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* Human ancestral diets changed substantially approximately four to
five million years ago with major climatic changes creating open
grassland environments.

* We developed a larger brain balanced by a smaller, simpler
gastrointestinal tract requiring higher-quality foods based around
meat protein and fat.

Journal Human Evolution
The human adaptations to meat eating: a reappraisal
Hladik C. M. 1 and Pasquet P. 2
(1) Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Éco-Anthropologie, CNRS (FRE
2323) and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 4 avenue du
Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, (France)
(2) Dynamique de l'évolution humaine CNRS (UPR 2147) 44,
rue de l'Amiral Mouchez, 75014, France
Received: 10 April 2001  Accepted: 28 December 2001


In this paper we discuss the hypothesis, proposed by some authors,
that man is a habitual meat-eater. Gut measurements of primate species
do not support the contention that human digestive tract is specialized
for meat-eating, especially when taking into account allometric factors
and their variations between folivores, frugivores and meat-eaters. The
dietary status of the human species is that of an unspecialised frugivore,
having a flexible diet that includes seeds and meat (omnivorous diet).
Throughout the various time periods, our human ancestors could have
mostly consumed either vegetable, or large amounts of animal matter
(with fat and/or carbohydrates as a supplement), depending on the
availability and nutrient content of food resources. Some formerly
adaptive traits (e.g. the "thrifty genotype") could have resulted from
selective pressure during transitory variations of feeding behaviour
linked to environmental constraints existing in the past.

'Frugivory is an intellectually demanding feeding behaviour demanding
the development of strategic planning, whereas the folivores feeding
behavior engages relatively simple tactics. According to Caroline E. G.
Tutin et al. 'Allometric analyses suggest a relation between brain size
(relative to body mass) and diet, with frugivores having relatively larger
brains . . . Maintaining a frugivorous diet presents huge intellectual
challenges of memory and spatial mapping compared with the relative
ease of harvesting abundant foliage foods.
Anthropologies 'Man The Hunter' concept is still used as a reason
for justifying the consumption of animal flesh as food. This has even
extended as far as suggesting that animal foods have enabled or
caused human brain enlargement. Allegedly this is because of the
greater availability of certain kinds of fats and the sharing behaviour
associated with eating raw animal food. The reality is that through
natural selection, the environmental factors our species have been
exposed to selected for greater brain development, long before raw
animal flesh became a significant part of our ancient ancestors diet.
The elephant has also developed a larger brain than the human brain,
on a diet primarily consisting of fermented foliage and fruits. It is my
hypothesis that it is eating fruits and perhaps blossoms, that has, if
anything, contributed the most in allowing humans to develop
relatively larger brains than other species. The ability of humans to
develop normal brains with a dietary absence of animal products is
also noted.
Given a plentiful supply of fruits the mother does not have to
risk expending much of her effort obtaining difficult to get foods
like raw animal flesh, insects, nuts and roots. Furthermore, fruits
contain abundant supplies of sugars which the brain solely uses
for energy. The mother who's genes better dispose her for an
easy life on fruits would have an advantage of those who do not,
and similarly, the fruit species which is the best food for mother
and child nutrition, would tend to be selected for. There is now
little doubt amongst distinguished biologists that fruit has been
the most significant dietary constituent in the evolution of humans.
What are the essential biochemical properties of human metabolism
which distinguish us from our non-human primate relatives? One,
at least, is our uniquely low protein requirement as described by
Olav T. Oftedal who says:

"Human milk has the lowest protein concentration (about 7% of
energy) of any primate milk that has been studied. In general, it
appears that primates produce small daily amounts of a relatively
dilute milk (Oftedal 1984). Thus the protein and energy demands
of lactation are probably low for primates by comparison to the
demands experienced by many other mammals." The nutritional
consequences of foraging in primates: the relationship of nutrient
intakes to nutrient requirements, p.161 Philosophical Transactions:
Biological Sciences vol 334, 159-295, No. 1270

One might imagine that given our comparatively 'low protein' milk,
we would not be able to grow very fast. In fact, as the image on the
right shows, human infants show very rapid growth, especially of
the brain, during the first year of life. Human infants are born a full
year earlier than they would be projected to, based on comparisons
with other animals. This is because of the large size their brains
reach. A human infant grows at the rate of 9 kg/year at birth, falling
to 3.5 kg/year a year later. Thereafter its growth rate is about half
that of a chimpanzees at 2 kg/year vs. about 4.5 kg/year. Humans
are relatively half as bulky as the other great apes, thus allowing
nutrients to be directed at brain development and the diet to be less
demanding. The advantages of such an undemanding metabolism
are clear. Humans delay their growth because they 'catch up' later,
during puberty as seen on the graph. Even so, the growth rate never
reaches that of a newborn infant who grows best by only eating
breast milk.
According to Exequiel M. Patińo and Juan T. Borda 'Primate milks
contain on the average 13% solids, of which 6.5% is lactose, 3.8%
lipids, 2.4% proteins, and 0.2% ash. Lactose is the largest
component of the solids, and protein is a lesser one'. They also say
that 'milks of humans and Old World monkeys have the highest
percentages of sugar (an average of 6.9%)' and when comparing
human and non human primate milks, they have similar proportions
of solids, but human milks has more sugar and fat whereas the non
human primate milks have much more protein. They continue 'In
fact, human milk has the lowest concentration of proteins (1.0%)
of all the species of primates.' Patińo and Borda present their
research in order to allow other primatologists to construct artificial
milks as a substitute for the real thing for captive primates. It is to
be expected that these will have similar disasterous consequences
as the feeding of artificial bovine, and other false milks, has had on
human infants.

Patińo and Borda also present a table which compares primate
milks. This table is shown below and identifies the distinctive
lower protein requirements of humans.  [see link]

Undoubtedly these gross metabolic differences between humans
and other mammals must have system wide implications for our
metabolism. They allow us to feed heavily on fruits, and may restrict
other species from choosing them. Never the less, many nutritional
authorities suggest that adult humans need nearly double (12% of
calorific value) their breast milk levels of protein, although it is
accepted that infant protein requirements for growth are triple those
of adults. The use of calorific values might also confuse the issue
since human milk is highly dilute (1% protein), and clearly eating
foods that might be 25 times this concentration, such as meat, are
massive excesses if constantly ingested. Certainly the body might
manage to deal with this excess without suffering immediate
problems, but this is not proof of any beneficial adaptation. It also
needs to be pointed out that berries, such as raspberries, may yield
up to 21% of their calorific value from protein, but are not regarded
as 'good sources' of protein by nutritional authorites. There are
millions of fruits available to wild animals, and blanked
generalisations about the qualities of certain food groups, need to
be examined carefully, due to some misconceptions arising from
the limited commercial fruits which we experience in the domestic

The weaning of a fruigivorous primate would clearly demand the
supply of a food with nutritional characteristics similar to those
of the mothers milk. We must realise that supportive breast
feeding may continue for up to 9 or 10 years in some 'rimitive'
peoples, and this is more likely to be representative of our
evolutionary history than the 6 month limit often found in modern
cultures. This premature weaning should strike any aware
naturalist as being a disasterous activity, inflicting untold damage.
However, what we do know of the consequences is that it
reduces the IQ and disease resistance of the child, and that the
substitute of unnatural substances, like wheat and dairy products,
is pathogenic.

Finally we need to compare some food group compositions with
human milk in order to establish if any statistical similarity exists.
This would demonstrate that modern humans have inherited their
ancient fruigivorous metabolism. This data is examined below in
the final sections of the article.

* Anthropological evidence from cranio-dental features and fossil
stable isotope analysis indicates a growing reliance on meat
consumption during human evolution.

See below.

* Study of hunter-gatherer societies in recent times shows an extreme
reliance on hunted and fished animal foods for survival.

'Ethnographic parallels with modern hunter-gatherer communities have
been taken to show that the colder the climate, the greater the reliance
on meat. There are sound biological and economic reasons for this, not
least in the ready availability of large amounts of fat in arctic mammals.
>From this, it has been deduced that the humans of the glacial periods
were primarily hunters, while plant foods were more important during
the interglacials. '

* Optimal foraging theory shows that wild plant foods in general give
an inadequate energy return for survival, whereas the top-ranking food
items for energy return are large hunted animals.

'It has long been held that big game hunting is THE key development
in human evolutionary history, facilitating the appearance of patterns
in reproduction, social organization, and life history fundamental to
the modern human condition. Though this view has been challenged
strongly in recent years, it persists as the conventional wisdom, largely
for lack of a plausible alternative. Recent research on women's time
allocation and food sharing among tropical hunter-gatherers now
provides the basis for such an alternative.

The problem with big game hunting

The appeal of big game hunting as an important evolutionary force
lies in the common assumption that hunting and related paternal
provisioning are essential to child rearing among human foragers:
mother is seen as unable to bear, feed and raise children on her
own; hence relies on husband/father for critical nutritional support,
especially in the form of meat. This makes dating the first
appearance of this pattern the fundamental problem in human
origins research. The common association between stone tools
and the bones of large animals at sites of Pleistocene age suggests
to many that it may be quite old, possibly originating with Homo
erectus nearly two million years ago (e.g. Gowlett 1993).

Despite its widespread acceptance, there are good reasons to be
skeptical about the underlying assumption. Most important is the
observation that big game hunting is actually a poor way to support
a family. Among the Tanzanian Hadza, for example, men armed
with bows and poisoned arrows operating in a game-rich habitat
acquire large animal prey only about once every thirty hunter-days,
not nearly often enough to feed their children effectively. They
could do better as provisioners by taking small game or plant
foods, yet choose not to, which suggests that big game hunting
serves some other purpose unrelated to offspring survivorship
(Hawkes et al. 1991). Whatever it is, reliable support for children
must come from elsewhere.

The importance of women's foraging and food sharing

Recent research on Hadza time allocation and foraging returns
shows that at least among these low latitude foragers, women's
gathering is the source (Hawkes et al. 1997). The most difficult
time of the year for the Hadza is the dry season, when foods
younger children can procure for themselves are unavailable.
Mothers respond by provisioning youngsters with foods they
themselves can procure daily and at relatively high rates, but that
their children cannot, largely because of handling requirements.
Tubers, which require substantial upper body strength and
endurance to collect and the ability to control fire in processing,
are a good example.

Provisioning of this sort has at least two important implications:
1) it allows the Hadza to operate in times and places where they
otherwise could not if, as among other primates, weaned offspring
were responsible for feeding themselves; 2) it lets another adult
assist in the process allowing mother to turn her attention to the
next pregnancy that much sooner. Quantitative data on time
allocation, foraging returns, and changes in children's nutritional
status indicate that, among the Hadza, that other adult is typically
grandmother. Senior Hadza women forage long hours every day,
enjoy high returns for effort, and provision their grandchildren
effectively, especially when their daughters are nursing new
infants (Hawkes et al. 1989, 1997). Their support is crucial to
both daughters' fecundity and grandchildren's survivorship,
with important implications for grandmothers' own fitness.

* Numerous evolutionary adaptations in humans indicate high reliance
on meat consumption, including poor taurine production, lack of
ability to chain elongate plant fatty acids and the co-evolution of
parasites related to dietary meat.

'Analyses of data from the China studies by his collaborators and
others, Campbell told the epidemiology symposium, is leading to
policy recommendations. He mentioned three:

* The greater the variety of plant-based foods in the diet, the
greater the benefit. Variety insures broader coverage of known
and unknown nutrient needs.

* Provided there is plant food variety, quality and quantity, a
healthful and nutritionally complete diet can be attained without
animal-based food.

* The closer the food is to its native state - with minimal heating,
salting and processing - the greater will be the benefit.


Anthropologists have long recognised that the diets of palaeolithic
and recent hunter-gatherers (HGs) represent a reference standard for
modern human nutrition and a model for defence against certain Western-
lifestyle diseases. Boyd Eaton of Emory University (Atlanta) put this
succinctly: 'We are the heirs of inherited characteristics accrued
over millions of years, the vast majority of our biochemistry and
physiology are tuned to life conditions that existed prior to the
advent of agriculture. Genetically our bodies are virtually the same
as they were at the end of the palaeolithic period. The appearance of
agriculture some 10,000 years ago and the Industrial Revolution some
200 years ago introduced new dietary pressures for which no adaptation
has been possible in such a short time span. Thus an inevitable
discordance exists between our dietary intake and that which our genes
are suited to'. This discordance hypothesis postulated by Eaton could
explain many of the chronic 'diseases of civilisation'. (1) This
review presents an anthropological perspective on what HG populations
may have actually eaten.

'Anthropologically speaking, humans were high consumers of calcium
until the onset of the Agricultural Age, 10,000 years ago. Current
calcium intake is one-quarter to one-third that of our evolutionary diet
and, if we are genetically identical to the Late Paleolithic Homo sapiens,
we may be consuming a calcium-deficient diet our bodies cannot adjust
to by physiologic mechanisms.

The anthropological approach says, with the exception of a few small
changes related to genetic blood diseases, that humans are basically
identical biologically and medically to the hunter-gatherers of the late
Paleolithic Era.17  During this period, calcium content of the diet was
much higher than it is currently.  Depending on the ratio of animal to
plant foods, calcium intake could have exceeded 2000 mg per day.17
Calcium was largely derived from wild plants, which had a very high
calcium content; animal protein played a small role, and the use of
dairy products did not come into play until the Agricultural Age
10,000 years ago. Compared to the current intake of approximately
500 mg per day for women age 20 and over in the United States,18
hunter-gatherers had a significantly higher calcium intake and
apparently much stronger bones. As late as 12,000 years ago,
Stone Age hunters had an average of 17-percent more bone density
(as measured by humeral cortical thickness). Bone density also
appeared to be stable over time with an apparent absence of

High levels of calcium excretion via renal losses are seen with both
high salt and high protein diets, in each case at levels common in the
United States.10,11
The only hunter-gatherers that seemed to fall prey to bone loss were
the aboriginal Inuit (Eskimos). Although their physical activity level
was high, their osteoporosis incidence exceeded even present-day
levels in the United States. The Inuit diet was high in phosphorus
and protein and low in calcium.20

Contrary to views that humans evolved largely as a herbivorous animal
in a 'garden of Eden' type of environment, historical evidence
indicates a very different reality, at least in the last four to five
million years of evolutionary adaptation. It was in this time frame
that the ancestral hominid line emerged from the receding forests to
become bipedal, open grassland dwellers. This was likely


by dietary changes and subsequent physiological and metabolic
adaptations. The evolutionary pressure for some primates to undergo
this habitat and subsequent diet change involving open grassland,
foraging/scavenging, related directly to massive changes in global
climatic conditions, primarily drier conditions followed by worldwide
expansion of the biomass of temperate climate (C4) grasses at the
expense of wetland forests, (2) accompanied by a worldwide faunal
change, (3) including the spread of large grazing animals. Thus, the
foods available to human ancestors in an open grassland environment
were very different from those of the jungle/forest habitats that were
home for many millions of years.

"Studies of frugivorous communities elsewhere suggest that dietary
divergence is highest when preferred food (succulent fruit) is scarce,
and that niche separation is clear only at such times (Gautier-Hion &
Gautier 1979: Terborgh 1983). - Foraging profiles of sympatric
lowland gorillas and chimpanzees in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon, p.179,
Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences vol 334, 159-295,
No. 1270


The lines of investigation used by anthropologists to deduce the
evolutionary diet of our evolving hominid ancestors are numerous: (i)
changes in cranio-dental features; (ii) fossil isotopic chemical
tracer methods; (iii) comparative gut morphology of modern humans and
other mammals;

Journal Human Evolution
The human adaptations to meat eating: a reappraisal
Hladik C. M. 1 and Pasquet P. 2
(1) Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Éco-Anthropologie, CNRS (FRE
2323) and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 4 avenue du
Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, (France)
(2) Dynamique de l'évolution humaine CNRS (UPR 2147) 44,
rue de l'Amiral Mouchez, 75014, France
Received: 10 April 2001  Accepted: 28 December 2001


In this paper we discuss the hypothesis, proposed by some authors,
that man is a habitual meat-eater. Gut measurements of primate species
do not support the contention that human digestive tract is specialized
for meat-eating, especially when taking into account allometric factors
and their variations between folivores, frugivores and meat-eaters. The
dietary status of the human species is that of an unspecialised frugivore,
having a flexible diet that includes seeds and meat (omnivorous diet).
Throughout the various time periods, our human ancestors could have
mostly consumed either vegetable, or large amounts of animal matter
(with fat and/or carbohydrates as a supplement), depending on the
availability and nutrient content of food resources. Some formerly
adaptive traits (e.g. the "thrifty genotype") could have resulted from
selective pressure during transitory variations of feeding behaviour
linked to environmental constraints existing in the past.

(iv) the energetic requirements of developing a large
ratio of brain to body size;

Fructose and carbohydrate.

(v) optimal foraging theory; (vi) dietary
patterns of surviving HG societies; and (vii) specific diet-related
adaptations. Findings from each of these fields reveal a changing
dietary pattern away from low-quality/highly fibrous, energy-poor
plant stables to a growing dependence on more energy-rich animal
foods, culminating in palaeolithic Homo sapiens being top-level
carnivores. (4)

Changes in cranio-dental features

Early hominid fossil remains already show clear cranio-dental changes
which indicate a move away from a specialised structure suited to
coarse foliage mastication to a more generalised structure indicative
of dependence on fruits and hard nuts but also incorporating changes
that indicate meat consumption. Such changes included a decrease in
molar teeth size, jaws/skull became more gracile, front teeth became
well buttressed and shearing crests appearing on teeth, all indicative
of less emphasis on grinding and more on biting and tearing of animal
flesh. (5)

Sure... Humans tear into bloody still-warm-from-the-kill animal flesh
all the time....  (I can just see it now, ball, you and the squirrel.... 

'Natural selection dictates that primate tooth shape should reflect the
mechanical properties of foods. As shown by numerous workers,
variations in tooth shape are a means of adapting to changes in the
internal characteristics of foods such as their strength, toughness, and
deformability (Lucas and Teaford, 1994; Spears and Crompton, 1996;
Strait, 1997; Yamashita, 1998). Clearly, foods are complicated structures;
thus it is impossible to describe all of the internal characteristics that
might have confronted the earliest hominids' teeth. However, another
approach is to describe the capabilities of those teeth.

For example, tough foods are sheared between the leading edges of
sharp crown crests whereas hard, brittle foods are crushed between
planar surfaces. As such, reciprocally concave, highly crested teeth
have the capability of efficiently processing tough items such as insect
exoskeletons and leaves, whereas rounder and flatter cusped teeth are
best suited for a more frugivorous diet. Kay (1984) has devised a
"shearing quotient" (SQ) as a measure of relative shear potential of a
molar tooth. He and colleagues have demonstrated that more
folivorous species have the longest crests, followed by those that
prefer brittle, soft fruits. Finally, hard-object feeders have the shortest
crests and bluntest molars (Kay, 1984; Meldrum and Kay, 1997).

Shearing crest studies have been conducted on early Miocene African
apes and middle to late Miocene European apes. Such studies show a
considerable range of diets very much consistent with microwear
results for these same taxa. For example, Rangwapithecus and
Oreopithecus have relatively long shearing crests suggesting folivory,
Ouranopithecus has extremely short crests suggesting a hard-object
specialization, whereas most other Miocene taxa studied, such as
Proconsul, and Dryopithecus have the intermediate length crests of
a frugivore (Kay and Ungar, 1997; Ungar and Kay, 1995). Thus,
shearing crest study results suggest that Miocene apes, especially those
from the later Miocene of Europe, show a substantial range of diets.

As for the early hominids, Grine (1981) has noted differences between
Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus in molar form,
such that the "gracile" species had more occlusal relief than did the
"robust" form, suggesting a dietary difference. While no shearing
crest length studies have been conducted on early hominids, all
australopithecines have relatively flat, blunt molar teeth and lack the
long shearing crests seen in some extant hominoids (e.g., Kay, 1985).
By itself, this indicates that the earliest hominids would have had
difficulty breaking down tough, pliant foods, such as soft seed coats
and the veins and stems of leaves -- although they probably were
capable of processing buds, flowers, and shoots.

Interestingly, as suggested by Lucas and Peters (in press) another
tough pliant food they would have had difficulty in processing is
meat. In other words, the early hominids were not dentally
preadapted to eat meat - they simply did not have the sharp,
reciprocally-concave shearing blades necessary to retain and cut
such foods. By contrast, given their flat, blunt teeth, they were
admirably equipped to process hard brittle objects. What about
soft fruits? It really depends on the toughness of those fruits. If
they were tough, then they would also need to be precisely
retained and sliced between the teeth. Again, early hominids would
be very inefficient at it. If they were not tough, then the hominids
could certainly process soft fruits.

In sum, Miocene ape molars show a range of adaptations including
folivory, soft-fruit eating and hard-object feeding. This range exceeds
that of living hominoids, and especially the early hominids. While
comparable shearing crest length studies have not been conducted
on early hominids, australopithecines certainly have relatively flat
molar teeth compared with many living and fossil apes. These teeth
were well-suited to breaking down hard, brittle foods including some
fruits and nuts, and soft, weak foods such as flowers and buds; but
again, they were not well-suited to breaking-down tough pliant foods
like stems, soft seed pods, and meat.


'There appears to be no threshold of plant-food enrichment or minimization
of fat intake beyond which further disease prevention does not occur.
These findings suggest that even small intakes of foods of animal origin are
associated with significant increases in plasma cholesterol concentrations,
which are associated, in turn, with significant increases in chronic
degenerative disease mortality rates. - Campbell TC, Junshi C. Diet and
chronic degenerative diseases: perspectives from China. Am J Clin Nutr
1994 May;59 (5 Suppl):1153S-1161S.'
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Posted: Jan 28, 2008 4:04am
Jan 21, 2008
Focus: Business
Action Request: Various
Location: United States
Dear Freeconomists,

As most of you will be aware, Saoirse sets off at the end of the month for
his pilgrimage to India.

While he is away promoting this community, it would be great to get as
much media attention as possible. Through this we can attract new members
and build local Freeconomy communities across the world.

To do this, I'm looking for some stories to support magazine and newspaper
articles. If any of you have had any amazing sharing experiences through
the Freeconomy community and would like to have your story printed in your
local newspaper (or maybe even the national press!), please email me.

I cannot promise to answer you all individually, but you can be assured I
will read every story and use many of them. However if we do decide to use
yours you will definitely be contacted beforehand.

If you could put the area you live in as part of the subject line, I would
be grateful (i.e. Manchester Freeconomy Story).

Please include your story, along with details of any local newspapers so
that I can build up a database of potential publications to contact.

Alternatively, if any of you have ideas for magazines and newspapers to
contact then please share them with me too. Any help with this is valued
and appreciated.

Have a wonderful week and I look forward to reading your uplifting stories.

Rae and everyone at the Freeconomy Community x
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Posted: Jan 21, 2008 12:56am
Dec 17, 2007
Focus: Health
Action Request: Various
Location: United States
Government and media propaganda hoax continues as parents in Maryland hoodwinked and threatened into believing it is the law to vaccinate kids, error-strewn Fox news report relays disinformation
Paul Joseph Watson & Steve Watson
Prison Planet
Wednesday, November 14, 2007

News networks and state authorities are once again engaging in mass public deception by claiming that vaccines for children are mandated by law and that parents will go to jail if kids do not take their shots. In reality, there is no law that says you have to vaccinate your children and waiver forms for personal or religious exemptions are freely available.
A situation in Prince George's County, MD. has attracted media attention and once again provided the platform for a propaganda push that falsely implies it is the law for children to be vaccinated with mass produced big pharma shots that are often not stringently tested and have been linked with dangerous side-effects.
More than 2300 children in Prince George's County have been expelled from school for up to a month and a half because they have not received their shots for chicken pox and hepatitis B. This Saturday the parents of more than 1600 children have been ordered to attend Circuit court, where medical officials will be on standby to forcibly inject their children in a scenario befitting of a science fiction horror movie.

School officials have said the parents will receive a verbal reprimand from the judge and be ordered to have their children immunized in the courthouse. The students would then be allowed to return to school. Parents who refuse to comply will get fines and could be jailed for ten days.

"If the child is not here Saturday, then we will move on with the process, meaning that the PPWs and the counselors will put together the packet to take before the state's attorney's office, asking, requesting that criminal charges be implemented," Dr. Betty Despenza-Green, the chief of student services, said from the courthouse Tuesday.

"We can do this the easy way or we can do this the hard way, but it's going to have to get done. I'm willing to move forward with legal action." said State Attorney Glenn Ivey.
Letters ordering the parents to show up at Prince George's Circuit Court for a court hearing and a free vaccine have been issued with the warning "unexcused absences by your child may subject you to a criminal charge."


The report is completely riddled with errors and distortions from beginning to end.
The Fox reporter states "A new law was passed last year requiring children from 5th through to 10th grade to have the vaccine". This is completely untrue. The vaccine has been mandated by the state but there is no law in the U.S. that requires mandatory vaccinations of any kind. The report mentions the waiver forms only after claiming that it is the law. How can there be a waiver form that allows someone to break a law?

This is why the parents who do not comply will be charged not under vaccination laws (because there aren't any) but under truancy, neglect or child in need of supervision laws, which state that the parent is culpable after 30 days of a child's unexplained absence from school.

The school itself triggered the truancy violation by unfairly kicking the kids out of school, and failing to inform parents about vaccine waiver forms.

The news report quotes befuddled members of the public, who claim that kids not getting vaccinations endangers those that have had them. How on earth can that be the case if the vaccination is supposed to provide immunity against the disease? In reality, the vaccinated kids are more dangerous to others, considering the plethora of cases where vaccines have induced debilitating side-effects as levels of autism soar to unprecedented levels.

There is no law in America, aside from those applying to medical workers, that says you or your child has to take any vaccine whatsoever, no matter what any executive order, requirement, mandate or policy dictates, there is no situation where you can go to prison for refusing a government vaccine under the U.S. constitution and the law of the land.
As in the case of all other vaccines, executive orders and court mandates merely state that the vaccine is "recommended," yet the mass media drumbeat constantly conditions people to believe that if they don't take their shots they will be kicked out of school, arrested and thrown in jail. This trick will continue to hoodwink Americans into taking all manner of dangerous and untested vaccines, the number of which rises every year, until they realize that there is no law that forces them to take any vaccine.

Here is an example of a vaccine waiver form, this particular one is for Maryland, the state in question in this case, proving that enforced vaccination is not the law and that personal and religious objections are applicable. - Here you can find vaccine exemption forms online by state or country.

The good news is that concerned parents across the U.S. are leading a nationwide revolt against unnecessary, untested and dangerous vaccines as CDC records show a growing amount of religious exemptions on vaccine forms.

Earlier this year we reported on the furor surrounding the HPV vaccine, which experts have slammed as untested and has continues to be linked to dangerous side-effects. A media propaganda campaign along with an executive order issued by Texas governor Rick Perry has had parents in Texas and other areas of the country fooled into believing the vaccine is now the law and young girls must take it. Merck Pharmaceuticals are capitalizing on this fraud by making obscene profits from a crony deal with Governor Rick Perry, while children are put at risk.

Vaccines and drugs that are not stringently tested and are instead foisted upon populations for the purposes of making obscene profits have a clear history of deadly consequences.

Consider the case of Bayer Pharmaceuticals, who deliberately dumped a vaccine that was known to be contaminated with AIDS virus on the European and Latin American market after it killed people in America. Thousands died from an action that the U.S. government allowed to happen through the FDA.

Peruse the plethora of examples where vaccines containing mercury, live HIV virus, live cancer and other horrors have wrought misery after victims were bullied into taking them by government mandates that they were deluded into thinking was the law.

The history alone, a legacy that led former director of the National Institute of Health Dr. James R. Shannon to state, "The only safe vaccine is one that is never used," implores us to stand up and expose this hoax and ensure that similar executive orders and mandates are not passed elsewhere in the country as a result of cynical greed driven lobbying and corporate crony payoffs.

More parents across the country should rally to denounce this development, which sets the pretext for the state to dictate the health of their children, as well as moving us closer to legislation which would allow Americans to be forcibly vaccinated at gunpoint against their will during a time of manufactured crisis, such as in the case of a human to human bird flu pandemic.

Listen to Alex Jones' analysis on this topic here.

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Posted: Dec 17, 2007 9:01am
Aug 27, 2007
Focus: Health
Action Request: Various
Location: United States
A new study in The Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry found that organic tomatoes are twice as high in flavanoids as conventional tomatoes. Flavanoids protect against heart disease and other chronic ailments. Researchers analyzed and compared organic to conventional tomatoes over a ten year period. The organic tomatoes not only scored better, but their flavanoid levels actually increased over time. Prior similar studies have found organic foods to have higher levels of a variety of vitamins and minerals. Scientists attribute the higher quality of organic foods to the healthier soil on organic farms.
Read full study here:

Another related study, published this month in the British Journal of Nutrition, showed that organic dairy and meat products in a mother's diet positively affect the nutritional quality of her breast milk by increasing beneficial fatty acids. "These findings provide scientific support for common sense, by showing that organic foods are healthier," says Dr. Lukas Rist, who is the lead author of the study and the head of research at the Paracelsus Hospital in Switzerland. The study involved 312 breastfeeding women with 1-month old infants from the Netherlands.
Read the full study here:
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Posted: Aug 27, 2007 9:01pm
Jun 13, 2007
Name: Greg and Kaitlyn
Type: Tribute (for the living)
To Honor: Individual(s)
Location: , United States

'I'm glad they'll have each other for this next step'

Brother and sister who share rare genetic condition to share alternative health-care treatment experience

Originally published — 7:23 p.m., June 8, 2007
Updated — 10:50 p.m., June 8, 2007

Editors note: Recent Gulf Coast High School graduate Gregory Lang has battled cancer since he was 3 years old. In February, doctors said Greg had about six months to live. Greg, his sister, Kaitlyn, and their late father, Gregory Weber Sr., suffer from a rare genetic condition, Li- Fraumeni syndrome, causing recurring cancer. The Naples Daily News is following his continuing story.

Gregory and Kaitlyn Lang are trading their childhoods for a chance at adulthood.

They will say farewell to typical teenage fare. Goodbye burgers, tacos and pizza. No more ice cream, cake or cookies.

The pair plans to forgo all temptation — meat, dairy, bread — for the rest of their lives.

Starting Sunday, they will go cold turkey — without the turkey.

Greg, 18, will make the trip to Hippocrates Health Institute in West Palm Beach out of necessity, to prolong his life with cancer past doctors’ grim prognosis.

His sister, 16-year-old Kaitlyn, who battled leukemia as a child, will adopt Hippocrates’ raw vegan eating program in hopes of never needing to fight again.

They share a common goal: to make their lives of strenuous sacrifice as long as possible. And for the next three weeks, they’ll share a room, a schedule and, maybe, some inspiration.

"This is a huge step for me, as a mom, because I’ve never left either one of their sides," Ann Lang said. "But I keep focusing on the end result, and I’m so proud of them.

"They need to do this for themselves. My holding their hands can’t help them anymore."

Greg’s necessity

The alternative health-care center is nutritional boot camp. For three weeks, Kaitlyn and Greg will learn to dismiss their teenage cravings through a rigorous schedule of seminars, food preparation courses, workouts and meditation periods.

If the program is successful, Greg’s cancer could be reduced to a manageable state, increasing his life expectancy by months, years, or even decades.

If it’s not, Greg said, nothing, not even hope, will be lost.

"It won’t be a waste of time," Greg explained, his smooth, baby face stony with determination. "If it doesn’t work, for some reason, I’ll know I tried my best with that option, and I’ll have to try something else."

"That’s my baby," Ann said, beaming. "Always optimistic."

After receiving a terminal diagnosis in February, Greg sprung to action, weeding through dozens of options as stories of possible solutions poured in from generous strangers.

As the fatigue and back pain grew, from expanding cancer spots on his pelvis, femur and spine, Greg continued to balk at the idea of more chemotherapy. Previous chemotherapy treatments made Greg sick, and did little to improve his outlook.

The addition of chemotherapy chemicals to Greg’s already fragile body could destroy his immune system, rather than repair it.

"Chemo didn’t work the first time, and doing it now would be the same," he said. "Chemo is a poison. It doesn’t just kill the bad stuff, it kills the good stuff, too."

Greg weighed his options, and settled on the somewhat obscure Hippocrates program, which he learned about when a stranger sent information to Greg’s Gulf Coast High School principal.

"It just makes the most sense," he said. "It can’t hurt me at all. It can only help."

By weeding out all preservatives from his diet, doctors at Hippocrates hope to cleanse Greg’s body, boosting his immune system as he battles his disease. Adding an exercise routine will increase Greg’s energy levels, and hopefully his waning appetite.

"My goal is to help improve my situation," he explained. "I want to have some more time, as much time as possible, and improve the quality of that time.

"I don’t think it’s going to be difficult to make the change, because I know it’s how it has to be."

Kaitlyn’s choice

As her brother watched, Kaitlyn spent this week gorging herself on taboo foods: meatloaf, Chick-Fil-A, pasta.

"It’s so funny to see their two different personalities," Ann laughed. "Greg wants to stop eating those things now, because he figures, ‘Why bother?’ and Kaitlyn wants all she can get."

"I just want to keep going with it," Kaitlyn reasoned. "I never want to eat meat again, so I’m getting all I can now."

Unlike Greg, Kaitlyn had a difficult time deciding whether she would visit Hippocrates and adopt the fruit and veggie life plan.

Kaitlyn suffers from the same genetic condition as her brother, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, turning the possibility of recurring cancer almost into a certainty. Because she is currently healthy, it may be more of a challenge for Kaitlyn to stay motivated.

"Mine’s a self-choice. He kind of has to do it," she said, motioning to Greg. "It’ll be tough, but I really want this, so I guess that will be my inspiration."

By choosing the responsibility of maintaining the stringent plan, the Gulf Coast 10th-grader is sacrificing her youth sooner than her brother, who graduated last month.

During her bout with leukemia at age 8, Kaitlyn put on extra weight, from the steroids she was forced to take. Dropping the few unwanted pounds will be the icing on the cake she can no longer eat.

"It’ll be hard, because I don’t want to give up eating the things my friends eat," she said. "I’ve worked so hard to get to where I am, fighting cancer, and I want to finish what I’ve started."

Lifestyle overhaul

The Hippocrates plan can’t be called a "diet." It’s a far cry from the popular Atkins or South Beach diets.

Adoption of the vegan eating regiment is nothing short of a lifestyle overhaul.

"You can’t go back," Kaitlyn said. "If you were to start eating meat or preservatives again right away, you would get sick."

"It’s going to be life-changing, like having a baby," Ann explained, as her children, and Greg’s 16-year-old girlfriend, Brianna Hanson, laughed at the analogy.

"Well, it is!" she cried out, hushing them. "It’s going to be completely different from everything you’ve ever known."

Ann, the kids’ adopted father, Tim Lang, and Brianna admitted they will be forced to make some big changes in compliance with Greg and Kaitlyn’s new lifestyle.

"I don’t think I’ll have a choice," Brianna giggled. "It’s going to be hard for (Greg and Kaitlyn), but it’s going to be really good for them."

"I think I’m going to learn from the kids," Ann seconded. "In time, we’ll ease into it, just like any other change."

Though they’ll be shirking their teenage eating habits, Greg and Kaitlyn won’t leave their childhoods completely behind. The twosome have already conspired to rig their wireless laptop computers so they can watch television while they are away.

"I think this will be a great re-bonding for them, without any outside clutter," Ann said, rolling her eyes as the restless teens battled for room on the family’s leather couch.

"They’ve gone through so much together in their lives. I’m glad they’ll have each other for this next step."

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Posted: Jun 13, 2007 12:26am
Dec 8, 2006
Focus: Health
Action Request: Various
Location: United States
Infants Should Not Have Flouridated Tap Water Warns American Dental Association

<br /> <br /> By <br /> , 11/13/2006 <br /> <a href=""> Straight to the Source </a>
New York – November 13, 2006 – To prevent tooth damage, the American Dental Association (ADA) warned its members that fluoridated water should not be mixed into concentrated formula or foods intended for babies one year and younger, in a November 9th ADA e-mail alert.(1)

“But who will alert parents,” asks lawyer Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc. (NYSCOF).


Two-thirds of U.S. public water suppliers add fluoride chemicals, based on a disproved theory that fluoride ingestion prevents cavities. Bottled water with added fluoride is now sold with specific instructions to mix into infant formula.(2)


The ADA reports, “…infants could receive a greater than optimal amount of fluoride through liquid concentrate or powdered baby formula that has been mixed with water containing fluoride during a time that their developing teeth may be susceptible to enamel fluorosis.”(3)  The ADA recommends using fluoride-free water.


Enamel or dental fluorosis is white spotting, yellow, brown and/or pitted permanent teeth. Pictures:


NYSCOF news releases in 2000 and 2004 (4,5) cited studies linking fluorosis to infant foods mixed with fluoridated water. Scientific evidence here:


Some scientists also tried in vain to get the word out sooner as described in “Suppression by Medical Journals of a Warning about Overdosing Formula-Fed Infants with Fluoride,” published in 1997 in the Journal Accountability in Research.(10)


It took until 2006 for the ADA’s alert, following the Food and Drug Administration’s October disapproval of fluoridated bottled water marketed to babies,(6) and after the recent National Research Council’s (NRC) fluoride report indicating  babies are fluoride overdosed from “optimally” fluoridated water supplies.(7)


“The ADA claims the NRC report didn’t question the safety of fluoridation(8) but it did, as the ADA now admits,” says Beeber.


“The NRC also revealed fluoridation’s adverse effects to the thyroid gland, diabetics, kidney patients, high water drinkers and others,” says Beeber.


Now, the Centers for Disease Control reports that modern science shows that fluoride absorbs into enamel topically.(9) However, adverse effects occur upon ingestion. Further, the CDC admits enamel fluoride concentration is not inversely related to cavities.


The Environmental Protection Agency is required to consider the most vulnerable populations when setting allowable water fluoride levels. To protect babies, allowable water fluoride levels must be near zero.

The Environmental Working Group analyzed government data in March 2006 and found that babies are over-exposed to fluoride in most major U.S. cities.(11)

“This should end water fluoridation,” says Beeber. “Fluoridation is a failed concept that must be abandoned before more Americans are harmed,” says Beeber.


Contact: Lawyer Paul Beeber, NYSCOF President 


Paul Connett, PhD, Executive Director, Fluoride Action Network www.FluorideAction.Net


SOURCE:  NYS Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation



























New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc.

PO Box 263

Old Bethpage, NY  11804


News Releases

Tooth Decay Crises in Fluoridated Areas from Lack of Dental Care

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Posted: Dec 8, 2006 12:10pm
Jun 15, 2006
Focus: Civil Rights
Action Request: Read
Location: New Zealand

Bull farmers host 'live sex shows'

June 14, 2006,20281,19472050-5001028,00.html

LIVE "sex shows" of bulls mounting a simulated cow have become a big attraction at an agricultural exhibition taking place in New Zealand.

The fake 'cow' – a small go-kart with natural cowhide on its roof – was developed by Ambreed New Zealand Ltd to collect semen from bulls more safely and efficiently and improve artificial breeding of cows.

Similar machines are widely used in Europe but have yet to be introduced in New Zealand, where dairy products are its largest export.

The go-kart, driven by a human operator, draws close to a bull and adjusts to the proper height.

The experience can be a little alarming.

"It's quite a daunting feeling when you consider you've got a bull there that weighs a thousand kilograms sitting on top of you and is in quite an aggressive mood," Andrew Medley, production manager at Ambreed, said.

Bull semen is commonly obtained using a rubber device which is put in place manually by two handlers.


This report was published at

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Posted: Jun 15, 2006 11:37am
Apr 30, 2006

Vegetarians have more fun -- in California, anyway
By Nicholas Boer

Erin Bishop decided she wanted to be a vegetarian when she was 10. It wasn't until after enrolling at Tulane University, however, that she discovered how fortunate she had been.

"You can't be a vegetarian in New Orleans," Bishop says. "I had bagels every day. It was horrible."

Things got better after she moved out of the dorm and into her own apartment. Her mom, a from-scratch cook, never indulged Bishop's vegetarianism, so she has been cooking for herself for a long time.

Now that she's back in the Bay Area, Bishop shops at the Danville farmers market every Saturday. "This is the best place to be," she says.

Signature dish: She created the samosa recipe just for this column. The granola recipe is one she's been playing with for years.

Why vegetarianism?: Mostly for health reasons (her family has a history of high cholesterol), but also for moral reasons. Reading PETA's Web site sealed the deal.

Birthday cake: Bishop gave up eggs and dairy for Lent, so, to celebrate her 23rd birthday, she made a batch of vegan cupcakes. To her surprise, the four kids that she baby-sits, most of them picky eaters, happily ate them all up.

Going vegan: While she says it's been easy to go vegan, and that she has more energy than she used to, Bishop is glad that Lent is over. She's even thinking she might celebrate with some sushi.

Shopping: Aside from the farmers market, Bishop gets most of her groceries from Whole Foods in Walnut Creek and Open Sesame in Lafayette.

On grains: "I love lentils," Bishop adds. "I get most of my protein from beans and grains." Quinoa and brown rice are on the A-list.

Favorite veggies: "I'm huge on butternut squash," Bishop says. She also loves kale, arugula and sweet potatoes. What doesn't she like? Raw spinach.

Staying ahead: "It takes 40 minutes to cook brown rice, so I'll do a big batch," she says. One night she'll have brown rice with roasted vegetables another night a burrito or maybe a rice salad.

Breakfast. Homemade granola with soy yogurt or a fruit smoothie with Whole Foods protein powder.

Kids food: The kids she baby-sits survive mainly on hot dogs, pasta, or mac and cheese. They also love McDonald's, but Bishop says they just care about the toys in their Happy Meals.

Food philosophy: "I don't have an agenda, but it's important to be aware of what you're putting in your body and what you're supporting with your dollars that go to food."

Questions? Contact Erin Bishop at


Makes about 11/2 cups

1 mango, preferably the small, sweet ataulfo variety (sometimes called Champagne)

1 large navel orange

1 tablespoon red onion, minced

2 tablespoons mint, roughly chopped

Peel and cut the mango into a small dice. Place in a small mixing bowl. Cut off the bottom and top of the orange, lay it flat and remove the peel, including the pith, by making curved cuts with a sharp knife. Use a paring knife to section the orange, leaving behind the membranes. Chop the orange into a small dice. Add the orange, minced red onion and mint to the mango. Lightly mix. Serve at room temperature or chilled.

Per 1/4-cup serving: 20 calories, 1 g protein, 4 g carbohydrates, 0 fat, 0 cholesterol, 0 sodium, 1 g fiber. Calories from fat: 0 percent.

-- Times analysis


Makes about 20

5 cups unbleached white flour

11/4 cups water

1 cup canola oil, plus more for brushing

2 teaspoons salt

2 cups peeled butternut squash, peeled and cut into small dice

1 small sweet potato, about 2 cups, peeled and cut into small dice

2 cloves garlic, minced

1/2 cup minced yellow onion

3/4 cup frozen or canned green peas

1/2 teaspoon curry powder

Salt and pepper to taste

Mango-Orange Chutney (see recipe)

1. Place flour in large bowl. Add the water and oil and stir until mixture becomes crumbly. Place dough on a floured work surface. Knead dough until becomes smooth and elastic. Add more flour if dough is too sticky or a little more water if it is too dry. Let the dough rest in a bowl while you make the samosa filling.

2. In a medium sauce pan, bring the butternut squash to a boil. Boil 5 minutes, and then add the sweet potatoes. Boil the butternut squash and sweet potatoes for an additional 10 minutes.

3. Preheat your oven to 350 degrees. Meanwhile, heat 2 tablespoons of canola oil in a large sauce pan on medium-high heat. Add the garlic and onion and saute for about 5 minutes, stirring often, until soft. Add the sweet potatoes and butternut squash, peas, curry powder, and salt and pepper. Remove samosa filling from heat.

4. Place the dough on a lightly floured work surface. Using a rolling pin, roll the dough into a narrow rectangle about 41/2-inches wide. Put the dough through a pasta press until it is Þ-inch thick. If you do not have a pasta press, you can roll the dough out by hand. Cut the dough into 4-inch squares.

5. Place a square of dough so that a corner is pointing toward you. Fill the dough with a heaping tablespoon of the samosa filling. Use a brush or your index finger to moisten the edge of the dough with water. Seal the samosa and use a fork to decorate the edges.

6. Place samosas on a lightly oiled baking sheet and brush the tops with canola oil. Bake 20-25 minutes or until samosas are lightly browned. Serve warm with Mango-Orange Chutney.

Per samosa (not including chutney): 230 calories, 4 g protein, 28 g carbohydrates, 12 g fat, 0 cholesterol, 240 mg sodium, 2 g fiber. Calories from fat: 43 percent.

-- Times analysis


Makes about 10 cups

4 cups rolled oats

1 cup whole almonds

1 cup shredded sweetened coconut

1/2 cup sunflower seeds

1/4 cup ground flax seed

1/4 cup orange zest, optional

1/4 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon ground cinnamon

-1/3 cup vegetable oil

1/2 cup agave nectar (or 1/4 cup honey for a non-vegan version)

1/2 cup fresh squeezed orange juice

2 teaspoons vanilla extract

3/4 cup dried cranberries

3/4 cup dried figs, chopped

3/4 cup dried apricots, chopped

1. In a large bowl, combine the oats, almonds, coconut, sunflower seeds, flax seed, orange zest (if using), salt and cinnamon. Preheat oven to 300 degrees. Lightly coat a large baking sheet with nonstick spray.

2. Combine the vegetable oil and agave nectar or honey and juice in a small sauce pan and bring to a simmer over medium-high heat. Remove the pan from heat and add the orange juice and vanilla extract.

3. Quickly pour the liquid over the dry ingredients and mix just until the oats are coated. Evenly spread the granola on the prepared baking sheet. Bake until golden, about 30 minutes. Gently stir the granola two or three times. Add the chopped dried fruit to the cooked granola. Granola can be stored for about two weeks in an airtight container.

Per cup: 490 calories, 11 g protein, 59 g carbohydrates, 25 g fat, 0 cholesterol, 90 mg sodium, 8 g fiber. Calories from fat: 47 percent.

-- Times analysis

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Posted: Apr 30, 2006 7:25am
Feb 7, 2006
Focus: Religion
Action Request: Petition
Location: Spain
i'm forwarding from another group:

Carolina has received 6 new, 128 total stars from Care2 membersCarolina has been awarded 87 butterflies for taking action at Care2 Carolina A.
Trying to get some needed publicity for a small petition  
2:55 AM
Hiya! I don't want to spam with petitions, but this one needs some boost. I'm trying to help an action that's being taken locally at my hometown, with an internet petition, but 'cause it's a little issue is hard to get people to sign.

Two little girls and their classmates are being discriminated for their choice of not following religion classes, which should be guaranteed in all public schools in Spain. It is a Public one, not a confessional one, but the schoolmaster is trying to impose his own catholic faith to his pupils, by means of intimidation, coertion, and brainwashing. These are rests of what used to be a strong doctrinaire education in the times of dictator Franco, but we live 20 years in Democracy!

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Posted: Feb 7, 2006 7:23am
Jan 7, 2006
Focus: Civil Rights
Action Request: Petition
Location: United States
Please, if you haven't signed yet, take a minute to do it

Animals have rights

This petition is international!

signing this petition are asking that the rights of each animal - related to
his/her interests as autonomous individuals and to his/her status of sensitive
beings, since they can feel emotions the same as we do, such as pain, pleasure,
sadness, joy… - are immediately recognized.

That means
each animal has an interest in living a life filled with as much pleasure as
possible & free of pain.

The rights
brought up by this statement are:

  1. The right to live

Animals are
autonomous beings. No animal can be deprived of his/her life that s/he is the
only one to own.

  1. The right to be free

No animal
can be imprisoned. This includes the fact that no animal could be considered as
a resource or used as subject of a trade.

  1. The right to neither be
    tortured nor to undergo bad treatments

No matter
what the reason is, no bad treatment will be inflicted to an animal, even if it
is for the common well being.

Animals cannot protect themselves the way we would in their situation.
It is up to us to require rights that protect them!

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Posted: Jan 7, 2006 11:43am


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