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Jan 30, 2009

I have been going thrugh so much in my life, I had my beautiful and healthy daughter, I lost my job after 3 weeks my daughter was born!when I came back from matternity leave, I have no money, my fiance lost his job before the holidays, my morgate went up and the bank didn't want to help so we've being trying to refinance, Thanks God I found a part time job where I make very little money... and my daughter is not even 5 months!!! At one point I've being feeling drowning and hitting botton and asking God how much longer I have to hold my breath to survive. Gnosis warn us that the more we know the more we are going to be tested. The more obstacles we have, the stronger we will become! It is easy to say than live it thrugh. All these times I have pay more attention to my inner self and my essence and observe carefully some of my egos. I have answer a lot question to myself of myself and others. I know I am a strong woman but i did not know how strong, now I know! what thing I know for sure is that God give you what you can handle! no more no less! and when you less expect it a miracle happen! Let's just cheer up and enjoy every minute we have with our family and friends, everything is going to get better and in a year from now we will be laughin about it and proud of ourself!

Visibility: Everyone
Tags:
Posted: Jan 30, 2009 7:38pm
Dec 29, 2007
Focus: Environment
Action Request: Petition
Location: United States
 
Recycling and rubbish bin in a German railway station.

Recycling is the reprocessing of materials into new products. Recycling generally prevents the waste of potentially useful materials, reduces the consumption of raw materials and reduces energy usage, and hence greenhouse gas emissions, compared to virgin production.[1] Recycling is a key concept of modern waste management and is the third component of the waste hierarchy.

Recyclable materials, also called "recyclables", may originate from a wide range of sources including the home and industry. They include glass, paper, aluminium, asphalt, iron, textiles and plastics. Biodegradable waste, such as food waste or garden waste, is also recyclable with the assistance of micro-organisms through composting or anaerobic digestion.

Recyclates are sorted and separated into material types. Contamination of the recylates with other materials must be prevented to increase the recyclates' value and facilitate easier reprocessing for the ultimate recycling facility. This sorting can be performed either by the producer of the waste or within semi- or fully-automated materials recovery facilities.

There are two common household methods of recycling. In curbside collection (UK: kerbside collection), consumers leave presorted recyclable materials in front of their property to be collected by a recycling vehicle. With a "bring" or carry-in system, the householder takes the materials to collection points, such as transfer stations or civic amenity sites.

The term recycling does not generally include reuse, in which existing items are used for a  new purpose.


eutscheBahnRecycling20050814_CopyrightKaihsuTai_Rotated.jpg" title="Recycling and rubbish bin in a German railway station.">Recycling and rubbish bin in a German railway station.


Recycling has been a common practice throughout human history. In pre-industrial times, scrap made of bronze and other precious metals was collected in Europe and melted down for perpetual reuse, and in Britain dust and ash from wood and coal fires was downcycled as a base material in brick making. The main driver for these types of recycling was the economic advantage of obtaining recycled feedstock instead of acquiring virgin material, as well as a lack of public waste removal in ever more-populated sites.

Paper recycling began in Britain in 1921, when the British Waste Paper Association (now Confederation of Paper Industries) was established to encourage trade in waste paper recycling.

Resource shortages caused by the world wars, and other such world-changing occurrences greatly encouraged recycling. Massive government promotion campaigns were carried out in World War II in every country involved in the war, urging citizens to donate metals and conserve fiber, as a matter of significant patriotic importance. Resource conservation programs established during the war were continued in some countries without an abundance of natural resources, such as Japan, after the war ended.

The next big investment in recycling occurred in the 1970s, due to rising energy costs. Recycling aluminum uses only 5% of the energy required by virgin production; glass, paper and metals have less dramatic but very significant energy savings when recycled feedstock is used [2]. The passage of the Clean Water Act of 1977 in the USA created strong demand for bleached paper (office paper whose fibre has already been bleached white increased in value as water effluent became more expensive).

A recycling bin at a park in northern California.
A recycling bin at a park in northern California.

In 1973, the city of Berkeley, California began one of the first curbside collection programs with monthly pick ups of newspapers from residences. Since then several countries have started and expanded various doorstep collection schemes. Around this time, Woodbury, New Jersey was also a forerunner of the recycling industry in the United States, being the first in the state to mandate it.

In 1987, the Mobro 4000 barge hauled garbage from New York to North Carolina, where it had been denied. It was then sent to Belize, where it was denied as well. Finally, the barge returned to New York and the garbage was incinerated. The incident led to heated discussions in the media about waste disposal and recycling. The incident is often referred to as igniting the recycling hysteria of the 1990s.

One event that initiated recycling efforts occurred in 1989 when Berkeley banned the use of polystyrene packaging for keeping McDonald's hamburgers warm. One effect of this ban was to raise the ire of management at the Dow Chemical Company, the world's largest manufacturer of polystyrene, which led to the first major effort to show that plastics can be recycled. By 1999, there were 1,677 companies in the USA alone involved in the post-consumer plastics recycling business.

In Germany the introduction of a Packaging Ordinance under the Waste Act led to the introduction of the Green Dot program. Originally launched by Duales System Deutschland GmbH (DSD) in 1990, the scheme has since been rolled out to 23 other European countries. The Green Dot scheme is captured under the European "Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive - 94/62/EC" and is binding for all companies if their products use packaging.


Benefits

A recycling truck collecting the contents of a recycling bin in Canberra, Australia.
A recycling truck collecting the contents of a recycling bin in Canberra, Australia.

Recycling is beneficial in two ways: it reduces the inputs (energy and raw materials) to a production system and reduces the amount of waste produced for disposal.

A study conducted by the Technical University of Denmark found that in 80% of cases, recycling is the most efficient method to dispose of household waste.[2]

Some materials like aluminum can be recycled indefinitely as there is no change to the materials. Other recycled materials like paper require a percentage of raw materials (wood fibers) to be added to compensate for the degradation of existing fibers. Recycling aluminium saves 95% of the energy cost of processing new aluminium[2] because the melting temperature is reduced from 900 °C to 600 °C. It is by far the most efficient material to recycle. Recycling plastic saves 70% of the energy used in creating new plastic, and paper recycling saves 40% of the energy required to make a new product.[2]

The resources being processed are purer, thus less energy is needed to process them. Additionally less energy is needed to transport them from the place of extraction (e.g. bauxite/aluminium ore mines in Brazil or coniferous forests in Scandinavia as compared to domestic areas).

This reduces the environmental, social, and usually the economic costs of manufacturing.

For example, bauxite mines in Brazil displace indigenous people, create noise pollution from blasting, machinery and transport, and create air pollution in the form of particulates (dust). The habitat loss and visual destruction is also negative both to the aesthetic qualities of the areas and the local environment.

The most commonly used methods for waste disposal (landfill, pyrolysis, incineration) may be environmentally damaging and unsustainable. Therefore any way to reduce the volume of waste being disposed in this fashion may be beneficial. The maximum environmental benefit is gained by waste minimization (reducing the amount of waste produced), and reusing items in their current form such as refilling bottles.

In the past recycling has been a fragmented industry with recycling companies only accepting specific materials for recycling, or only common materials such as plastic or metals. More recent approaches have resulted in recycling companies that accept a wide variety of materials or emerging market materials such as ceiling tiles, carpet, stained wood etc.. An example of a company that accepts a wide variety of materials, including emerging recycling markets is the Green Recycling Network.

Drawbacks and criticism

Main article: Recycling criticism

All recycling techniques consume energy for transportation and processing and some also use considerable amounts of water, although recycling processes seldom amount to the level of resource use associated with raw materials processing.[3]

There may also be drawbacks with the collection methods associated with recycling. Increasing collections of separated wastes adds to vehicle movements and the production of carbon dioxide. This may be negated however by centralized facilities such as some advanced material recovery facilities and mechanical biological treatment systems for the separation of mixed wastes. It has been calculated that collecting waste and disposing it in a landfill is about $60 a ton opposed to separate collecting and taking it to be recycled costs $150 a ton.[4]

Recycled materials also sometimes cost more financially than their non-recycled versions. This is not universal to every recycled product, but it does occur.[5]

Negative consequences from mercury recycling have been cited by The Wall Street Journal.[6] The article traces mercury recovered from American recycling programs into sales of mercury for alluvial mining activities in Brazil. During the autumn of 2006, the European Union banned the export of liquid mercury, and a life-cycle analysis prior to institution of recycling programs may reduce the risk of unintended environmental consequences.

For some materials, recycling is more expensive than landfill disposal unless externalities are considered.[citation needed] For these products, there is an opportunity cost to recycling. Some argue that the financial costs of recycling some materials outweigh the environmental benefits. Some skeptics also argue that the environmental benefits of recycling do not compensate for the extra effort it may require.[7]

John Tierney, in an article in The New York Times claimed that government mandated recycling wastes more resources than it saves.[8] Some highlights from the article:

  • In cases where recycling truly does save resources, such as with large scraps of aluminum, this will be reflected in market prices, and voluntary recycling will take place. Thus, there is no need for the government to mandate it.
  • Each year the United States fills up over 9 square miles of landfill space. Once full, much of that land gets turned into parks.
  • Tree farmers plant more trees than they cut down.
  • Government mandated recycling is more expensive than putting the garbage into landfills, which means that this recycling uses up more resources than it saves.
  • Some small towns with landfills are happy to import garbage from other cities and states because it provides jobs and tax revenue.
  • Today's modern landfills are much cleaner and safer, and much less likely to leak and pollute than the landfills of the past.

Recycling techniques

Base layer of asphalt concrete
Base layer of asphalt concrete

Many different materials can be recycled but each type requires a different technique.

Aggregates & concrete

Main article: Concrete recycling

Concrete aggregate collected from demolition sites is put through a crushing machine, often along with asphalt, bricks, dirt, and rocks. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. Crushed recycled concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free of contaminants. This reduces the need for other rocks to be dug up, which in turn saves trees and habitats.

Batteries

Some batteries contain toxic heavy metals
Some batteries contain toxic heavy metals

The large variation in size and type of batteries makes their recycling extremely difficult: they must first be sorted into similar kinds and each kind requires an individual recycling process. Additionally, older batteries contain mercury and cadmium, harmful materials which must be handled with care.

Lead-acid batteries, like those used in automobiles, are relatively easy to recycle and many new lead-acid batteries contain a high percentage of recycled material.

Biodegradable waste

Anaerobic digesters produce biogas and soil improver from organic wastes
Anaerobic digesters produce biogas and soil improver from organic wastes

Biodegradable waste can be recycled into useful material by biological decomposition. There are two mechanisms by which this can occur. The most common mechanism of recycling of household organic waste is home composting or municipal curbside collection of green wastes sent to large scale composting plants.

Alternatively organic waste can be converted into biogas and soil improver using anaerobic digestion. Here organic wastes are broken down by anaerobic microorganisms in biogas plants. The biogas can be converted into renewable electricity or burnt for environmentally friendly heating. Advanced technologies such as mechanical biological treatment are able to sort the recyclable elements of the waste out before biological treatment by either composting, anaerobic digestion or biodrying.

Sulabh International, an Indian NGO designed a cheap toilet system that recycles human waste into biogas and fertilizer.

Electronics disassembly and reclamation

Main article: Electronic waste
Abandoned monitor
Abandoned monitor

The direct disposal of electrical equipment — such as old computers and mobile phones — is banned in many areas due to the toxic contents of certain components. The recycling process works by mechanically separating the metals, plastics and circuit boards contained in the appliance. When this is done on a large scale at an electronic waste recycling plant, component recovery can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

Electronic devices, including audio-visual components (televisions, VCRs, stereo equipment), mobile phones and other hand-held devices, and computer components, contain valuable elements and substances suitable for reclamation, including lead, copper, and gold. They also contain a plethora of toxic substances, such as dioxins, Polychlorinated biphenyls|PCBs, cadmium, chromium, radioactive isotopes, and mercury. Additionally, the processing required to reclaim the precious substances (including incineration and acid treatments) release, generate and synthesize further toxic by-products.

In the United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills come from discarded electronics.[9]Some regional governments are attempting to curtail the accumulation of electronics in landfills by passing laws obligating manufacturers and consumers to recycle these devices,[10] but because in many cases safe dismantlement of these devices in accordance with first world safety standards is unprofitable,[citation needed] historically much of the electronic waste has been shipped to countries with lower or less rigorously-enforced safety protocols. Places like Guiyu, China dismantle tons of electronics every year, profiting from the sale of precious metals, but at the cost of the local environment and the health of its residents.[11][12]

Mining to produce the same metals, to meet demand for finished products in the west, also occurs in the same countries, and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has recommended that restrictions against recycling exports be balanced against the environmental costs of recovering those materials from mining. Hard rock mining in the USA produces 45% of all toxics produced by all USA industries (2001 US EPA Toxics Release Inventory).

Printer ink cartridges & toners

Printer ink cartridges can be recycled. They are sorted into different brands and models which are then resold back to the companies that created these cartridges. The companies then refill the ink reservoir which can be sold back to consumers. Toner cartridges are recycled the same way as ink cartridges, using toner instead of ink. This method of recycling is highly efficient as there is no energy spent on melting and recreating the recycled object itself.

Ferrous metals

Steel crushed and baled for recycling at Ozark Adventist Academy(box)
Steel crushed and baled for recycling at Ozark Adventist Academy(box)
Main articles: Steel and Blast furnace

Iron and steel are the world's most recycled materials, and among the easiest materials to recycle, as they can be separated magnetically from the waste stream. Recycling is via a steelworks: scrap is either remelted in an Electric Arc Furnace (90-100% scrap), or used as part of the charge in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (around 25% scrap).[13] Any grade of steel can be recycled to top quality new metal, with no 'downgrading' from prime to lower quality materials as steel is recycled repeatedly. 42% of crude steel produced is recycled material.[14]

Non-ferrous metals

Main article: Aluminium recycling

Aluminium is shredded and ground into small pieces or crushed into bales. These pieces or bales are melted in an aluminium smelter to produce molten aluminium. By this stage the recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium and further processing is identical for both.

Due to the high melting point of aluminium ore, large amounts of energy are required to extract aluminium from ore, making the environmental benefits of recycling aluminium enormous. Recycling aluminium only results in approximately 5% of the CO2 that would be released during the production of raw aluminium.[15] The percentage is even smaller when considering the complete cycle of mining and transporting the aluminium. Also, as open-cut mining is most often used for obtaining aluminium ore, mining destroys large sections of natural land.

An aluminium can is 100% recyclable. Every time a can is recycled, enough energy is saved to power a television for about three hours (compared to mining and producing a new can).[16]

Public glass waste collection point in a neighborhood area for separating clear, green and amber glass
Public glass waste collection point in a neighborhood area for separating clear, green and amber glass

Glass

Main article: Glass recycling

Glass bottles and jars are gathered via curbside collection schemes and bottle banks, where the glass may be sorted into color categories. The collected glass cullet is taken to a glass recycling plant where it is monitored for purity and contaminants are removed. The cullet is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace. It is then mechanically blown or molded into new jars or bottles. Glass cullet is also used in the construction industry for aggregate and glassphalt. Glassphalt is a road-laying material which comprises around 30% recycled glass. Glass can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when reprocessed.

Paper

Main article: Paper recycling
Recyclable materials
Recyclable materials

Recycled paper is made from waste paper, usually mixed with fresh wood pulp. If the paper contains ink, it must be deinked. This also removes fillers, clays, and fiber fragments.

Almost all paper can be recycled today, but some types are harder to recycle than others. Papers coated with plastic or aluminum foil, and papers that are waxed, pasted, or gummed are usually not recycled because the process is too expensive. Gift wrap paper also cannot be recycled. Different types of paper are usually sorted before recycling, such as newspapers and cardboard boxes.

Different grades of paper are recycled into different types of new products. Old newspapers are usually made into new newsprint, egg cartons, or paperboard. Old corrugated boxes are made into new corrugated boxes or paperboard. High-grade white office paper can be made into almost any new paper product: stationery, newsprint, magazines, or books.

Sometimes recyclers ask for the removal of the glossy inserts from newspapers because they are a different type of paper. Glossy inserts have a heavy clay coating that some paper mills cannot accept. Most of the clay is removed from the recycled pulp as sludge which must be disposed. If the coated paper is 20% by weight clay, then each ton of glossy paper produces more than 200 kg of sludge and less than 800 kg of fiber. Uncoated (no clay), recycled newsprint gives less sludge and more useable fiber.

Paper can only be recycled a finite number of times due to the shortening of paper fibers making the material less versatile. Often it will be mixed with a quantity of virgin material, referred to as downcycling. This does not however exclude the material from being used in other processes such as composting or anaerobic digestion, where further value can be extracted from the material in the form of compost or biogas.

Plastic

Main article: Plastic recycling

Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products. Compared to glass or metallic materials, plastic poses unique challenges - because of the massive number of types of plastic, they each carry a resin identification code, and must be sorted before they can be recycled. This can be costly - while metals can be sorted using electromagnets, no such 'easy sorting' capability exists for plastics. In addition to this, while labels do not need to be removed from bottles for recycling, lids are often made from a different kind of non-recyclable plastic.

Plastics recycling rates lag far behind those of other items, such as newspaper and aluminium; consumers are typically unsure of how to recycle plastics, and compared to paper and metals fewer recycling facilities exist.[citation needed]

Textiles

Main article: Textile recycling

When considering textile recycling one must understand what the material consists of. Most textiles are composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textile's composition will affect its durability and method of recycling.

Workers sort and separate collected textiles into good quality clothing and shoes which can be reused or worn. There is a trend of moving these facilities from developed countries to developing countries.[17]

Damaged textiles are further sorted into grades to make industrial wiping cloths and for use in paper manufacture or material suitable for fibre reclamation and filling products. If textile reprocessors receive wet or soiled clothes however, these may still be disposed of in a landfill, as the washing and drying facilities are not present at sorting units. [18]

Fibre reclamation mills sort textiles according to fibre type and colour. Colour sorting eliminates the need to re-dye the recycled textiles. The textiles are shredded into "shoddy" fibres and blended with other selected fibres, depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibres and spun ready for weaving or knitting. The fibres can also be compressed for mattress production. Textiles sent to the flocking industry are shredded to make filling material for car insulation, roofing felts, loudspeaker cones, panel linings and furniture padding.

Timber

A tidy stack of wooden pallets awaits reuse or recycling.
A tidy stack of wooden pallets awaits reuse or recycling.
Main article: Recycling timber

Recycling timber has become popular due to its image as an environmentally friendly product, with consumers commonly believing that by purchasing recycled wood the demand for green timber will fall and ultimately benefit the environment. Greenpeace also view recycled timber as an environmentally friendly product, citing it as the most preferable timber source on their website. The arrival of recycled timber as a construction product has been important in both raising industry and consumer awareness towards deforestation and promoting timber mills to adopt more environmentally friendly practices.

Other Techniques

Several other materials are also commonly recycled, frequently at an industrial level.

Ship breaking is one example that has associated environmental, health, and safety risks for the area where the operation takes place; balancing all these considerations is an environmental justice problem.

Tires are also commonly recycled. Used tires can be added to asphalt, producing road surfaces that are more durable, create less traffic noise, and absorb precipitation better than traditional asphalt[citation needed]. Tires can also be used to make rubber mulch, which is used on playgrounds for safety.

Metal scavenged from automobiles can also be recycled at an industrial scale.

Visibility: Everyone
Tags:
Posted: Dec 29, 2007 7:17pm
Dec 29, 2007
Focus: Environment
Action Request: Petition
Location: United States

Recycling is the reprocessing of materials into new products. Recycling generally prevents the waste of potentially useful materials, reduces the consumption of raw materials and reduces energy usage, and hence greenhouse gas emissions, compared to virgin production.[1] Recycling is a key concept of modern waste management and is the third component of the waste hierarchy.

Recyclable materials, also called "recyclables", may originate from a wide range of sources including the home and industry. They include glass, paper, aluminium, asphalt, iron, textiles and plastics. Biodegradable waste, such as food waste or garden waste, is also recyclable with the assistance of micro-organisms through composting or anaerobic digestion.

Recyclates are sorted and separated into material types. Contamination of the recylates with other materials must be prevented to increase the recyclates' value and facilitate easier reprocessing for the ultimate recycling facility. This sorting can be performed either by the producer of the waste or within semi- or fully-automated materials recovery facilities.

There are two common household methods of recycling. In curbside collection (UK: kerbside collection), consumers leave presorted recyclable materials in front of their property to be collected by a recycling vehicle. With a "bring" or carry-in system, the householder takes the materials to collection points, such as transfer stations or civic amenity sites.

The term recycling does not generally include reuse, in which existing items are used for a new purpose.


Recycling has been a common practice throughout human history. In pre-industrial times, scrap made of bronze and other precious metals was collected in Europe and melted down for perpetual reuse, and in Britain dust and ash from wood and coal fires was downcycled as a base material in brick making. The main driver for these types of recycling was the economic advantage of obtaining recycled feedstock instead of acquiring virgin material, as well as a lack of public waste removal in ever more-populated sites.

Paper recycling began in Britain in 1921, when the British Waste Paper Association (now Confederation of Paper Industries) was established to encourage trade in waste paper recycling.

Resource shortages caused by the world wars, and other such world-changing occurrences greatly encouraged recycling. Massive government promotion campaigns were carried out in World War II in every country involved in the war, urging citizens to donate metals and conserve fiber, as a matter of significant patriotic importance. Resource conservation programs established during the war were continued in some countries without an abundance of natural resources, such as Japan, after the war ended.

The next big investment in recycling occurred in the 1970s, due to rising energy costs. Recycling aluminum uses only 5% of the energy required by virgin production; glass, paper and metals have less dramatic but very significant energy savings when recycled feedstock is used [2]. The passage of the Clean Water Act of 1977 in the USA created strong demand for bleached paper (office paper whose fibre has already been bleached white increased in value as water effluent became more expensive).

A recycling bin at a park in northern California.
A recycling bin at a park in northern California.

In 1973, the city of Berkeley, California began one of the first curbside collection programs with monthly pick ups of newspapers from residences. Since then several countries have started and expanded various doorstep collection schemes. Around this time, Woodbury, New Jersey was also a forerunner of the recycling industry in the United States, being the first in the state to mandate it.

In 1987, the Mobro 4000 barge hauled garbage from New York to North Carolina, where it had been denied. It was then sent to Belize, where it was denied as well. Finally, the barge returned to New York and the garbage was incinerated. The incident led to heated discussions in the media about waste disposal and recycling. The incident is often referred to as igniting the recycling hysteria of the 1990s.

One event that initiated recycling efforts occurred in 1989 when Berkeley banned the use of polystyrene packaging for keeping McDonald's hamburgers warm. One effect of this ban was to raise the ire of management at the Dow Chemical Company, the world's largest manufacturer of polystyrene, which led to the first major effort to show that plastics can be recycled. By 1999, there were 1,677 companies in the USA alone involved in the post-consumer plastics recycling business.

In Germany the introduction of a Packaging Ordinance under the Waste Act led to the introduction of the Green Dot program. Originally launched by Duales System Deutschland GmbH (DSD) in 1990, the scheme has since been rolled out to 23 other European countries. The Green Dot scheme is captured under the European "Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive - 94/62/EC" and is binding for all companies if their products use packaging.


Benefits

A recycling truck collecting the contents of a recycling bin in Canberra, Australia.
A recycling truck collecting the contents of a recycling bin in Canberra, Australia.

Recycling is beneficial in two ways: it reduces the inputs (energy and raw materials) to a production system and reduces the amount of waste produced for disposal.

A study conducted by the Technical University of Denmark found that in 80% of cases, recycling is the most efficient method to dispose of household waste.[2]

Some materials like aluminum can be recycled indefinitely as there is no change to the materials. Other recycled materials like paper require a percentage of raw materials (wood fibers) to be added to compensate for the degradation of existing fibers. Recycling aluminium saves 95% of the energy cost of processing new aluminium[2] because the melting temperature is reduced from 900 °C to 600 °C. It is by far the most efficient material to recycle. Recycling plastic saves 70% of the energy used in creating new plastic, and paper recycling saves 40% of the energy required to make a new product.[2]

The resources being processed are purer, thus less energy is needed to process them. Additionally less energy is needed to transport them from the place of extraction (e.g. bauxite/aluminium ore mines in Brazil or coniferous forests in Scandinavia as compared to domestic areas).

This reduces the environmental, social, and usually the economic costs of manufacturing.

For example, bauxite mines in Brazil displace indigenous people, create noise pollution from blasting, machinery and transport, and create air pollution in the form of particulates (dust). The habitat loss and visual destruction is also negative both to the aesthetic qualities of the areas and the local environment.

The most commonly used methods for waste disposal (landfill, pyrolysis, incineration) may be environmentally damaging and unsustainable. Therefore any way to reduce the volume of waste being disposed in this fashion may be beneficial. The maximum environmental benefit is gained by waste minimization (reducing the amount of waste produced), and reusing items in their current form such as refilling bottles.

In the past recycling has been a fragmented industry with recycling companies only accepting specific materials for recycling, or only common materials such as plastic or metals. More recent approaches have resulted in recycling companies that accept a wide variety of materials or emerging market materials such as ceiling tiles, carpet, stained wood etc.. An example of a company that accepts a wide variety of materials, including emerging recycling markets is the Green Recycling Network.

Drawbacks and criticism

Main article: Recycling criticism

All recycling techniques consume energy for transportation and processing and some also use considerable amounts of water, although recycling processes seldom amount to the level of resource use associated with raw materials processing.[3]

There may also be drawbacks with the collection methods associated with recycling. Increasing collections of separated wastes adds to vehicle movements and the production of carbon dioxide. This may be negated however by centralized facilities such as some advanced material recovery facilities and mechanical biological treatment systems for the separation of mixed wastes. It has been calculated that collecting waste and disposing it in a landfill is about $60 a ton opposed to separate collecting and taking it to be recycled costs $150 a ton.[4]

Recycled materials also sometimes cost more financially than their non-recycled versions. This is not universal to every recycled product, but it does occur.[5]

Negative consequences from mercury recycling have been cited by The Wall Street Journal.[6] The article traces mercury recovered from American recycling programs into sales of mercury for alluvial mining activities in Brazil. During the autumn of 2006, the European Union banned the export of liquid mercury, and a life-cycle analysis prior to institution of recycling programs may reduce the risk of unintended environmental consequences.

For some materials, recycling is more expensive than landfill disposal unless externalities are considered.[citation needed] For these products, there is an opportunity cost to recycling. Some argue that the financial costs of recycling some materials outweigh the environmental benefits. Some skeptics also argue that the environmental benefits of recycling do not compensate for the extra effort it may require.[7]

John Tierney, in an article in The New York Times claimed that government mandated recycling wastes more resources than it saves.[8] Some highlights from the article:

  • In cases where recycling truly does save resources, such as with large scraps of aluminum, this will be reflected in market prices, and voluntary recycling will take place. Thus, there is no need for the government to mandate it.
  • Each year the United States fills up over 9 square miles of landfill space. Once full, much of that land gets turned into parks.
  • Tree farmers plant more trees than they cut down.
  • Government mandated recycling is more expensive than putting the garbage into landfills, which means that this recycling uses up more resources than it saves.
  • Some small towns with landfills are happy to import garbage from other cities and states because it provides jobs and tax revenue.
  • Today's modern landfills are much cleaner and safer, and much less likely to leak and pollute than the landfills of the past.

Recycling techniques

Base layer of asphalt concrete
Base layer of asphalt concrete

Many different materials can be recycled but each type requires a different technique.

Aggregates & concrete

Main article: Concrete recycling

Concrete aggregate collected from demolition sites is put through a crushing machine, often along with asphalt, bricks, dirt, and rocks. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. Crushed recycled concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free of contaminants. This reduces the need for other rocks to be dug up, which in turn saves trees and habitats.

Batteries

Some batteries contain toxic heavy metals
Some batteries contain toxic heavy metals

The large variation in size and type of batteries makes their recycling extremely difficult: they must first be sorted into similar kinds and each kind requires an individual recycling process. Additionally, older batteries contain mercury and cadmium, harmful materials which must be handled with care.

Lead-acid batteries, like those used in automobiles, are relatively easy to recycle and many new lead-acid batteries contain a high percentage of recycled material.

Biodegradable waste

Anaerobic digesters produce biogas and soil improver from organic wastes
Anaerobic digesters produce biogas and soil improver from organic wastes

Biodegradable waste can be recycled into useful material by biological decomposition. There are two mechanisms by which this can occur. The most common mechanism of recycling of household organic waste is home composting or municipal curbside collection of green wastes sent to large scale composting plants.

Alternatively organic waste can be converted into biogas and soil improver using anaerobic digestion. Here organic wastes are broken down by anaerobic microorganisms in biogas plants. The biogas can be converted into renewable electricity or burnt for environmentally friendly heating. Advanced technologies such as mechanical biological treatment are able to sort the recyclable elements of the waste out before biological treatment by either composting, anaerobic digestion or biodrying.

Sulabh International, an Indian NGO designed a cheap toilet system that recycles human waste into biogas and fertilizer.

Electronics disassembly and reclamation

Main article: Electronic waste
Abandoned monitor
Abandoned monitor

The direct disposal of electrical equipment — such as old computers and mobile phones — is banned in many areas due to the toxic contents of certain components. The recycling process works by mechanically separating the metals, plastics and circuit boards contained in the appliance. When this is done on a large scale at an electronic waste recycling plant, component recovery can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

Electronic devices, including audio-visual components (televisions, VCRs, stereo equipment), mobile phones and other hand-held devices, and computer components, contain valuable elements and substances suitable for reclamation, including lead, copper, and gold. They also contain a plethora of toxic substances, such as dioxins, Polychlorinated biphenyls|PCBs, cadmium, chromium, radioactive isotopes, and mercury. Additionally, the processing required to reclaim the precious substances (including incineration and acid treatments) release, generate and synthesize further toxic by-products.

In the United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills come from discarded electronics.[9]Some regional governments are attempting to curtail the accumulation of electronics in landfills by passing laws obligating manufacturers and consumers to recycle these devices,[10] but because in many cases safe dismantlement of these devices in accordance with first world safety standards is unprofitable,[citation needed] historically much of the electronic waste has been shipped to countries with lower or less rigorously-enforced safety protocols. Places like Guiyu, China dismantle tons of electronics every year, profiting from the sale of precious metals, but at the cost of the local environment and the health of its residents.[11][12]

Mining to produce the same metals, to meet demand for finished products in the west, also occurs in the same countries, and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has recommended that restrictions against recycling exports be balanced against the environmental costs of recovering those materials from mining. Hard rock mining in the USA produces 45% of all toxics produced by all USA industries (2001 US EPA Toxics Release Inventory).

Printer ink cartridges & toners

Printer ink cartridges can be recycled. They are sorted into different brands and models which are then resold back to the companies that created these cartridges. The companies then refill the ink reservoir which can be sold back to consumers. Toner cartridges are recycled the same way as ink cartridges, using toner instead of ink. This method of recycling is highly efficient as there is no energy spent on melting and recreating the recycled object itself.

Ferrous metals

Steel crushed and baled for recycling at Ozark Adventist Academy(box)
Steel crushed and baled for recycling at Ozark Adventist Academy(box)
Main articles: Steel and Blast furnace

Iron and steel are the world's most recycled materials, and among the easiest materials to recycle, as they can be separated magnetically from the waste stream. Recycling is via a steelworks: scrap is either remelted in an Electric Arc Furnace (90-100% scrap), or used as part of the charge in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (around 25% scrap).[13] Any grade of steel can be recycled to top quality new metal, with no 'downgrading' from prime to lower quality materials as steel is recycled repeatedly. 42% of crude steel produced is recycled material.[14]

Non-ferrous metals

Main article: Aluminium recycling

Aluminium is shredded and ground into small pieces or crushed into bales. These pieces or bales are melted in an aluminium smelter to produce molten aluminium. By this stage the recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium and further processing is identical for both.

Due to the high melting point of aluminium ore, large amounts of energy are required to extract aluminium from ore, making the environmental benefits of recycling aluminium enormous. Recycling aluminium only results in approximately 5% of the CO2 that would be released during the production of raw aluminium.[15] The percentage is even smaller when considering the complete cycle of mining and transporting the aluminium. Also, as open-cut mining is most often used for obtaining aluminium ore, mining destroys large sections of natural land.

An aluminium can is 100% recyclable. Every time a can is recycled, enough energy is saved to power a television for about three hours (compared to mining and producing a new can).[16]

Public glass waste collection point in a neighborhood area for separating clear, green and amber glass
Public glass waste collection point in a neighborhood area for separating clear, green and amber glass

Glass

Main article: Glass recycling

Glass bottles and jars are gathered via curbside collection schemes and bottle banks, where the glass may be sorted into color categories. The collected glass cullet is taken to a glass recycling plant where it is monitored for purity and contaminants are removed. The cullet is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace. It is then mechanically blown or molded into new jars or bottles. Glass cullet is also used in the construction industry for aggregate and glassphalt. Glassphalt is a road-laying material which comprises around 30% recycled glass. Glass can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when reprocessed.

Paper

Main article: Paper recycling
Recyclable materials
Recyclable materials

Recycled paper is made from waste paper, usually mixed with fresh wood pulp. If the paper contains ink, it must be deinked. This also removes fillers, clays, and fiber fragments.

Almost all paper can be recycled today, but some types are harder to recycle than others. Papers coated with plastic or aluminum foil, and papers that are waxed, pasted, or gummed are usually not recycled because the process is too expensive. Gift wrap paper also cannot be recycled. Different types of paper are usually sorted before recycling, such as newspapers and cardboard boxes.

Different grades of paper are recycled into different types of new products. Old newspapers are usually made into new newsprint, egg cartons, or paperboard. Old corrugated boxes are made into new corrugated boxes or paperboard. High-grade white office paper can be made into almost any new paper product: stationery, newsprint, magazines, or books.

Sometimes recyclers ask for the removal of the glossy inserts from newspapers because they are a different type of paper. Glossy inserts have a heavy clay coating that some paper mills cannot accept. Most of the clay is removed from the recycled pulp as sludge which must be disposed. If the coated paper is 20% by weight clay, then each ton of glossy paper produces more than 200 kg of sludge and less than 800 kg of fiber. Uncoated (no clay), recycled newsprint gives less sludge and more useable fiber.

Paper can only be recycled a finite number of times due to the shortening of paper fibers making the material less versatile. Often it will be mixed with a quantity of virgin material, referred to as downcycling. This does not however exclude the material from being used in other processes such as composting or anaerobic digestion, where further value can be extracted from the material in the form of compost or biogas.

Plastic

Main article: Plastic recycling

Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products. Compared to glass or metallic materials, plastic poses unique challenges - because of the massive number of types of plastic, they each carry a resin identification code, and must be sorted before they can be recycled. This can be costly - while metals can be sorted using electromagnets, no such 'easy sorting' capability exists for plastics. In addition to this, while labels do not need to be removed from bottles for recycling, lids are often made from a different kind of non-recyclable plastic.

Plastics recycling rates lag far behind those of other items, such as newspaper and aluminium; consumers are typically unsure of how to recycle plastics, and compared to paper and metals fewer recycling facilities exist.[citation needed]

Textiles

Main article: Textile recycling

When considering textile recycling one must understand what the material consists of. Most textiles are composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textile's composition will affect its durability and method of recycling.

Workers sort and separate collected textiles into good quality clothing and shoes which can be reused or worn. There is a trend of moving these facilities from developed countries to developing countries.[17]

Damaged textiles are further sorted into grades to make industrial wiping cloths and for use in paper manufacture or material suitable for fibre reclamation and filling products. If textile reprocessors receive wet or soiled clothes however, these may still be disposed of in a landfill, as the washing and drying facilities are not present at sorting units. [18]

Fibre reclamation mills sort textiles according to fibre type and colour. Colour sorting eliminates the need to re-dye the recycled textiles. The textiles are shredded into "shoddy" fibres and blended with other selected fibres, depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibres and spun ready for weaving or knitting. The fibres can also be compressed for mattress production. Textiles sent to the flocking industry are shredded to make filling material for car insulation, roofing felts, loudspeaker cones, panel linings and furniture padding.

Timber

A tidy stack of wooden pallets awaits reuse or recycling.
A tidy stack of wooden pallets awaits reuse or recycling.
Main article: Recycling timber

Recycling timber has become popular due to its image as an environmentally friendly product, with consumers commonly believing that by purchasing recycled wood the demand for green timber will fall and ultimately benefit the environment. Greenpeace also view recycled timber as an environmentally friendly product, citing it as the most preferable timber source on their website. The arrival of recycled timber as a construction product has been important in both raising industry and consumer awareness towards deforestation and promoting timber mills to adopt more environmentally friendly practices.

Other Techniques

Several other materials are also commonly recycled, frequently at an industrial level.

Ship breaking is one example that has associated environmental, health, and safety risks for the area where the operation takes place; balancing all these considerations is an environmental justice problem.

Tires are also commonly recycled. Used tires can be added to asphalt, producing road surfaces that are more durable, create less traffic noise, and absorb precipitation better than traditional asphalt[citation needed]. Tires can also be used to make rubber mulch, which is used on playgrounds for safety.

Metal scavenged from automobiles can also be recycled at an industrial scale.

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Posted: Dec 29, 2007 6:48pm
Dec 29, 2007
The Christ Print
Written by Samael Aun Weor   
  • Kristos (or Krestos): (Greek) Literally, Christ. Esoterically, fire. Christ is fire.

ImageThe Adorable God Kristos (Christ) comes from archaic cults to the Fire-God. The letters P (Pyre) and X (Cross) are the hieroglyph which represent the generation of the Sacred Fire.

Christ was worshipped in the mysteries of Mithra, Apollo, Aphrodite, Jupiter, Janus, Vesta, Bacchus, Astarte, Demeter, Quetzalcoatl, etc.

The Christic principle has never been absent from any religion. All religions are one. Religion is as inherent to life as humidity is to water. The Great Cosmic Universal Religion becomes modified into thousands of religious forms. Thus, the priests from all religious forms are completely identifiable with one another through the fundamental principles of the Great Cosmic Universal Religion.

Therefore, a basic difference between the Mohammedan priest and the Jewish priest, or between the Pagan priest and the legitimate Christian one, does not exist. Religion is one. Religion is unique and absolutely universal. The ceremonies of the Shinto priest of Japan or of the Mongol Lamas are similar to those ceremonies of the shamans and sorcerers from Africa and Oceania.

When a religious form degenerates, it disappears; yet, the universal life creates new religious forms in order to replace it.

Image Authentic primeval Gnostic Christianity comes from Paganism. Prior to Paganism, the Cosmic Christ was worshipped in all cults. In Egypt, Christ was Osiris and whosoever incarnated him was an Osirified one. In all ages there have been Masters who have assimilated the Infinite Universal Christic Principle. In Egypt, Hermes was the Christ. In Mexico, the Christ was Quetzalcoatl. In Sacred India, Krishna is Christ. In the Holy Land, the Great Gnostic Jesus, who was educated in the land of Egypt, was the one who had the bliss of assimilating the Universal Christic Principle, and because of this, he was worthy of being re-baptised with the Seity of Fire and of the Cross, Kristos.

The Nazarene, Jesus-Iesus-Zeus, is the modern man who totally incarnates the Universal Christic Principle. Prior to Jesus, many Masters incarnated this Christic principle of Fire.

The Rabbi of Galilee is a God, because he totally incarnated the Cosmic Christ. Hermes, Quetzalcoatl, Krishna are Gods because they also incarnated the Cosmic Christ.

It is necessary to worship the Gods; they help their devotees. "Ask, and it shall be given you... Knock, and it shall be opened unto you."

Sexual Magic is the art of producing Fire. We can produce Fire, develop it and incarnate the Christ only with the Perfect Matrimony. This is how we become Gods.

The Christic Principle is always the same. The Masters who incarnate it are living Buddhas. Among them there are always hierarchies. The Buddha Jesus is the most exalted Initiate of the Universal White Fraternity.

When a religious form has fulfilled its mission, it disintegrates. Jesus the Christ was in fact the initiator of a New Era. Jesus was a religious necessity of that epoch. At the end of the Roman Empire, the Pagan priestly caste had fallen into the most complete disrepute. The multitudes no longer respected the priests and the artists satirised the divine rituals in comedies, sarcastically nicknaming the Divinities of Olympus and Avernus. It is painful to see how these people depicted the God Bacchus as a drunken woman, and at other times caricatured him as a pot-bellied drunkard mounted upon a donkey. They represented the ineffable and blessed Goddess Venus as an adulterous woman who went in search of orgiastic pleasure, followed by Nymphs who were chased by Satyrs in front of Pan and Bacchus.

During that epoch of religious decadence, the people of Greece and Rome did not even respect Mars, the God of War. They sarcastically represented him trapped by Vulcan's invisible net, in the instant of committing adultery with his wife, the beautiful Venus, the way in which they made of the offended one a ridicule, along with the sarcasm, the irony, etc., clearly show the decadence of Paganism. Not even Jupiter-Olympus, the Father of the Gods, escaped profanation for he was sarcastically represented in many satires busy seducing Goddesses, Nymphs and mortals. Priapus became the terror of husbands, and Olympus, the ancient abode of the Gods, became a licentious bacchanal.

The terrible Avernus (inferno) ruled by Pluto, source of terror for innumerable centuries, no longer frightened anybody and became a subject of comedy with intrigues of all kinds, sarcasm and ridicule that made everybody laugh. The anathemas and the excommunications performed by priests, pontiffs, bishops, etc., did not have any effect, because the people no longer respected them. The religious form had fulfilled its mission and its death was inevitable. Most of the priests then degenerated and prostituted themselves in the already degenerate temples of Vesta, Venus-Aphrodite and Apollo.

During that epoch many Pagan priests became vagrants, comedians, puppeteers, beggars. The common people mocked them and ran after them throwing stones. This is how the religious form of Roman Paganism ended. That form had already completed its mission and at that point all that remained was for it to die.

The world needed something new. The universal religion needed to manifest in a new form. Jesus was the initiator of that New Era. Indeed, Jesus the Christ was the Divine Hero of the New Age.

The Nicene Council held in the year 325 A. D. did not create a new hero, as the materialistic swine suppose. In the Nicene Council a Doctrine and a Man were officially recognized.

The Doctrine was primeval Christianity, today disfigured by the Roman Catholic sect. The Man was Jesus. Many men had declared themselves Avatars of the New Era; however, none of them except for Jesus had taught the Doctrine of the New Era. The facts speak for themselves, and Jesus spoke with facts; this is why He was recognised as the initiator of the New Era.

The Doctrine of Jesus is Christic esoterism, the Solar Religion of all ages and centuries.

The Gnosticism taught by Jesus is the religion of the Sun, the primeval Christianity of the Gods of Dawn.

Indeed, the Nicene Council gave legal status to a new religious form that had long endured terrifying persecution and martyrdom. It is enough to remember the circus of lions in the times of Nero, when the Christians were thrown into the arena to be devoured by those wild animals.

Let us remember the epoch of the catacombs and the sufferings of all those Gnostics. It was only just that the Nicene Council should definitively recognize in a totally official form a Solar Doctrine and a Man who had incarnated the Cosmic Christ.

We clarify that the Holy Gods of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Iberian, Scandinavian, Gaelic, Germanic, Assyrian, Aramaic, Babylonian, Persian religions, etc., have not died. Those Gods fulfilled their mission and thereafter they withdrew; that is all. In a future Mahamanvantara those ineffable Gods and their divine religions will return in the right day and hour for a new manifestation.

When a religious form disappears, it commends its ecumenical universal principles to the religious form that follows it. This is the Law of Life.

Jesus has the divine attributes of Krishna, Buddha, Zeus-Jupiter, Apollo. All of them were born from a Virgin. Indeed, Christ is always born from the Virgin Mother of the World. Every Master practises Sexual Magic; thus, speaking in a symbolic sense, we can assert that Christ is born within the womb of the priestess wife.

The emblems, symbols and dramas of the Birth of the Gods are always the same. The God Mithra was born on the 24th of December at midnight, just as Jesus. The birthplace of Jesus was Bethlehem. This name comes from the name of the God of Babylonian and Germanic people, who named their Sun God Bel or Beleno. Therefore, the birth in Belen or Bethlehem was in order to make understandable the reality of a Man who had incarnated the Christ-Sun.

Thus, the Goddesses Isis, Juno, Demeter, Ceres, Vesta, Maia, were personified in the mother of the Hierophant Jesus. The Hebrew Maiden Mary was a great Initiate. Every occultist knows this. All these Goddess Mothers can rightly represent the Divine Mother Kundalini from whom the Universal Verb of Life is always born.

All the martyred Saints, Virgins, Angels, Cherubim, Seraphim, Archangels, Powers, Virtues and Thrones are the same Demigods, Titans, Goddesses, Sylphs, Cyclops and Messengers of the Gods, yet now with new names. The religious principles are always the same. The religious forms may change; however, the principles do not change because only one religion, the Universal Religion, exists.

The ancient convents of nuns reappeared in a new form. Nonetheless, it was a misfortune, because the medieval priests only used the priestesses to fornicate, because of the fact of not knowing the Great Arcanum. If they had known the Great Arcanum, the priestesses would have fulfilled a great mission, and the priests would have attained profound Self-realization. Then the Roman Catholic form would not have degenerated, and Christic Esoterism would now be resplendent in all temples.

Gnostic Christic esoterism will replace the Catholic form in the New Age of Aquarius; thus, the human being will venerate the ineffable Gods. The Perfect Matrimony is the religious path of the New Age.

To incarnate the Cosmic Christ without Sexual Magic is impossible. Love is the highest religion. God is Love. The hour to understand in depth the profound meaning of that which is called Love has arrived. Indeed, Love is the only type of energy that can totally Christify us.

Sex is the stone of the Sun. Sex is the cornerstone upon which we have to build the Temple for the Lord.

The stone which the builders disallowed, the same is become the head of the corner; this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes.

Precisely, this stone is rejected by infrasexual people who presume of being perfect. It is indeed something marvelous that this stone, considered taboo, or sinful, or simply an instrument of pleasure, be placed at the head of the corner of the Temple.

Therefore I say unto you, the kingdom of God (the Magis Regnum or Kingdom of Magic) shall be taken from you and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof.

And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken, but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder. - Matthew 21:42-45

Sex is the foundation stone of the family, because without it, the family could not exist. Sex is the foundation stone of the human being, because without it, the human being could not come into existence. Sex is the foundation stone of the Universe, because without it the Universe could not exist.

The sexual energy of the Third Logos flows from the center of every nebula and from the vortex of every atom. When this energy stops flowing from the center of the Earth, this planet will become a corpse.

The sexual energy of the Third Logos has three modes of expression:

  1. Reproduction of the species
  2. Evolution of the human race
  3. Spiritual development

The Kundalini is the very same type of energy with which the Third Logos elaborates all the elements of the Earth.

In nature there are three types of energy: first, the energy of the Father, second, the energy of the Son, third, the energy of the Holy Spirit. In India the Father is Brahma, the Son is Vishnu and the Holy Spirit is Shiva.

The force of the Holy Spirit must return inwards and upwards. It is urgent that the sexual forces are sublimated to the heart. In this magnetic center these forces are mixed with the forces of the Son in order to ascend to the superior worlds. Only the one who attains the complete development of the Kundalini is totally Christified. Only the one who is Christified can incarnate the Father.

The Son is one with the Father and the Father is one with the Son. No one reaches the Father but through the Son. So it is written.

The forces of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit descend to later return inwards and upwards. This is Law.

The energies of the Holy Spirit descend into the sexual organs. The energies of the Son descend into the heart, and the energies of the Father into the mind. We return throughout the energies of the Holy Spirit, and on this return marvelous encounters occur. Thus, in the heart we meet the Christ and in the mind the Father. An inwardly and upwardly return is what these encounters signify. This is how we pass beyond the fourth, fifth and sixth dimensions of space. This is how we liberate ourselves completely.

Image Much has been stated about the Hierophant Jesus, however, the fact is that nobody knows his personal biography. The tendency to castrate the Hierophant Jesus exists. The Christian sects depict an infrasexual Jesus, effeminate, weak; yet at times angry, like a whimsical woman. Naturally, all of this is absurd. The fact is that nobody knows the personal life of Jesus, because we do not have his biography. Only with the faculties of objective clairvoyance can we study the life of Jesus in the Akasic Records of Nature. The Akasa is a subtle agent that penetrates and permeates the whole space. All the events of the Earth and its races, the life of Jesus etc., are depicted as an eternal and living film within the Akasa. This medium even permeates the air. Radio-television science will have instruments adequate to see the Akasic records at the end of this century. Then, people will study the personal life of the Hierophant Jesus with this equipment.

We already know that all movement is relative and that there is only one constant. This one is the velocity of light. Light travels at a certain constant velocity. The astronomers perceive with their lenses stars that have already ceased to exist. What they see and even photograph of these stars is the memory, the Akasa. Many of these stars are so distant, that the light coming from them could have begun its journey before the formation of the world. This slowness of light, this constant, may in reality make possible the invention of certain special instruments with which the past can be seen. None of this is impossible. Thus, with a very special telescope, with a very special radio-television apparatus, it is possible to capture sounds and light, events and happenings that have occurred on our Earth since the formation of the world. Science will achieve this very soon, at the end of this century. Then it will be possible to write the biography of Jesus.

The Gnostics, in the Astral Body, study the Akasic records whenever it is necessary. We know the life of the Great Master and we know that Jesus was really a complete man in the fullest sense of the word. Jesus had a priestess wife, because he was not an infrasexual. The wife of Jesus was evidently a complete Lady Adept, endowed with great secret powers. Jesus travelled through Europe and was a member of a Mediterranean Mystery School. Jesus studied in Egypt and practised Sexual Magic with his priestess inside one of the pyramids. That is how he recapitulated the initiations and later achieved the Venustic Initiation. Jesus travelled through Persia, India, etc. Thus, the Great Master was a Master in the most complete sense of the word.

The four Gospels are indeed four texts of Alchemy and White Magic. Initiation begins with the transmutation of the water of life (semen) into the Wine of Light of the Alchemist. This miracle is performed at the Wedding of Cana, a miracle always in wedlock. One begins to traverse the path of initiation with this miracle. All the drama of the life, Passion and Death of Jesus is as ancient as the world. This drama comes from the past, from ancient archaic religions and is known in every corner of the world. This drama is applicable to Jesus, and in general to all those who traverse the Path of the Razor's Edge. That drama is not the personal life of one man. That drama is the esoteric life of all those who follow the Secret Path. That drama can be applied to Jesus, as well as to any other Christified Initiate. Indeed, the drama of the life, Passion, Death and Resurrection of Jesus is a cosmic drama that existed long before the existence of the world. That drama is known in all worlds of infinite space.

The four Gospels can only be understood with the key of Sexual Magic and the Perfect Matrimony. The four Gospels were only written to serve as a guide to the few who follow the Path of the Razor's Edge. The four Gospels were never written for the multitudes. The work of adapting the cosmic drama to the New Age was marvelous. Secret groups of Initiates took part in this work. They did a splendid job.

When profane people study the Gospels, they misinterpret them.

Jesus had the heroism to assimilate the Christic Substance in all his internal vehicles. He achieved this by working with INRI (Fire). This is how the Hierophant was able to be One with the Father. Jesus became a Christ and ascended to the Father. Everyone who assimilates the Christic Substance in the physiological, biological, psychic and spiritual Self becomes a Christ. Therefore, Christ is not some kind of human or divine individual. Christ is a cosmic substance that is found in the whole infinite space. We need to form Christ within us. This is only possible with INRI (Fire).

Christ cannot do anything without the Snake. The snake only develops, evolves and progresses by practising Sexual Magic.

Whosoever forms Christ becomes Christ. Only Christ can ascend to the Father. The Father is neither a human nor a divine individual. The Father, the Son and Holy Spirit are substances, forces, transcendental and terrifically divine energies. That is all. What happens is that unfortunately people have a marked tendency to anthropomorphise these superior forces.

Jesus lived the drama of the Passion; nonetheless, he was not the only one who has lived it. Prior to him, some Initiates like Hermes, Quetzalcoatl, Krishna, Orpheus, Buddha etc., lived it. After Him, a few others have lived it. The drama of the Passion is cosmic.

Christ and Sexual Magic are the synthesis of all religions, schools and beliefs. The Perfect Matrimony does not harm anyone. All the priests of all religions, teachers of all schools, the worshippers of Christ, the lovers of Wisdom, can traverse the Path of the Perfect Matrimony. The Synthesis does not harm anyone rather it benefits all. This is the Doctrine of the Synthesis. This is the Doctrine of the New Era.

We, the members of all schools, religions, sects, orders, etc., would do well to agree on the basis of the Perfect Matrimony as the foundation for a new civilization based on the Wisdom of the Serpent. We need a new civilization based on the Perfect Matrimony. The entire world is in crisis and only with Love can we save ourselves.

We, the Gnostics, are not against any religion, because this would be an absurdity. All religions are needed. All religions are diverse manifestations of the Universal Infinite Cosmic Religion. People without religion would be a serious and lamentable thing. We believe that all schools and sects fulfill their mission teaching, studying, discussing etc. What is important, and indeed this is fundamental, is that people follow the Path of the Perfect Matrimony. Love does not harm or hurt anyone. Gnosis is the flame from which all religions, schools and beliefs come from. Gnosis is Wisdom and Love.

Those who believe they will achieve Christification in time, by means of evolution, reincarnating and gaining many experiences, are in fact mistaken. Those who think in that way are delaying the error from century to century, from life to life; however, the reality is that in the end, they will be lost in the abyss.

We, the Gnostics, do not deny the law of evolution. We only state that this law does not Christify anyone. The laws of evolution and devolution are purely mechanical laws of nature that proceed simultaneously in the entire great laboratory of Nature. Many organisms, many species are a product of devolution and many other organisms and species are a product of evolution. The grave problem lies in attributing to evolution aspects, virtues and qualities that it does not possess. Evolution does not Christify anybody. Whosoever wants Christification needs the Revolution of the Consciousness. This is only possible by working with the Grain. We must clarify that the work with the Grain has three completely defined lines.

First: to be born.

Second: to die.

Third: to sacrifice for the poor, suffering humanity.

To be born is a completely sexual problem. To die is a matter of sanctity. Sacrifice for humanity is Christ-centrism.

The Angel must be born within us. This Angel is born from his sexual seed. Satan must die; this is a matter of sanctity. We must give our life in order for others to live. This is Christ-centrism.

The Hierophant Jesus really lived all the drama of the Passion, just as it is written. Even though we are really miserable worms of the Earth, we need also to live all the drama of the Passion.

Jesus was the son of a Roman soldier and a Hebrew woman. The Great Hierophant was of medium stature and with fair skin, lightly tanned by the rays of the Sun. The Great Master had black hair and a beard of the same color. His eyes were like two ineffable nights. The word Nazarene comes from nazar, meaning "a man with a straight nose." Jesus did not have the hooked, Jewish type of nose. The Great Master had a straight nose. This is typical of the white European race. Jesus was only Jewish on the side of the Hebrew Mary; however, on his father's side he was of the white Celtic race. His father was a Roman soldier. The priestess wife of the Master Jesus was also of white race and had great esoteric powers, as she demonstrated when travelling with the Nazarene through the countries of the Mediterranean in the lands of Europe.

Jesus was a complete man. Jesus was not the castrated one who many religions depicted. Jesus followed the Path of the Perfect Matrimony. Jesus formed the Christ within himself by practising Sexual Magic with his wife. What we are stating will shock fanatics. Nevertheless, when scientists have the Akasic records of nature in their power, then these people will see that we were right, because they will be able to see for themselves the life of Jesus by means of ultramodern television (it does not matter what name will be given to those devices in that age).

The whole history of the world will be known through the Akasic records, the lives of all the great beings, the complete history of Cleopatra and Mark Antony, etc. Time is passing and the facts will confirm our statements.

During the days in which we were completing these thirty-three chapters of the Perfect Matrimony, we have been informed that the Great Master Jesus is in the western United States. The Great Master walks the streets anonymously and unknown; he dresses as any citizen and nobody knows him. A tremendous flow of Christic energy comes from him and is dispersed to the whole of America. The Great Master still maintains the same body that he had in the Holy Land. Indeed, the Great Hierophant Jesus resurrected on the third day from among the dead, and still lives with his physical body. Jesus achieved resurrection through the Elixir of Long Life. Jesus received the Elixir of Long Life because he was Christified. Jesus was Christified. Jesus was Christified because he followed the Path of the Perfect Matrimony. 

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Posted: Dec 29, 2007 6:17pm
Dec 17, 2007
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Posted: Dec 17, 2007 4:56pm
Dec 11, 2007

Let's make a recycle law, specially for bussiness!

Please sing my petition here:

http://www.thepetitionsite.com/1/lets-make-a-recycable-law-for-bussiness
How much of your time you spend at home? Well the average american spent a lot time outside. We go to work, school, shop, restaurants, enterteiments, libraries, gym, parks, etc. So, why bussiness don't recycle! Do you know that there is no law to incentivate that! It's optional.  Also, garbage and recycle companies do not provide recycle services to bussines like they offer to residential areas. So where all the garbage that can be recycleable is going? Landfills! It's going to our planet! We need to change that! Remember 85% of your garbage is recycable. We need to educate and send the message out! We need to save our home. The planet is alive and we are killing it. What would you do if you have a nasty rash, clean it. Right! Well what do you think our planet is doing?

Imported from external blog

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Posted: Dec 11, 2007 5:37pm
Dec 7, 2007
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Written by Gnosticteachings.com  

 Gnosis is Greek for “knowledge.” Gnosis is experiential knowledge, rather than intellectual or conceptual knowledge.

The venerable science of Gnosis is the universal and essential "knowing" that arises from the experience of objective reality, universally experienced by all those who fully awaken and develop their consciousness. The means to arrive at knowing that reality for oneself, in ones own experience, is also called Gnosis, because it leads to the acquisition of one’s own Gnosis of fundamental truth.

Gnosis is, in its essence, the method to escape suffering, because the entrance into objective reality is the escape from the subjective mind, within which we all suffer intensely.

This science is exact and has existed for millennia.

True Gnosis is free of separatism, dogma, politics, fanaticism, and sectarianism.

The hallmarks of true Gnosis are profound compassion, penetrating wisdom, and sparkling intelligence.

Gnosis has been expressed by all the world’s great saints and enlightened souls, each with their own words and voice.

All religions are precious pearls strung on the golden thread of divinity. - Samael Aun Weor

True Gnosis is universal to all mankind and can be found in all genuine religions and mystical traditions. Thus, within all of them is The Doctrine of the Synthesis: the Universal Teaching from which all religions have been born. This root knowledge is the essential science that every human being needs in order to know the Mysteries of Life and Death directly, personally, through their own experience.

All religious forms are manifestations of the great Cosmic Universal Infinite Religion latent in every atom of the Cosmos.

There is Gnosis in the Buddhist doctrine, in the Tantric Buddhism from Tibet, in the Zen Buddhism from Japan, in the Ch’an Buddhism of China, in Sufism, in the Whirling Dervishes, in the Egyptian, Persian, Chaldean, Pythagorean, Greek, Aztec, Mayan, Inca, etc., wisdom.  

We teach the synthesis of all religions, schools, orders, lodges and beliefs.  Our doctrine is the Doctrine of the Synthesis. - Samael Aun Weor, The Perfect Matrimony  

The Heart of Gnosis 

The heart of Gnosis is the Great Arcanum, Daath (or Da'ath, which is Hebrew for "knowledge"), the vital wisdom symbolized in the story of the Garden of Eden as the Tree of Knowledge. Adam and Eve abused that tree, and were cast out of Eden; this story is symbolic.

The ancient cultures who built the great pyramids, who developed tremendous civilizations, who possessed knowledge and technologies that even today we are unable to understand, all possessed and venerated the mystical sciences above all else. And the greatest secret, the greatest science of all, the Great Arcanum, or the great Occult Science of Alchemy, was the most important one of all. The Egyptians, the Aztecs, Mayans, Chaldeans, Hindus, Tibetans, etc. all had as their most precious treasure the Great Arcanum. 

In all these civilizations, the esoteric knowledge was always reserved for an elite group. Whether in India or in Egypt or in the Mayan or Aztec civilization, the mystical knowledge was transmitted, practiced and maintained by a priesthood of carefully cultivated individuals. And these individuals were subject to the most rigorous, demanding discipline and guidelines. In order to enter into the knowledge of the Great Arcanum, they had to pass test after test, proving their sincerity and trustworthiness. Many times, they would be watched for years, even without their knowledge. Many times, they would be rejected only to see how they would react, if they would still respect the vows they had taken. So important and so powerful were the secrets of the Great Arcanum, the greatest mystery of the mystery schools, that any initiate who revealed it, who merely spoke of it, was beheaded and his ashes tossed to the winds, or he mysteriously disappeared. Inevitably, all initiates who publicly revealed the secrets of the Great Arcanum were killed and wiped from the Earth. That is, until very recently.

In ages previous to ours, the specific meaning of the Tree of Knowledge - or to be more exact, The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Bad - was hidden until the seeker was proven worthy. Unfortunately, desire corrupts the mind; desire for power and envy for knowledge led many to threaten and even kill the holders of the hidden wisdom, thereby forcing the real Initiates to go into hiding in most places on the planet. The knowledge had to be hidden to protect it.

 For the crime of having accompanied Jesus Christ in the holy land, and because of having celebrated our rituals within Rome’s catacombs, we, the Gnostics, faced the lions in the circus of Rome. Then later, in time, we were burnt alive in the flames of the Roman Catholic inquisition. Previously, we were the mystical Essenes of Palestine.  So, we are not improvising opportunist doctrines. We were hidden for twenty centuries, but now we are returning once again to the street in order to carry on our shoulders the old, rough, and heavy cross.

Paul of Tarsus took our doctrine to Rome. Yes, he was a Gnostic Nazarene.

Jesus-Christ taught our doctrine in secrecy to his seventy disciples.

The Sethians, Peratae, Carpocratians, Nazarenes and Essenes were Gnostics. The Egyptian and Aztec mysteries, the mysteries of Rome, Troy, Carthage, of Eleusis, India, of the Druids, Pythagoreans, Kambirs, of Mithra and Persia, etc., are in their depth that which we call Gnosis or Gnosticism.

We are now once again opening the ancient Gnostic Sanctuaries, which were closed with the arrival of the Dark Age. Thus, we are now opening the authentic Initiatic Colleges.- Samael Aun Weor, The Major Mysteries   

One thing anyone who seriously studies esoterism will discover is that the underlying science, though never explained openly, is unalterable; all true initiates agree on the essential nature of the science and art, regardless of their tradition or even what century they lived in. Jesus of Nazareth, Hermes Trismegistus, Moses, St. Augustine, Homer, King Solomon, the Buddha Shakyamuni, the Indian Tantric master Padmasambhava, Mohammed, Eliphas Levi, H.P.Blavatsky, the Buddha Maitreya, Rudolf Steiner, Swami Shivananda, Nicolas Flamel, Basil Valentine, Master Moira, Max Heindel, Paracelsus, Arnold Krumm Heller, Dion Fortune, and Samael Aun Weor, writers and mystics that span the last three thousand years, all agree, all describe the exact same science, though they use different symbols and dialects. And this science is exactly the same in the mysteries of Eleusis, the Aztecs, the Maya, the Chaldeans, the Essenes, etc. This inner knowledge is the One Path spoken of by Jesus of Nazareth:

Enter by the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is easy that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many. For the gate is narrow and the way is hard that leads to life, and those who find it are few. - Matthew 7:13

  The narrow gate is the gate back to Eden; it is the gate we left through so long ago. This gate is the knowledge of the Great Arcanum. To practice the teachings contained in this most precious treasure is to step onto the true Path. This path, and the steps that make it, is defined in Hebrew by the word Daath. Daath is the hidden sphere of the Kabbalah, and the word means "knowledge." It is the Tree of Knowledge from the Garden of Eden, which bore the fruit eaten by Adam and Eve. The Greek word for Daath (Knowledge) is Gnosis.

There is one core teaching. This teaching has had many names and many faces, because the science and art of awakening the consciousness in a positive manner are universal and eternal, but have been hidden from the eyes of the common man. What the common man has seen is the wide gate that leads to destruction.

Many do not seem to realize that there is a vast expanse of schools, traditions and religions who have taken the core spiritual knowledge, the Great Arcanum, and corrupted it, either intentionally or ignorantly. In most cases, these are the most respected, most famous and most "popular" teachings; respected, famous and popular precisely because they do not conflict with the core psychological problems that degenerate the mind.

Black Magic appeals to the mass mind. It appeals to the principles of our civilization. It offers something for nothing. As long as there is cupidity in the human heart, it will remain as a menace to the honesty and integrity of our race. - Manly P. Hall from Magic: a Treatise on Esoteric Ethics

The hidden, inner meanings of all the great religions have always been fiercely protected and restricted, precisely because they contain tremendous power; power all too easily misunderstood and misused by the selfish, vulgar common thread of humanity. The transmission of the knowledge required a student to be "pious, gentle, and fearing God," or, in other words, the opposite type of person from the one who merely wants to make gold from lead, to feed his desires. 

The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw an acceleration of the process of bringing all the streams of wisdom together once more. In her remarkable Secret Doctrine (1888), H.P.Blavatsky stated explicitly:

These truths are in no sense put forward as a revelation; nor does the author claim the position of a revealer of mystic lore, now made public for the first time in the world's history. For what is contained in this work is to be found scattered throughout thousands of volumes embodying the scriptures of the great Asiatic and early European religions, hidden under glyph and symbol, and hitherto left unnoticed because of this veil. What is now attempted is to gather the oldest tenets together and to make of them one harmonious and unbroken whole. The sole advantage which the writer has over her predecessors, is that she need not resort to personal speculations and theories. For this work is a partial statement of what she herself has been taught by more advanced students, supplemented, in a few details only, by the results of her own study and observation. The publication of many of the facts herein stated has been rendered necessary by the wild and fanciful speculations in which many Theosophists and students of mysticism have indulged, during the last few years, in their endeavour to, as they imagined, work out a complete system of thought from the few facts previously communicated to them.

It is needless to explain that this book is not the Secret Doctrine in its entirety, but a select number of fragments of its fundamental tenets, special attention being paid to some facts which have been seized upon by various writers, and distorted out of all resemblance to the truth.

But it is perhaps desirable to state unequivocally that the teachings, however fragmentary and incomplete, contained in these volumes, belong neither to the Hindu, the Zoroastrian, the Chaldean, nor the Egyptian religion, neither to Buddhism, Islam, Judaism nor Christianity exclusively. The Secret Doctrine is the essence of all these. Sprung from it in their origins, the various religious schemes are now made to merge back into their original element, out of which every mystery and dogma has grown, developed, and become materialised. - H.P.Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine (1888)

Yet, she herself stated that the full revelation of the Mysteries of Gnosis would come at a later date: 

In Century the Twentieth some disciple more informed, and far better fitted, may be sent by the Masters of Wisdom to give final and irrefutable proofs that there exists a Science called Gupta-Vidya; and that, like the once- mysterious sources of the Nile, the source of all religions and philosophies now known to the world has been for many ages forgotten and lost to men, but is at last found. - H.P.Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine (1888)

The New Age 

On February 4, 1962, when the Age of Aquarius arrived, humanity entered into a very new situation. With the new celestial influence we saw the arrival of a huge shift in society: mass rebellion against the old ways, sexual experimentation, giant social earthquakes shaking up all the old traditions. We also saw the arrival in the West of a strong spiritual longing, and deep thirst for true, authentic spiritual experience. These two elements:

  • 1) rebellion to tradition, and
  • 2) thirst for spiritual knowledge

are a direct effect of the influence of Aquarius, the most revolutionary sign of the zodiac. Aquarius is the Water Carrier, the significance of which you will see if you study the works of the aforementioned teachers. Its occult significance is Knowledge, the bringer of Knowledge.



 With the new age came a sudden revealing of all the hidden knowledge. The doors to the mysteries were thrown open so that humanity can save itself from itself. This revelation was initiated by the first public exposure of the ancient esoteric knowledge: the publication of Samael Aun Weor's The Perfect Matrimony in the year 1950. The appearance of this book sparked a wildfire in the spiritual communities of that time; -many were shocked, many were outraged, and many were deeply inspired. The Roman Catholic Church sought to have Samael arrested; and he was. Many people threatened to kill him; several attempts were made against his life. And yet, in the end, the release of this book sprouted the International Gnostic Movement, a widespread and diversified collection of schools, teachers, and students whose message has now spread to every continent on the planet, all under the flag raised by Samael Aun Weor.

When the true esoteric knowledge, the genuine path to the Self-realization of the Being, was revealed, there came a blinding blizzard of false knowledge, the "wolves in sheep skin" who purposely or unconsciously sought to subvert the thirst of humanity in order to feed their own lust, pride, greed, vanity, etc. So now we can easily find a thousand books about "esoteric teachings" but very, very few are genuine. We can find several hundred books about "esoteric Tantra" but any educated student can easily see that they are all 100% Black Magic. Nowadays we can find many teachers who supposedly teach the "hidden knowledge," but how do we know what is true and real, and what is a deception of the ego in men?

With the keys revealed in the works of Samael Aun Weor, anyone can begin to determine what is true and what is not in any teaching, from any time or place. As he says in The Esoteric Treatise of Hermetic Astrology,

The Golden Door of Wisdom can transform itself into the wide door and broad path which leads to destruction, the door of magical arts practiced with egotistical ends. We are in the Age of Kali-Yuga, the Iron Age, the Black Age, and all the students of occultism are predisposed to becoming lost in the Black Path. It is astonishing to see the mistaken concept held by the "little brothers" regarding occultism and the ease with which they believe they can reach the door and cross the threshold of mystery without great sacrifice.

The true and deep knowledge of Alchemy, Kabbalah, Esoteric Psychology, and Meditation is the knowledge that transforms the common human being into a Master, an Angel, a Buddha. To achieve such a tremendous transformation is not a matter of belief or concept: it is a complete psychological revolution, a revolution of the whole person, on every level. It is an exact science, and it is filled with dangers from within and without. Each step holds the potential for falling from the path, so it takes great care and great attention. The path is One Path, the same path taught by every Christified Master, the same path that illuminated all the Angels and Buddhas of every tradition, no matter what culture or religion or age they blossomed from.

It is impossible to bring souls into the Light without the Mysteries of the Light-kingdom. -Jesus, from The Pistis Sophia (ch 103)

Samael Aun Weor wrote over sixty books illuminating the Path to the Self-realization of the Being. His books are filled with practical exercises and detailed instructions regarding the many requirements to entering into true and genuine Initiation. He founded the International Gnostic Movement and instituted many levels of instruction and assistance for humanity. His entire life was dedicated to offering to humanity the essential keys we need in order to awaken the consciousness. He was known to be very rigorous in his teaching method and demanding in his guidance, as he fully understood the dangers of the path and the many pitfalls that exist within our own minds. Yet, he did not want followers or admirers: he wanted only to help us become free of suffering. [You can learn more about Samael Aun Weor here.]

We invite you to reflect sincerely upon the seriousness of these moments, and take advantage of the opportunity to enter into the door back to Eden.  

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Posted: Dec 7, 2007 7:03pm
Dec 6, 2007
Have you ever receive packages from anybody? Yeah! all the time right! Well what do you do with the waste that comes with it! That can be recycable you know that!. What about urging every company that deliver to use pelaspan-pac natural foam peanuts insted of plastic foam. Be loud about this, specially this holiday season. We can make the difference.

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Posted: Dec 6, 2007 8:02pm
Dec 5, 2007

It is horrible to know that bussiness don't recycle, well there are not ways they can do it! The garbage companies do not provide recycle services to business like communities and residential areas. I am a haircolorist and every week i take bags full of plastic and pachage foams to home. My curby every week is huge. This is a small salon, I cannot imagen  how much recyclable material is out there, filling unnecesary the landfills.

What can you do about it? Please, sing my petition to recycle for business!

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Posted: Dec 5, 2007 9:05pm

 

 
 
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Lucia Gabriela
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