist Wrote 'Custer Died for Your Sins' By Myrna Oliver, Times Staff Writer
Vine Deloria Jr., author of the scathing bestseller "Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto" and an influential historian and spokesman for Native American rights, has died. He was 72.
Deloria, who taught at the University of Colorado from 1990 to 2000, died Sunday in Denver of complications from an aortic aneurysm, his family said. He lived in nearby Golden, Colo.
"Vine was a great leader and writer, probably the most influential American Indian of the past century — one of the most influential Americans, period," said Charles Wilkinson, of the University of Colorado School of Law at Boulder and an Indian law expert.
Deloria wrote more than 20 books, but it was his first in 1969, "Custer Died for Your Sins," that brought him to the nation's attention.
In 2002, Wilkinson called it "perhaps the single most influential book ever written on Indian affairs" and described it as "at once fiery and humorous, uplifting and sharply critical."
J.A. Phillips, in reviewing the book for Best Sellers shortly after it was published, wrote that Deloria "asserts the worth if not the dignity of the red man and blasts the political, social and religious forces that perpetuate the Little Big Horn and wigwam stereotyping of his people."
The author's disdain for Gen. George Armstrong Custer never wavered. In 1996, he reiterated his views on the Civil War hero who died at Little Big Horn at a symposium at the Autry National Center's Museum of the American West in Los Angeles.
Deloria told The Times then that he continued to view Custer as the Adolf Eichmann of the Plains. Eichmann was the Nazi official in charge of implementing Hitler's extermination of millions of people during the Holocaust, in particular Jews.
"Soldiers were nothing to him, except tools," Deloria told The Times, describing Custer as a psychopath. "The soldiers were not defending civilization. They were crushing another society."
Publication of the powerful "Custer" book followed Deloria's 1964-67 tenure as executive director of the National Congress of American Indians. His leadership in lobbying Congress and setting forth Native American rights issues in speeches and articles during the 1960s is widely credited with forcing a turning point in Indian policy.
"I think what we saw in" Deloria's "generation of Native Americans was this transition of federal policy from termination" — moving or integrating Indians into cities and eliminating reservations — "to self-determination, and Vine, I think, was the real leader in making that happen," John Echohawk, executive director of the Native American Rights Fund in Boulder, told Associated Press on Monday. "Through Vine's leadership, tribes started to stand on their treaties and their right to self-determination."
Among Deloria's other books were "We Talk, You Listen" in 1970, "God Is Red" in 1973 and "Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties" in 1974, about events leading to the confrontation between Native American activists and federal authorities at Wounded Knee the previous year. As an expert on Indian treaties, Deloria was a key witness for the defense in the Wounded Knee trial in St. Paul, Minn.
Born a Yankton Sioux in Martin, S.D., near the Pine Ridge Reservation, Deloria was the son of an Episcopalian Indian minister and earned a master's degree in theology from the Lutheran School of Theology in Chicago. Themes of spirituality and theology infused much of his writing. At the time of his death, Deloria had been working on a book about Indian medicine men, the spiritual ministers of Native Americans.
Deloria served in the Marine Corps in the mid-1950s and then earned a bachelor's degree at Iowa State University, his theology degree and then a law degree from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He taught at the University of Arizona from 1978 until 1990, when he joined the Colorado faculty, teaching in its departments of history, political science, law, ethnic studies and religious studies.
Earlier this year, Deloria received the American Indian Visionary Award presented by Indian Country Today magazine in Washington, D.C., for displaying "the highest qualities and attributes of leadership in defending the foundations of American Indian freedom." In 2002 he received the University of Colorado Center of the American West's Wallace Stegner Award for his sustained contribution to the cultural identity of the West.
Deloria is survived by his wife of 47 years, Barbara; two sons, Philip and Daniel; a daughter, Jeanne Deloria; a brother, Philip; a sister, Barbara Sanchez; and seven grandchildren.
Memorial contributions may be made to the Vine Deloria Scholarship Fund, c/o The American Indian Scholarship Fund, Attn: Rick Williams, 8333 Greenwood Blvd., Denver, CO 80221.
Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit. Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit. An herb is primarily supported by traditional use, or the herb or supplement has little scientific support and/or minimal health benefit.
A variety of prescription drugs can, on rare occasions, cause hepatitis, as can large amounts of niacin or niacinamide (forms of vitamin B3). Excessive intake of acetaminophen or other painkillers can damage the liver, so excessive intake of these drugs should be avoided. People with hepatitis C who failed to respond to interferon therapy have been found to have a higher amount of iron within the liver.1 People with hepatitis C should, therefore, avoid iron supplements. People with any type of hepatitis should ask their physician whether any medication they are taking poses a risk to the liver.
For infectious (viral) hepatitis, good hygiene is necessary to avoid spreading the infection. The hepatitis A virus can be spread very easily through food that is handled by infected individuals; therefore, people with hepatitis A should wash their hands very carefully after using the restroom and should not handle food at work. The hepatitis viruses B and C are both transmitted by blood and sexual contact.
Nutritional supplements that may be helpful: Catechin, a flavonoid, has helped people with acute viral hepatitis,2 as well as individuals with chronic hepatitis,3 though not all trials have found a benefit.4 A typical amount used in successful trials is 500–750 mg three times per day. Although catechin is found in several plants, none contain sufficient amounts to reach the level used in the trials; thus, catechin supplements are needed. However, because of its potential to cause side effects on rare occasions,5 catechin should be used only under medical supervision.
Proteins from the thymus gland, an important part of the immune system, may have a beneficial effect in people with chronic hepatitis B. Initial trials done in Poland used injected thymus proteins with good results.6 Further trials using a variety of thymus extracts by mouth have found that they can improve blood tests that measure liver damage as well as improve immune cell numbers.78 Preliminary evidence also suggests these extracts may help patients with hepatitis C.9 The standard recommendation for supplementation is 200 mg three times per day of crude extracts or 40 mg three times per day of purified proteins.
S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) (1,600 mg/day orally or 800 mg/day intravenously) has been shown to aid in the resolution of blocked bile flow (cholestasis), a common complication of chronic hepatitis.1011
Taking 3 grams per day of phosphatidylcholine (found in lecithin) was found to be beneficial in one investigation of people with chronic hepatitis B.12 Signs of liver damage on biopsy were significantly reduced in this trial.
Vitamin E levels have been shown to be low in people with hepatitis,13 as well as in those who later develop liver cancer from long-standing hepatitis.14 Vitamin E levels in the liver may also be decreased in some people with hepatitis.15 In a controlled trial of individuals with hepatitis B, 600 IU of vitamin E per day for nine months resulted in all signs of hepatitis disappearing in five of twelve people.16 In a preliminary trial of adults with hepatitis C, administering 1,200 IU per day of vitamin E for eight weeks appeared to reduce liver damage to some extent.17 In a preliminary trial of people with hepatitis C, 544 IU of vitamin E per day for 24 weeks improved the response to interferon/antioxidant therapy, although the results did not reach statistical significance.18 However, in children with viral hepatitis, daily injections of vitamin E (300 IU) for seven days did not produce any benefit.19
Vitamin C in the amount of 2 grams per day was reported in a preliminary trial to prevent hepatitis infection in individuals receiving blood transfusions.20 This report was followed up by a double-blind trial, in which 3.2 grams per day of vitamin C was reported to have no protective effect against post-transfusion hepatitis.21 (However, in the latter trial, vitamin C actually reduced the incidence of hepatitis by 29%, although this reduction was not statistically significant.) An older trial suggested that injections of vitamin C may be helpful in treating viral hepatitis.22
A potent antioxidant combination may protect the liver from damage in people with hepatitis C, possibly decreasing the necessity for a liver transplant. In a preliminary trial,23 three people with liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices (dilated veins in the esophagus that can rupture and cause fatal bleeding) caused by hepatitis C received a combination of Alpha lipoic acid (300 mg twice daily), silymarin (from milk thistle; 300 mg three times daily), and selenium (selenomethionine; 200 mcg twice daily). After five to eight months of therapy that included other “supportive supplements,” such as vitamin C and B vitamins, all three people had significant improvements in their liver function and overall health. Larger clinical trials are needed to confirm these promising preliminary results.
Vitamin B12 (with or without folic acid) has been reported in trials from the 1950s to help some people with hepatitis.2425 Vitamin B12 injections are likely to be more beneficial than oral administration, though 1,000 mcg (taken orally) each day can also be supplemented.
In a preliminary report, three patients with chronic hepatitis B had an improvement in the severity of their hepatitis after taking 100 mg of thiamine (vitamin B1) per day.26
In a preliminary trial, supplementation with betaine (20 grams per day) for 12 months improved signs of liver inflammation in seven patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a type of liver inflammation. No significant side effects were seen.27
Supplementation with 17 mg of zinc twice a day (in the form of a zinc complex of L-carnosine) enhanced the response to interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C, in a preliminary trial.28 It is not known whether this benefit was due primarily to the zinc or the carnosine, or whether other forms of zinc would have the same effect.
Herbs that may be helpful: Silymarin, the flavonoid extracted from milk thistle, has been studied for treating all types of liver disease. The standard amount used in most trials has delivered 420 mg of silymarin per day. For acute hepatitis, double-blind trials have shown mixed results.2930 A preparation of silymarin and phosphatidylcholine was reported to help sufferers of chronic viral hepatitis. One small preliminary trial found that at least 420 mg of silymarin was necessary each day.31 A controlled trial found that silymarin decreased liver damage.32 One trial has suggested that silymarin may be more effective for hepatitis B as opposed to hepatitis C.33
Recent findings have shown that silymarin has the ability to block fibrosis, a process that contributes to the eventual development of cirrhosis in persons with inflammatory liver conditions secondary to alcohol abuse or hepatitis.34 While there are no published clinical trials in people with hepatitis C to date, this action makes milk thistle extract potentially attractive as a supportive treatment for the condition—particularly for those that have not responded to standard drug therapy. The effectiveness of silymarin (particularly its antifibrotic actions) needs to be studied in larger numbers of persons with hepatitis C to determine whether it is an effective treatment for this condition.
Phyllanthus(Phyllanthus amarus), an Ayurvedic herb, has been studied primarily in carriers of the hepatitis B virus, as opposed to those with chronic active hepatitis. In one trial, administering this herb for 30 days appeared to eliminate the hepatitis B virus in 22 of 37 cases (59%).35 However, other trials have failed to confirm a beneficial effect of Phyllanthus amarus against hepatitis B.3637 A West Indian species, Phyllanthus urinaria (not widely available in the United States or Europe), has achieved much better results than Indian Phyllanthus amarus.38 Thus, the specific plant species used may have a significant impact on the results. The amount of phyllanthus used in clinical trials has ranged from 900–2,700 mg per day.
A crude extract of red peony root was shown in a small, preliminary trial to reduce cirrhosis in some people with chronic viral hepatitis.39 Other preliminary trials published in Chinese demonstrated that red peony root was helpful (by reducing liver enzyme levels or symptoms or both) for people with viral hepatitis.40
Preliminary trials have shown that the bupleurum-containing formula sho-saiko-to can help reduce symptoms and blood liver enzyme levels in children and adults with chronic active viral hepatitis.41424344 Most of theses trials were in people with hepatitis B infection, though one preliminary trial has also shown a benefit in people with hepatitis C.45 Sho-saiko-to was also found, in a large preliminary trial to decrease the risk of people with chronic viral hepatitis developing liver cancer. However, people who had a sign of recent hepatitis B infection were not as strongly protected in this trial.46 The usual amount of sho-saiko-to used is 2.5 grams three times daily. Sho-saiko-to should not be used together with interferon drug therapy as it may increase risk of pneumonitis - a potentially dangerous inflammation in the lungs.47
One of the active constituents in licorice, glycyrrhizin, is sometimes used in Japan as an injected therapy for hepatitis B and C.4849 Glycyrrhizin also blocks hepatitis A virus from replicating in test tubes.50 One preliminary trial found that use of 2.5 grams licorice three times per day providing 750 mg glycyrrhizin was superior to the drug inosine polyIC in helping people with acute and chronic viral hepatitis.51 Because glycyrrhizin can cause high blood pressure and other problems, it should only be taken on the advice of a healthcare practitioner.
A series of cases of acute viral hepatitis were reported by one group in India, showing picrorhiza, combined with a variety of minerals, to be helpful in hastening recovery.52 A variety of similar reports have appeared in the Indian literature over the years, although no double-blind clinical trials have yet been published. Between 400 and 1,500 mg of powdered, encapsulated picrorhiza per day has been used in a variety of trials. Andrographis, another traditional Indian herb, has shown preliminary benefit for people with chronic viral hepatitis.53
Preliminary human research demonstrates some efficacy for the mushroom reishi in treating chronic hepatitis B; however, additional clinical trials are needed.54
An uncontrolled trial found that shiitake formulations containing Lentinus edodes mycelium (LEM— the powdered mycelium of the mushroom before the cap and stem grow) may help decrease blood markers of liver inflammation.55 One marker of hepatitis B infection in the blood (HBeAg) disappeared in 14% of the patients in this trial. Given the preliminary nature of the research, more information is needed to determine if LEM is effective for hepatitis.
Modern Chinese research suggests that compounds called lignans in schisandra promote regeneration of liver tissue that has been damaged by harmful influences, such as hepatitis viruses or alcohol. In a controlled trial, Chinese patients with chronic viral hepatitis were given 500 mg schisandra extract three times daily or liver extract and B vitamins.56 Among those given schisandra, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels declined to normal levels in 68% compared to 44% of the control group. Lower SGPT levels suggest less liver inflammation. There was also a reduction in symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, loose stools, and abdominal tension in the schisandra group. A preliminary trial in 5,000 people with various types of hepatitis found normalizations in SGPT or related liver enzymes in 75% of cases using an unspecified amount of schisandra.57
Early clinical trials in China suggest astragalus root might benefit people with chronic viral hepatitis, though it may take one to two months to see results.58 Textbooks on Chinese herbs recommend taking 9–15 grams of the crude herb per day in decoction form. A decoction is made by boiling the root in water for a few minutes and then brewing the tea.
Another Chinese herb, Chinese scullcap, might be useful for liver infections. However, the research on this is generally of low quality.59
Tantaquidgeon, the Mohegan Indian Tribe's venerable medicine woman and a nationally known expert on ancient Indian practices, died Tuesday morning. She was 106.
The tribe's oldest living member, Tantaquidgeon died peacefully at the Uncasville home where she had lived all her life, said her grandniece, Melissa Tantaquidgeon Zobel.
Born in 1899, Tantaquidgeon was one of seven children of John and Harriet Fielding Tantaquidgeon, both Mohegans. She was a 10th generation descendant of Uncas, the famed Mohegan chief.
During her lifetime, she watched her tribe grow from a handful of Mohegan families in Uncasville who struggled to keep their tribal heritage alive to a federally recognized tribe that owns and operates one of the most successful casinos in the world.
Tantaquidgeon is given much credit for the Mohegans receiving federal recognition. For years, she collected a large number of documents, including tribal correspondence, birth, death and marriage records, many of which she stored under her bed. That information helped to document the continuity of the tribe, which managed to survive even after its reservation was disbanded.
"A lot of the generations before us knew if they hung on long enough, a lot of things would turn around one day," Zobel said. "Her dream was that the culture would be preserved for the Mohegan Tribe. The fact that the tribe survived was all she ever really cared about."
A life-size statue of Tantaquidgeon that greets visitors entering the Mohegan Sun casino was draped in black on Tuesday. There is a wall mural depicting a timeline of her life nearby.
Zobel said the approximately 1,700-member tribe is trying to see her great aunt's death as something to celebrate.
"We truly feel her contribution and longevity require us to consider that her life isn't simply one to be mourned," she said. "Her life is really something to celebrate at this time."
Tantaquidgeon wrote several books on Indian medicine practices and folk lore. Her best-known work, "A Study of Delaware Indian Medicine Practices and Folk Beliefs," was published in 1942 and later reprinted in 1972 and 1995 as "Folk Medicine of the Delaware and Related Algonkian Indians."
She became versed in the ways of the tribe's spirituality and use of herbs from her grandmothers. Tantaquidgeon went on to study anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania.
Tantaquidgeon earned several awards, including honorary doctorates from Yale and the University of Connecticut.
Her work became known nationwide and she was called on by many western tribes to assist in the restoration of their ancient practices. In 1934, she served as a community worker on the Yankton Sioux reservation in South Dakota and also worked to promote Indian art for the Federal Indian Arts and Crafts Board in the Dakotas, Montana and Wyoming.
In 1940, she served as the librarian at the state women's prison in Niantic, where she felt her work with families on reservations sensitized her to the needs of women in difficult situations.
In 1931, she founded the Tantaquidgeon Indian Museum in Uncasville, along with her late brother Harold, the tribe's former chief. Tribal officials say it's one of the oldest Indian-owned and -operated museums in the country and emphasizes the siblings' philosophy that "you can't hate someone that you know a lot about."
Tantaquidgeon, who never married, continued to work full-time at the museum until 1998.
Her passing was noted Tuesday by Connecticut Gov. M. Jodi Rell, who said Tantaquidgeon had left "an extraordinary legacy," and by a top leader of the neighboring Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation.
Kenneth M. Reels, the Pequots' vice chairman, said his tribe was deeply saddened by Tantaquidgeon's death. He referred to her as both a regional and national advocate for American Indian rights, history and culture.
"She instilled her beliefs, values, principles and oral history through her immediate family and extended tribal members. Ms. Tantaquidgeon firmly believe d that the best cure for prejudice was education," he said. "Her beliefs resonated throughout the country and throughout Indian country."
Rell said, "Tantaquidgeon shared 106 years with Connecticut and its people and all of us are richer for it."
The Mohegan Tribal offices will be closed Wednesday to mark an official day of mourning. A funeral service is tentatively scheduled for Sunday at Shantok Village of Uncas in Uncasville, where a tribal burial ground is located, Zobel said. http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/1197/1197pro7.html
R.C. Gorman, famed Navajo artist, dies at 74 Friday, November 4, 2005
R.C. Gorman, the famed Navajo artist, died at a hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on Thursday. He was 74.
Gorman was called "the Picasso of American art" by The New York Times. He became famous worldwide for his works depicting Indian women. He also made sculptures.
"I revere women. They are my greatest inspiration," Gorman said an Associated Press interview in 1998.
Gorman fell ill with a severe case of pneumonia. He had been hospitalized in Albuquerque since September 26 with no signs of improvement.
Gorman was born in Chinle, Arizona. He was the son of the late Navajo Code Talker Carl Gorman.
Get the Story: Renowned Navajo artist R.C. Gorman dies in New Mexico (Taos News 11/3) Username: email@example.com, Password: indianz R.C. Gorman; Native American Artist's Portrayals of Navajo Women Were Highly Popular (The Los Angeles Times 11/4) Username: firstname.lastname@example.org, Password: indianzcom R.C. Gorman at a glance - The Quotable Gorman (The Santa Fe New Mexican 11/4) Username: email@example.com, Password: indianz Renowned Navajo artist dies (AP 11/3) Obituary: RC Gorman Leaves A Long Legacy (The New West 11/3)
Born in Canyon de Chelly, Arizona and raised in a hogan on the Navajo Reservation, he became one of the Southwest's best known late 20th century artists.
His parents were Carl Nelson Gorman, artist, and Adella Katherine Brown. He abandoned the name "Rudolph" and signed his artwork with the initials R.C. He grew up during the Depression years, and he later said his first materials were "sand, rocks, and mud."
His father, Carl, was one of the first Indian artists to depart from tradition and paint from his own personal expression, but R.C. seldom saw his father during his early childhood because he was away for the wartime.
Women, particularly his maternal grandmother, were primary influences and remain the focus of most of his paintings and prints. She spent much time with him during his childhood, and they herded sheep together, and he often drew on the rocks including a depiction of a nude woman that brought him a scolding.
R.C. Gorman's grandmother told him the Navajo traditions and legends, sang the old songs, and taught him about plants and animals.
Gorman's mother, who had been sent away to government schools, directed him more towards the Anglo world and spoke to him only in English. She oversaw his education, and he first attended Chinle Public School.
At age 10, he went to Flagstaff, shipped there in a cattle car with his mother, to work in the Navajo Ordnance. On the way, he saw his first painting at a stop at Hopiland at Moencopi Trading Post, and couldn't get it out of his mind.
After that he attended St. Michael's, a Catholic boarding school on the Navajo Reservation, from where he was expelled.
Next he went to Ganado Presbyterian Mission School where well-known Southwest trader Don Lorenzo Hubbell had a trading post nearby and was a key figure in helping with the organizing of the school.
A Dr. Clarence Salsbury was Director of Education and encouraged Gorman with his unique talents, which were recognized by many students and faculty members.
Many years later, in 1978, The College of Ganado awarded Gorman an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts, which he later said was the highest honor he had received.
R.C. Gorman went to college in Flagstaff at Northern Arizona University and in 1951 enlisted in the navy for four years during the Korean War, but never quit drawing.
In 1955, Gorman re-enrolled at Northern Arizona University, studying literature and art, and illustrated for a school magazine.
A trip to Mexico and later a year long study scholarship really excited Gorman, especially viewing murals by Orozco, Rivera, and Siqueiros, and sculpture by Zuniga because these artists were depicting realistic people.
Their works were a catalyst for his decision to paint likenesses and create lithographs of people from his own heritage.
However, R.C. Gorman did not stay long on the Navajo reservation. In 1962, he left and would return only for visits.
Gorman moved to San Francisco where he had successful exhibitions of his work and earned the patronage of Charles and Ruth de Young Elkus, who encouraged young Indian talent.
In 1964, Gorman went to Taos, New Mexico, and shortly after had an exhibition there in the Manchester Gallery.
Gorman then returned to San Francisco where he went through a period of doing surreal landscapes but made frequent trips to Taos. He also had several joint exhibitions with his father, Carl Gorman, and in 1968 purchased the Manchester Gallery in Taos, renaming it the Navajo Gallery.
From then on, it was his studio and home.
In the 1970s, R.C. Gorman became a nationally known artist, and visitors to the Southwest were taking his work to all parts of the country. He also opened a gallery in Tubac, Arizona, about 40 miles south of Tucson, and conducted numerous workshops.
During that decade, he first experimented with lithography, studying with Jose Sanchez in Mexico City. Gorman did etchings, silk screen, sculpture, and ceramics and also began his pastel, watercolor wash full-bodied Indian women that became his trademark.
Of this subject matter, Gorman said: "I choose models who have full bodies--something you can put your two arms around and feel a real woman. I like the ample figure because it fills space softly." (Monthan, R.C. Gorman, 29).
Gorman's daily work schedule has been one of arriving at his studio about 8:30 AM, working intensely, eating a long lunch with a glass of wine, returning to work for an hour or so, and then disappearing until the next day.
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