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Nov 20, 2006


Originally published March 6 2006

Human medical
experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of
modern medicine and psychiatry (1833-1965)


From: http://www.newstarget.com/019189.html



Introduction by the
Health Ranger:

The United States claims to be the world leader in medicine. But
there's a dark side to western medicine that few want to acknowledge:
The horrifying medical experiments performed on impoverished people and
their children all in the name of scientific progress. Many of these
medical experiments were conducted on people without their knowledge,
and most were conducted as part of an effort to seek profits from newly
approved drugs or medical technologies.

Today, the medical
experiments

continue on the U.S. population and its children. From the mass
drugging of children diagnosed with fictitious behavioral disorders
invented by psychiatry
to the FDA's approval of mass-marketed drugs that have undergone no
legitimate clinical trials, our population is right now being subjected
to medical experiments on a staggering scale. Today, nearly 50% of
Americans are on a least one prescription drug, and nearly 20% of schoolchildren
are on mind-altering amphetamines like Ritalin or antidepressants like
Prozac. This mass medication
of our nation is, in every way, a grand medical experiment taking place
right now.


But to truly understand how this
mass
experimentation on modern Americans came into being, you have to take a
close look at the horrifying history of conventional medicine's
exploitation of people for cruel medical experiments.


WARNING: What you are about to
read is
truly shocking. You have never been told this information by the
American Medical Association, nor drug companies,
nor the evening news. You were never taught the truth about conventional
medicine

in public school, or even at any university. This is the dark secret of
the U.S. system of medicine, and once you read the true accounts
reported here, you may never trust drug companies again. These images
are deeply disturbing. We print them here not as a form of
entertainment, but as a stern warning against what might happen to us
and our children if we do not rein in the horrifying, inhumane actions
of Big Pharma and modern-day psychiatry.


Now, I introduce this shocking
timeline,
researched and authored by Dani Veracity, one of our many talented
staff writers here at Truth Publishing.


Read at your own risk. - The
Health Ranger


 


The true U.S. history of human
medical experimentation


Human experimentation -- that is,
subjecting live human
beings
to science experiments that are sometimes cruel, sometimes
painful, sometimes deadly and always a risk -- is a major
part of U.S. history that you won't find in most history or science
books. The United
States

is undoubtedly responsible for some of the most amazing scientific
breakthroughs. These advancements, especially in the field of medicine,
have changed the lives of billions of people around the world --
sometimes for the better, as in the case of finding a cure for malaria
and other epidemic diseases, and sometimes for the worse (consider
modern "psychiatry" and the drugging of schoolchildren).

However, these breakthroughs
come with a
hefty price tag: The human beings used in the experiments that made
these advancements possible. Over the last two centuries, some of these
test subjects have been compensated for the damage done to their
emotional and physical health, but most have not. Many have lost their
lives because of the experiments they often unwillingly and sometimes
even unwittingly participated in, and they of course can never be
compensated for losing their most precious possession of all: Their
health.


As you read through these
science experiments, you'll learn the stories of newborns injected
with radioactive substances, mentally ill people placed in giant
refrigerators, military
personnel exposed to chemical weapons by the very government they
served and mentally challenged children being purposely infected with hepatitis.
These stories are facts, not fiction: Each account, no matter how
horrifying, is backed up with a link or citation to a reputable source.


These stories must be heard
because human
experimentation is still going on today. The reasons behind the
experiments may be different, but the usual human guinea pigs
are still the same -- members of minority groups, the poor and the
disadvantaged. These are the lives that were put on the line in the
name of "scientific" medicine.



(1833)


Dr. William Beaumont, an army
surgeon
physician, pioneers gastric medicine with his study of a patient with a
permanently open gunshot wound to the abdomen and writes a human medical
experimentation

code that asserts the importance of experimental treatments, but also
lists requirements stipulating that human subjects must give voluntary,
informed consent and be able to end the experiment when they want.
Beaumont's Code lists verbal, rather than just written, consent as
permissible (Berdon).

(1845)


(1845 - 1849) J. Marion Sims, later
hailed as the "father of gynecology," performs medical experiments on
enslaved African women without anesthesia. These women would usually
die of infection soon after surgery. Based on his belief that the
movement of newborns' skull bones during protracted births causes
trismus, he also uses a shoemaker's awl, a pointed tool shoemakers use
to make holes in leather, to practice moving the skull bones of babies
born to enslaved mothers (Brinker).

(1895)


New York pediatrician Henry Heiman
infects a 4-year-old boy whom he calls "an idiot with chronic epilepsy"
with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment ("Human
Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After"
).

(1896)


Dr. Arthur Wentworth turns 29
children at
Boston's Children's Hospital into human guinea pigs when he performs
spinal taps on them, just to test whether the procedure is harmful (Sharav).

(1900)


U.S Army doctors working in
the Philippines infect five Filipino prisoners with plague and withhold
proper nutrition
to create Beriberi in 29 prisoners; four test subjects die (Merritte,
et al.
; Cockburn
and St. Clair, eds.
).

Under commission from the U.S.
surgeon
general, Dr. Walter Reed goes to Cuba and uses 22 Spanish immigrant
workers to prove that yellow fever is contracted through mosquito
bites. Doing so, he introduces the practice of using healthy test
subjects, and also the concept of a written contract to confirm
informed consent of these subjects. While doing this study, Dr. Reed
clearly tells the subjects that, though he will do everything he can to
help them, they may die as a result of the experiment. He pays them
$100 in gold for their participation, plus $100 extra if they contract
yellow fever (Berdon,
Sharav).


(1906)


Harvard professor Dr. Richard
Strong
infects prisoners in the Philippines with cholera to study the disease;
13 of them die. He compensates survivors with cigars and cigarettes.
During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors cite this study to justify
their own medical experiments (Greger,
Sharav).

(1911)


Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the
Rockefeller
Institute for Medical Research publishes data on injecting an inactive
syphilis preparation into the skin of 146 hospital patients
and normal children in an attempt to develop a skin test for syphilis.
Later, in 1913, several of these children's parents sue Dr.
Noguchi for allegedly infecting their children with syphilis ("Reviews and
Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation
in America before the Second World War"
).

(1913)


Medical experimenters "test" 15
children
at the children's home St. Vincent's House in Philadelphia with
tuberculin, resulting in permanent blindness
in some of the children. Though the Pennsylvania House of
Representatives records the incident, the researchers are not punished
for the experiments ("Human
Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After"
).

(1915)


Dr. Joseph Goldberger, under order
of the
U.S. Public Health Office, produces Pellagra, a debilitating disease
that affects the central nervous system,
in 12 Mississippi inmates to try to find a cure for the disease. One
test subject later says that he had been through "a thousand hells." In
1935, after millions die from the disease, the director of the U.S
Public Health Office would finally admit that officials had known that
it was caused by a niacin deficiency for some time, but did nothing
about it because it mostly affected poor African-Americans. During the
Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors used this study to try to justify their
medical experiments on concentration camp inmates (Greger;
Cockburn and St.
Clair, eds.
).

(1918)


In response to the Germans' use of
chemical weapons during World War I, President Wilson creates the
Chemical Warfare Service (CW as a branch of the U.S. Army.
Twenty-four years later, in 1942, the CWS would begin performing
mustard gas and lewisite experiments on over 4,000 members of the armed
forces (Global
Security
, Goliszek).

(1919)


(1919 - 1922) Researchers perform
testicular transplant experiments on inmates at San Quentin State
Prison in California, inserting the testicles of recently executed
inmates and goats into the abdomens and scrotums of living prisoners (Greger).

(1931)


Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist
from the
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, purposely infects human
test subjects in Puerto Rico with cancer cells;
13 of them die. Though a Puerto Rican doctor later discovers that
Rhoads purposely covered up some of details of his experiment and
Rhoads himself gives a written testimony stating he believes that all
Puerto Ricans should be killed, he later goes on to establish the U.S.
Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah and Panama, and is
named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, where he begins a series of
radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian
hospital patients (Sharav;
Cockburn and St.
Clair, eds.
).

(1931 - 1933) Mental patients at
Elgin State Hospital in Illinois are
injected with radium-266 as an experimental therapy for mental illness
(Goliszek).


(1932)


(1932-1972) The U.S. Public Health
Service in Tuskegee, Ala. diagnoses 400 poor, black sharecroppers with
syphilis but never tells them of their illness nor treats them; instead
researchers use the men as human guinea pigs to follow the symptoms and
progression of the disease. They all eventually die from syphilis and
their families are never told that they could have been treated
(Goliszek, University
of Virginia Health System Health Sciences Library
).

(1937)


Scientists at Cornell University
Medical School publish an angina drug study that uses both placebo
and blind assessment techniques on human test subjects. They discover
that the subjects given the placebo experienced more of an improvement
in symptoms than those who were given the actual drug. This is first
account of the placebo
effect
published in the United States ("Placebo
Effect"
).

(1939)


In order to test his theory on the
roots
of stuttering, prominent speech pathologist Dr. Wendell Johnson
performs his famous "Monster Experiment" on 22 children at the Iowa
Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport. Dr. Johnson and his graduate
students put the children under intense psychological pressure, causing
them to switch from speaking normally to stuttering heavily. At the
time, some of the students reportedly warn Dr. Johnson that, "in the
aftermath of World War II, observers might draw comparisons to Nazi
experiments on human subjects, which could destroy his career" (Alliance for Human
Research Protection
).

(1941)


Dr. William C. Black infects a
12-month-old baby with herpes as part of a medical experiment. At the
time, the editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine,
Francis Payton Rous, calls it "an abuse of power, an infringement of
the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness
which followed had implications for science" (Sharav).

An article in a 1941 issue of Archives
of Pediatrics

describes medical studies of the severe gum disease Vincent's angina in
which doctors transmit the disease from sick children to healthy
children with oral swabs (Goliszek).


Drs. Francis and Salk and other
researchers at the University of Michigan spray large amounts of wild
influenza virus directly into the nasal passages of "volunteers" from
mental institutions in Michigan. The test subjects develop influenza
within a very short period of time (Meiklejohn).


Researchers give 800
poverty-stricken pregnant women
at a Vanderbilt University prenatal clinic "cocktails" including
radioactive iron in order to determine the iron requirements of
pregnant women (Pacchioli).


(1942)


The United States creates Fort
Detrick, a
92-acre facility, employing nearly 500 scientists working to create
biological weapons and develop defensive measures against them. Fort
Detrick's main objectives include investigating whether diseases are
transmitted by inhalation, digestion or through skin absorption; of
course, these biological warfare experiments
heavily relied on the use of human subjects (Goliszek).

U.S. Army and Navy doctors
infect 400
prison inmates in Chicago with malaria to study the disease and
hopefully develop a treatment for it. The prisoners are told that they
are helping the war effort, but not that they are going to be infected
with malaria. During Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors later cite this
American study to defend their own medical experiments in concentration
camps like Auschwitz (Cockburn
and St. Clair, eds.
).


The Chemical Warfare Service
begins
mustard gas and lewisite experiments on 4,000 members of the U.S.
military. Some test subjects don't realize they are volunteering for
chemical exposure experiments, like 17-year-old Nathan Schnurman, who
in 1944 thinks he is only volunteering to test "U.S. Navy summer
clothes" (Goliszek).


In an experiment sponsored by
the U.S.
Navy, Harvard biochemist Edward Cohn injects 64 inmates of
Massachusetts state prisons with cow's blood (Sharav).


Merck Pharmaceuticals President
George Merck
is named director of the War Research Service (WR, an agency designed
to oversee the establishment of a biological warfare program
(Goliszek).


(1943)


In order to "study the effect of
frigid
temperature on mental disorders," researchers at University of
Cincinnati Hospital keep 16 mentally disabled patients in refrigerated
cabinets for 120 hours at 30 degrees Fahrenheit (Sharav).

(1944)


As part of the Manhattan Project
that
would eventually create the atomic bomb, researchers inject 4.7
micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at the Oak Ridge facility, 20
miles west of Knoxville, Tenn. ("Manhattan
Project: Oak Ridge"
).

Captain A. W. Frisch, an
experienced
microbiologist, begins experiments on four volunteers from the state
prison at Dearborn, Mich., inoculating prisoners with
hepatitis-infected specimens obtained in North Africa.
One prisoner dies; two others develop hepatitis but live; the fourth
develops symptoms but does not actually develop the disease (Meiklejohn).


Laboratory workers at the
University of
Minnesota and University of Chicago inject human test subjects with
phosphorus-32 to learn the metabolism of hemoglobin (Goliszek).


(1944 - 1946) In order to
quickly develop
a cure for malaria -- a disease hindering Allied success in World War
II -- University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Alving
infects psychotic patients at Illinois State Hospital with the disease
through blood transfusions and then experiments malaria cures on them (Sharav).


A captain in the medical corps
addresses
an April 1944 memo to Col. Stanford Warren, head of the Manhattan
Project's Medical Section, expressing his concerns about atom bomb
component fluoride's central nervous system (CN effects and asking
for animal research to be done to determine the extent of these
effects: "Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have
a rather marked central nervous system effect ... It seems most likely
that the F [code for fluoride] component rather than the T [code for
uranium] is the causative factor ... Since work with these compounds is
essential, it will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects
may occur after exposure." The following year, the Manhattan Project
would begin human-based studies on fluoride's effects (Griffiths
and Bryson
).


The Manhattan Project medical
team, led
by the now infamous University of Rochester radiologist Col. Safford
Warren, injects plutonium into patients at the University's teaching
hospital, Strong Memorial (Burton
Report
).


(1945)


Continuing the Manhattan Project,
researchers inject plutonium into three patients at the University of
Chicago's Billings Hospital (Sharav).

The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence
and the CIA begin Operation Paperclip, offering Nazi scientists
immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top-secret
government projects on aerodynamics and chemical warfare medicine in
the United States ("Project
Paperclip"
).


Researchers infect 800 prisoners
in Atlanta with malaria to study the disease (Sharav).


(1945 - 1955) In Newburgh, N.Y.,
researchers linked to the Manhattan Project begin the most extensive
American study ever done on the health effects of fluoridating public
drinking water (Griffiths
and Bryson
).


(1946)


Gen. Douglas MacArthur strikes a
secret
deal with Japanese physician Dr. Shiro Ishii to turn over 10,000 pages
of information gathered from human experimentation in exchange for
granting Ishii immunity from prosecution for the horrific experiments
he performed on Chinese, Russian and American war prisoners, including
performing vivisections on live human beings (Goliszek, Sharav).

Male and female test subjects at
Chicago's Argonne National Laboratories are given intravenous
injections of arsenic-76 so that researchers can study how the human body
absorbs, distributes and excretes arsenic (Goliszek).


Continuing the Newburg study of
1945, the
Manhattan Project commissions the University of Rochester to study
fluoride's effects on animals and humans in a project codenamed
"Program F." With the help of the New York State Health Department,
Program F researchers secretly collect and analyze blood and tissue
samples from Newburg residents. The studies are sponsored by the Atomic
Energy Commission and take place at the University of Rochester Medical
Center's Strong Memorial Hospital (Griffiths
and Bryson
).


(1946 - 1947) University of
Rochester
researchers inject four male and two female human test subjects with
uranium-234 and uranium-235 in dosages ranging from 6.4 to 70.7
micrograms per one kilogram of body weight in order to study how much
uranium they could tolerate before their kidneys become damaged
(Goliszek).


Six male employees of a
Chicago metallurgical laboratory are given water
contaminated with plutonium-239 to drink so that researchers can learn
how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract (Goliszek).


Researchers begin using patients
in VA
hospitals as test subjects for human medical experiments, cleverly
worded as "investigations" or "observations" in medical study reports
to avoid negative connotations and bad publicity (Sharav).


The American public finally
learns of the
biowarfare experiments being done at Fort Detrick from a report
released by the War Department (Goliszek).


(1946 - 1953) The U.S. Atomic
Energy
Commission sponsors studies in which researchers from Harvard Medical
School, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Boston University School
of Medicine feed mentally disabled students at Fernald State School
Quaker Oats breakfast cereal spiked with radioactive tracers every
morning so that nutritionists can study how preservatives move through
the human body and if they block the absorption of vitamins and
minerals. Later, MIT
researchers conduct the same study at Wrentham State School (Sharav,
Goliszek).


Human test subjects are given
one to four
injections of arsenic-76 at the University of Chicago Department of
Medicine. Researchers take tissue biopsies from the subjects before and
after the injections (Goliszek).


(1947)


Col. E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S.
Atomic
Energy Commission (AEC) issues a top-secret document (707075) dated
Jan. 8. In it, he writes that "certain radioactive substances are being
prepared for intravenous administration to human subjects as a part of
the work of the contract" (Goliszek).

A secret AEC document dated
April 17
reads, "It is desired that no document be released which refers to
experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public
opinion or result in legal suits," revealing that the U.S. government
was aware of the health risks its nuclear tests posed to military
personnel conducting the tests or nearby civilians (Goliszek).


The CIA
begins studying LSD's potential as a weapon by using military and
civilian test subjects for experiments without their consent or even
knowledge. Eventually, these LSD studies will evolve into the MKULTRA
program in 1953 (Sharav).


(1947 - 1953) The U.S. Navy
begins
Project Chatter to identify and test so-called "truth serums," such as
those used by the Soviet Union to interrogate spies. Mescaline and the
central nervous system depressant scopolamine are among the many drugs
tested on human subjects (Goliszek).


(1948)


Based on the secret studies
performed on
Newburgh, N.Y. residents beginning in 1945, Project F researchers
publish a report in the August 1948 edition of the Journal of the
American Dental Association
,
detailing fluoride's health dangers. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
(AEC) quickly censors it for "national security" reasons (Griffiths
and Bryson
).

(1950)


(1950 - 1953) The CIA and later the
Office of Scientific Intelligence begin Project Bluebird (renamed
Project Artichoke in 1951) in order to find ways to "extract"
information from CIA agents, control individuals "through special
interrogation techniques," "enhance memory" and use "unconventional
techniques, including hypnosis
and drugs" for offensive measures (Goliszek).

(1950 - 1953) The U.S. Army
releases
chemical clouds over six American and Canadian cities. Residents in
Winnipeg, Canada, where a highly toxic chemical called cadmium is
dropped, subsequently experience high rates of respiratory illnesses (Cockburn and St.
Clair, eds.
).


In order to determine how
susceptible an American city could be to biological attack, the U.S.
Navy sprays a cloud of Bacillus globigii bacteria
from ships over the San Francisco shoreline. According to monitoring
devices situated throughout the city to test the extent of infection,
the eight thousand residents of San Francisco inhale five thousand or
more bacteria particles, many becoming sick with pneumonia-like
symptoms (Goliszek).


Dr. Joseph Strokes of the
University of Pennsylvania infects 200 female prisoners with viral
hepatitis to study the disease (Sharav).


Doctors at the Cleveland City
Hospital study changes in cerebral blood flow
by injecting test subjects with spinal anesthesia, inserting needles in
their jugular veins and brachial arteries, tilting their heads down
and, after massive blood loss causes paralysis and fainting, measuring
their blood
pressure
. They often perform this experiment multiple times on the
same subject (Goliszek).


Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, later of
MKULTRA infamy due to his 1957 to1964 experiments on Canadians,
publishes an article in the British Journal of Physical Medicine,
in which he describes experiments that entail forcing schizophrenic
patients at Manitoba's Brandon Mental Hospital to lie naked under 15-
to 200-watt red lamps for up to eight hours per day. His other
experiments include placing mental patients in an electric cage that
overheats their internal body temperatures to 103 degrees Fahrenheit,
and inducing comas by giving patients large injections of insulin (Goliszek).


(1951)


The U.S. Navy's Project Bluebird is
renamed Project Artichoke and begins human medical experiments that
test the effectiveness of LSD, sodium pentothal and hypnosis for the
interrogative purposes described in Project Bluebird's objectives
(1950) (Goliszek).

The U.S. Army secretly
contaminates the
Norfolk Naval Supply Center in Virginia and Washington, D.C.'s National
Airport with a strain of bacteria chosen because African-Americans were
believed to be more susceptible to it than Caucasians. The experiment
causes food poisoning, respiratory problems and blood poisoning (Cockburn and St.
Clair, eds.
).


(1951 - 1952) Researchers
withhold
insulin from diabetic patients for up to two days in order to observe
the effects of diabetes; some test subjects go into diabetic comas
(Goliszek).


(1951 - 1956) Under contract
with the Air
Force's School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), the University of Texas M.D.
Anderson Cancer Center in Houston begins studying the effects of
radiation on cancer
patients

-- many of them members of minority groups or indigents, according to
sources -- in order to determine both radiation's ability to treat cancer
and the possible long-term radiation effects of pilots flying
nuclear-powered planes. The study lasts until 1956, involving 263
cancer patients. Beginning in 1953, the subjects are required to sign a
waiver form, but it still does not meet the informed consent guidelines
established by the Wilson memo released that year. The TBI studies
themselves would continue at four different institutions -- Baylor
University College of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute for
Cancer Research, the U.S. Naval Hospital in Bethesda and the University
of Cincinnati College of Medicine -- until 1971 (U.S.
Department of Energy
, Goliszek).


American, Canadian and British
military
and intelligence officials gather a small group of eminent
psychologists to a secret meeting at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Montreal
about Communist "thought-control techniques." They proposed a
top-secret research program on behavior modification -- involving
testing drugs, hypnosis, electroshock and lobotomies on humans (Barker).


(1952)


Military scientists use the Dugway
Proving Ground -- which is located 87 miles southwest of Salt Lake
City, Utah -- in a series of experiments to determine how Brucella
suis
and Brucella melitensis
spread in human populations. Today, over a half-century later, some
experts claim that we are all infected with these agents as a result of
these experiments (Goliszek).

In a U.S. Department of
Denfense-sponsored experiment, Henry Blauer dies after he is injected
with mescaline at Columbia University's New York State Psychiatric
Institute (Sharav).


At the famous Sloan-Kettering
Institute,
Chester M. Southam injects live cancer cells into prisoners at the Ohio
State Prison to study the progression of the disease. Half of the
prisoners in this National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) study
are black, awakening racial suspicions stemming from Tuskegee, which
was also an NIH-sponsored study (Merritte,
et al.
).


(1953)


(1953 - 1970) The CIA begins
project
MKNAOMI to "stockpile incapacitating and lethal materials, to develop
gadgetry for the disseminations of these materials, and to test the
effects of certain drugs on animals and humans." As part of MKNAOMI,
the CIA and the Special Operations Division of the Army Biological
Laboratory at Fort Detrick try to develop two suicide
pill alternatives to the standard cyanide suicide pill given to CIA
agents and U-2 pilots. CIA agents and U-2 pilots are meant to take
these pills when they find themselves in situations in which they (and
all the information they hold in their brains) are in enemy hands. They
also develop a "microbioinoculator" -- a device that agents can use to
fire small darts coated with biological agents that can remain potent
for weeks or even months. These darts can be fired through clothing
and, most significantly, are undetectable during autopsy. Eventually,
by the late 1960s, MKNAOMI enables the CIA to have a stockpile of
biological toxins -- infectious viruses, paralytic shellfish toxin,
lethal botulism toxin, snake venom and the severe skin
disease-producing agent Mircosporum gypseum. Of course, the
development of all of this "gadgetry" requires human experimentation
(Goliszek).

(1953 - 1974) CIA Director Allen
Dulles
authorizes the MKULTRA program to produce and test drugs and biological
agents that the CIA could use for mind control and behavior
modification. MKULTRA later becomes well known for its pioneering
studies on LSD, which are often performed on prisoners or patrons of
brothels set up and run by the CIA. The brothel experiments, known as
"Operation Midnight Climax," feature two-way mirrors set up in the
brothels so that CIA agents can observe LSD's effects on sexual
behavior. Ironically, governmental figures sometimes slip LSD into each
other's drinks as part of the program, resulting in the LSD
psychosis-induced suicide of Dr. Frank Olson indirectly at the hands of
MKULTRA's infamous key player Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Of all the hundreds
of human test subjects used during MKULTRA, only 14 are ever notified
of the involvement and only one is ever compensated ($15,000). Most of
the MKULTRA files are eventually destroyed in 1973 (Elliston; Merritte,
et al.
; Barker).


The U.S. Atomic Energy
Commission (AEC) sponsors iodine
studies at the University of Iowa. In the first study, researchers give
pregnant women 100 to 200 microcuries of iodine-131 and then study the
women's aborted embryos in order to learn at what stage and to what
extent radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. In the second
study, researchers give 12 male and 13 female newborns under 36 hours
old and weighing between 5.5 and 8.5 pounds iodine-131 either orally or
via intramuscular injection, later measuring the concentration of
iodine in the newborns' thyroid glands
(Goliszek).


Secretary of Defense Charles
Wilson
issues the Wilson memo, a top-secret document establishing the
Nuremberg Code as Department of Defense policy on human
experimentation. The Wilson memo requires voluntary, written consent
from a human medical research subject after he or she has been informed
of "the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and
means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards
reasonably to be expected; and effects upon his health or person which
may possibly come from his participation in the experiment." It also
insists that doctors only use experimental treatments when other
methods have failed (Berdon).


As part of an AEC study,
researchers feed
28 healthy infants at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine
iodine-131 through a gastric tube and then test concentration of iodine
in the infants' thyroid glands 24 hours later (Goliszek).


(1953 - 1957) Eleven patients at
Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston are injected with uranium as
part of the Manhattan Project (Sharav).


In an AEC-sponsored study at the
University of Tennessee, researchers inject healthy two- to
three-day-old newborns with approximately 60 rads of iodine-131
(Goliszek).


Newborn Daniel Burton becomes
blind when physicians
at Brooklyn Doctors Hospital perform an experimental high oxygen
treatment for Retrolental Fibroplasia, a retinal disorder affecting
premature infants, on him and other premature babies. The physicians
perform the experimental treatment despite earlier studies showing that
high oxygen levels cause blindness. Testimony in Burton v.
Brooklyn Doctors Hospital

(452 N.Y.S.2d875) later reveals that researchers continued to give
Burton and other infants excess oxygen even after their eyes had
swelled to dangerous levels (Goliszek, Sharav).


The CIA begins Project MKDELTA
to study
the use of biochemicals "for harassment, discrediting and disabling
purposes" (Goliszek).


A 1953 article in Clinical
Science

describes a medical experiment in which researchers purposely blister
the abdomens of 41 children, ranging in age from eight to 14, with
cantharide in order to study how severely the substance irritates the
skin (Goliszek).


The AEC performs a series of
field tests
known as "Green Run," dropping radiodine 131 and xenon 133 over the
Hanford, Wash. site -- 500,000 acres encompassing three small towns
(Hanford, White Bluffs and Richland) along the Columbia River (Sharav).


In an AEC-sponsored study to
learn
whether radioactive iodine affects premature babies differently from
full-term babies, researchers at Harper Hospital in Detroit give oral
doses of iodine-131 to 65 premature and full-term infants weighing
between 2.1 and 5.5 pounds (Goliszek).


(1954)


The CIA begins Project QKHILLTOP to
study
Chinese Communist Party brainwashing techniques and use them to further
the CIA's own interrogative methods. Most experts speculate that the
Cornell University Medical School Human Ecology Studies Program
conducted Project QKHILLTOP's early experiments (Goliszek).

(1954 - 1975) U.S. Air Force
medical
officers assigned to Fort Detrick's Chemical Corps Biological
Laboratory begin Operation Whitecoat -- experiments involving exposing
human test subjects to hepatitis A, plague, yellow fever, Venezuelan
equine encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia and intestinal
microbes. These test subjects include 2,300 Seventh Day Adventist
military personnel, who choose to become human guinea pigs rather than
potentially kill others in combat. Only two of the 2,300 claim
long-term medical complications from participating in the study ("Operation
Whitecoat"
.)


In a general memo to university
researchers under contract with the military, the Surgeon General
of the U.S. Army asserts the human experimentation guidelines --
including informed, written consent -- established in the classified
Wilson memo (Goliszek).


(1955)


In U.S. Army-sponsored experiments
performed at Tulane University, mental patients are given LSD and other
drugs and then have electrodes implanted in their brain to measure the
levels (Barker,
"The Cold War Experiments"
).

(1955 - 1957) In order to learn
how cold
weather affects human physiology, researchers give a total of 200 doses
of iodine-131, a radioactive tracer that concentrates almost
immediately in the thyroid gland,
to 85 healthy Eskimos and 17 Athapascan Indians living in Alaska. They
study the tracer within the body by blood, thyroid tissue, urine and
saliva samples from the test subjects. Due to the language barrier, no
one tells the test subjects what is being done to them, so there is no
informed consent (Goliszek).


(1955 - 1965) As a result of
their work
with the CIA's mind control experiments in Project QKHILLTOP, Cornell
neurologists Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle begin the Society for the
Investigation of Human Ecology (later renamed the Human Ecology Fund)
to study "man's relation to his social environment as perceived by him"
(Goliszek).


(1956)


(1956 - 1957) U.S. Army covert
biological
weapons researchers release mosquitoes infected with yellow fever and
dengue fever over Savannah, Ga., and Avon Park, Fla., to test the
insects' ability to carry disease. After each test, Army agents pose as
public health
officials to test victims for effects and take pictures of the
unwitting test subjects. These experiments result in a high incidence
of fevers, respiratory distress, stillbirths, encephalitis and typhoid
among the two cities' residents, as well as several deaths (Cockburn and St.
Clair, eds.
).

(1957)


The U.S. military conducts
Operation
Plumbbob at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas.
Operation Pumbbob consists of 29 nuclear detonations, eventually
creating radiation expected to result in a total 32,000 cases of
thyroid cancer among civilians in the area. Around 18,000 members of
the U.S. military participate in Operation Pumbbob's Desert Rock VII
and VIII, which are designed to see how the average foot soldier
physiologically and mentally responds to a nuclear battlefield ("Operation
Plumbbob"
, Goliszek).

(1957 - 1964) As part of
MKULTRA, the CIA
pays McGill University Department of Psychiatry founder Dr. D. Ewen
Cameron $69,000 to perform LSD studies and potentially lethal
experiments on Canadians being treated for minor disorders like
post-partum depression and anxiety at the Allan Memorial Institute,
which houses the Psychiatry Department of the Royal Victoria Hospital
in Montreal. The CIA encourages Dr. Cameron to fully explore his
"psychic driving" concept of correcting madness through completely
erasing one's memory and rewriting the psyche. These "driving"
experiments involve putting human test subjects into drug-,
electroshock- and sensory deprivation-induced vegetative states for up
to three months, and then playing tape loops of noise or simple
repetitive statements for weeks or months in order to "rewrite" the
"erased" psyche. Dr. Cameron also gives human test subjects paralytic
drugs and electroconvulsive therapy 30 to 40 times, as part of his
experiments. Most of Dr. Cameron's test subjects suffer permanent
damage as a result of his work (Goliszek, "Donald
Ewan Cameron"
).


In order to study how blood
flows through
children's brains, researchers at Children's Hospital in Philadelphia
perform the following experiment on healthy children, ranging in age
from three to 11: They insert needles into each child's femoral artery
(thigh) and jugular vein (neck), bringing the blood down from the
brain. Then, they force each child to inhale a special gas through a
facemask. In their subsequent Journal of Clinical Investigation
article on this study, the researchers note that, in order to perform
the experiment, they had to restrain some of the child test subjects by
bandaging them to boards (Goliszek).


(1958)


Approximately 300 members of the
U.S. Navy are exposed to radiation when the Navy destroyer Mansfield
detonates 30 nuclear bombs off the coasts of Pacific Islands during
Operation Hardtack (Goliszek).

The U.S. Atomic Energy
Commission (AEC)
drops radioactive materials over Point Hope, Alaska, home to the
Inupiats, in a field test known under the codename "Project Chariot" (Sharav).


(1961)


In response to the Nuremberg
Trials, Yale
psychologist Stanley Milgram begins his famous Obedience to Authority
Study in order to answer his question "Could it be that (Adolf)
Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just
following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?" Male test
subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 40 and coming from all education
backgrounds, are told to give "learners" electric shocks for every
wrong answer the learners give in response to word pair questions. In
reality, the learners are actors and are not receiving electric shocks,
but what matters is that the test subjects do not know that.
Astoundingly, they keep on following orders and continue to administer
increasingly high levels of "shocks," even after the actor learners
show obvious physical pain ("Milgram
Experiment"
).

(1962)


Researchers at the Laurel
Children's Center in Maryland test experimental acne
antibiotics on children and continue their tests even after half of the
young test subjects develop severe liver damage because of the
experimental medication (Goliszek).
The U.S. Army's Deseret Test Center begins Project 112. This includes
SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense), which exposes U.S. Navy and Army
personnel to live toxins and chemical poisons in order to determine
naval ships' vulnerability to chemical and biological weapons. Military
personnel are not test subjects; conducting the tests exposes them.
Many of these participants complain of negative health effects at the
time and, decades later, suffer from severe medical problems as a
result of their exposure (Goliszek, Veterans
Health Administration
).

The FDA begins requiring that a
new
pharmaceutical undergo three human clinical trials before it will
approve it. From 1962 to 1980, pharmaceutical companies satisfy this
requirement by running Phase I trials, which determine a drug's
toxicity, on prison inmates, giving them small amounts of cash for
compensation (Sharav).


(1963)


Chester M. Southam, who injected
Ohio
State Prison inmates with live cancer cells in 1952, performs the same
procedure on 22 senile, African-American female patients at the
Brooklyn Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in order to watch their
immunological response. Southam tells the patients that they are
receiving "some cells," but leaves out the fact that they are cancer
cells. He claims he doesn't obtain informed consent from the patients
because he does not want to frighten them by telling them what he is
doing, but he nevertheless temporarily loses his medical license
because of it. Ironically, he eventually becomes president of the
American Cancer Society (Greger,
Merritte,
et al.
).

Researchers at the University of
Washington directly irradiate the testes of 232 prison inmates in order
to determine radiation's effects on testicular function. When these
inmates later leave prison and have children, at least four have babies
born with birth defects. The exact number

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