Nov 20, 2006
experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of
modern medicine and psychiatry (1965-2005) Part 2
This is part two of a
two-part series on human medical experimentation. Click here to read part
one and the introduction.
The CIA continues a limited number
MKULTRA plans by beginning Project MKSEARCH to develop and test ways of
using biological, chemical and radioactive materials in intelligence
operations, and also to develop and test drugs that are able to produce
predictable changes in human behavior and physiology (Goliszek).
Dr. Henry Beecher writes, "The
well-being, the health, even the actual or potential life of all human beings,
born or unborn, depend upon the continuing experimentation in man.
Proceed it must; proceed it will. 'The proper study of mankind is
man,'" in his "exposť" on human
medical experimentation Research and the Individual ("Human
Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After").
U.S. Army scientists drop light
bulbs filled with Bacillus subtilis through ventilation gates
and into the New
York City subway system, exposing more than one million civilians
to the bacteria (Goliszek).
The National Commission for the
Protection of Research Subjects issues its Policies for the Protection
of Human Subjects, which eventually creates what we now know as
institutional review boards (IRBs) (Sharav).
Continuing on his Dow Chemical
Company-sponsored dioxin study without the company's knowledge or
consent, University of Pennsylvania Professor Albert Kligman increases
the dosage of dioxin he applies to 10 prisoners' skin to 7,500
micrograms, 468 times the dosage Dow official Gerald K. Rowe had
authorized him to administer. As a result, the prisoners experience acne lesions that
develop into inflammatory pustules and papules (Kaye).
The CIA places a chemical in the
supply of the FDA headquarters in Washington, D.C. to see whether it is
possible to spike drinking water with LSD and
other substances (Cockburn
and St. Clair, eds.).
In a study published in the Journal
of Clinical Investigation, researchers inject pregnant women
with radioactive cortisol to see if the radioactive material will cross
the placentas and affect the fetuses (Goliszek).
The U.S. Army pays Professor
apply skin-blistering chemicals to Holmesburg Prison inmates' faces and
backs, so as to, in Professor Kligman's words, "learn how the skin
protects itself against chronic assault from toxic chemicals,
the so-called hardening process," information which would have both
offensive and defensive applications for the U.S. military (Kaye).
The CIA and Edgewood Arsenal
Laboratories begin an extensive program for developing drugs that can
influence human behavior. This program includes Project OFTEN -- which
studies the toxicology, transmission and behavioral effects of drugs in
animal and human subjects -- and Project CHICKWIT, which gathers
European and Asian drug development information (Goliszek).
Professor Kligman develops
Retin-A as an acne cream (and eventually a wrinkle cream), turning him
into a multi-millionaire (Kaye).
Researchers paralyze 64 prison
California with a neuromuscular compound called succinylcholine, which
produces suppressed breathing that feels similar to drowning. When five
prisoners refuse to participate in the medical experiment, the prison's
special treatment board gives researchers permission to inject the
prisoners with the drug against their will (Greger).
Planned Parenthood of San Antonio
South Central Texas and the Southwest Foundation for Research and
Education begin an oral contraceptive study on 70 poverty-stricken
Mexican-American women, giving only half the oral contraceptives they
think they are receiving and the other half a placebo. When the
results of this study are released a few years later, it stirs
tremendous controversy among Mexican-Americans (Sharav, Sauter).
President Nixon ends the United
offensive biowarfare program, including human experimentation done at
Fort Detrick. By this time, tens of thousands of civilians and members
of the U.S. armed forces have wittingly and unwittingly acted as
participants in experiments involving exposure to dangerous biological
The U.S. military
conducts DTC Test 69-12, which is an open-air test of VX and sarin
nerve agents at the Army's Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, likely
exposing military personnel (Goliszek, Martin).
Experimental drugs are tested on
disabled children in Milledgeville, Ga., without any institutional
approval whatsoever (Sharav).
Dr. Donald MacArthur, the U.S.
of Defense's Deputy Director for Research and Technology, requests $10
million from Congress to develop a synthetic biological agent that
would be resistant "to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon
which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious
and St. Clair, eds.).
Judge Sam Steinfield's dissent
in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145 marks the first time a
judge has ever suggested that the Nuremberg Code be applied in American
court cases (Sharav).
A year after his request, under
15090, Dr. MacArthur receives funding to begin CIA-supervised
mycoplasma research with Fort Detrick's Special Operations Division and
hopefully create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent. Some experts
believe that this research may have inadvertently created HIV, the virus that
Under order from the National
of Health (NIH), which also sponsored the Tuskegee Experiment, the free
childcare program at Johns Hopkins University collects blood samples
from 7,000 African-American youth, telling their parents
that they are checking for anemia but actually checking for an extra Y
chromosome (XYY), believed to be a biological predisposition to crime.
The program director, Digamber Borganokar, does this experiment without
Johns Hopkins University's permission (Greger,
President Nixon converts Fort
from an offensive biowarfare lab to the Frederick Cancer Research and
Development Center, now known as the National Cancer Institute at
Frederick. In addition to cancer research,
scientists study virology, immunology and retrovirology (including HIV)
there. Additionally, the site is home to the U.S. Army Medical Research
Institute, which researches drugs, vaccines and
countermeasures for biological warfare, so the
former Fort Detrick does not move far away from its biowarfare past
Stanford University conducts the
Prison Experiment on a group of college students in order to learn the
psychology of prison life. Some students are given the role as prison
guards, while the others are given the role of prisoners. After only
six days, the proposed two-week study has to end because of its
psychological effects on the participants. The "guards" had begun to
act sadistic, while the "prisoners" started to show signs of depression
and severe psychological stress (University of
An article entitled "Viral
Infections in Man Associated with Acquired Immunological Deficiency
States" appears in Federation Proceedings.
Dr. MacArthur and Fort Detrick's Special Operations Division have, at
this point, been conducting mycoplasma research to create a synthetic
immunosuppressive agent for about one year, again suggesting that this
research may have produced HIV (Goliszek).
In studies sponsored by the U.S.
Force, Dr. Amedeo Marrazzi gives LSD to mental patients at the
University of Missouri Institute of Psychiatry and the University of
Minnesota Hospital to study "ego strength" (Barker).
An Ad Hoc Advisory Panel
its Final Report on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, writing, "Society can
no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against
scientific progress to the scientific community" (Sharav).
Congress enacts the National
Act, creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human
Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and finally setting
standards for human experimentation on children (Breslow).
The Department of Health, Education
Welfare gives the National Institutes of Health's Policies for the
Protection of Human Subjects (1966) regulatory status. Title 45, known
as "The Common Rule," officially creates institutional review boards
The Kennedy Hearing initiates the
process toward Executive Order 12333, prohibiting intelligence
agencies from experimenting on humans without informed consent (Merritte,
The U.S. government issues an
apology and $400,000 to Jeanne Connell, the sole survivor from Col.
Warren's now-infamous plutonium injections at Strong Memorial Hospital,
and the families of the other human test subjects (Burton
The National Urban League holds
National Conference on Human Experimentation, stating, "We don't want
to kill science but we don't want science to kill, mangle and abuse us"
The CDC begins experimental hepatitis B
vaccine trials in New York. Its ads for research subjects specifically
ask for promiscuous homosexual men. Professor Wolf Szmuness of the
Columbia University School of Public Health had made the vaccine's
infective serum from the pooled blood serum of hepatitis-infected
homosexuals and then developed it in chimpanzees, the only animal
susceptible to hepatitis
B, leading to the theory that HIV originated in chimpanzees before
being transferred over to humans via this vaccine. A few months after
1,083 homosexual men receive the vaccine, New York physicians begin
noticing cases of Kaposi's sarcoma, Mycoplasma penetrans and
a new strain of herpes virus among New York's homosexual community --
diseases not usually seen among young, American men, but that would
later be known as common opportunistic diseases associated with AIDS
The National Commission for the
Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
releases the Belmont Report, which establishes the foundations for
research experimentation on humans. The Belmont Report mandates that
researchers follow three basic principles: 1. Respect the subjects as
autonomous persons and protect those with limited ability for
independence (such as children), 2. Do no harm, 3. Choose test subjects
justly -- being sure not to target certain groups because of they are
easily accessible or easily manipulated, rather than for reasons
directly related to the tests (Berdon).
A study reveals a high incidence of
leukemia among the 18,000 military personnel who participated in 1957's
Operation Plumbbob (a
According to blood samples
later for HIV, 20 percent of all New York homosexual men who
participated in the 1978 hepatitis B vaccine experiment are
HIV-positive by this point (Goliszek).
give experimental hormone shots to hundreds of Haitian men confined to
detention camps in Miami and Puerto Rico, causing the men to develop a
condition known as gynecomastia, in which men develop full-sized
and St. Clair, eds.).
The CDC continues its 1978
hepatitis B vaccine experiment in Los Angeles, San Francisco,
Chicago, St. Louis and Denver, recruiting over 7,000 homosexual men in
San Francisco alone (Goliszek).
The FDA prohibits the use of
prison inmates in pharmaceutical drug trials,
leading to the advent of the experimental drug testing
centers industry (Sharav).
The first AIDS case appears in
San Francisco (Goliszek).
(1981 - 1993) The Seattle-based
Systems Corporation begins an ongoing medical experiment called
Protocol No. 126, in which cancer patients at
the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle are given bone marrow
transplants that contain eight experimental proteins made by Genetic
Systems, rather than standard bone marrow transplants; 19 human
subjects die from complications directly related to the experimental
A deep diving experiment at Duke
University causes test subject Leonard Whitlock to suffer permanent
brain damage (Sharav).
The CDC acknowledges that a
as AIDS exists and confirms 26 cases of the disease -- all in
previously healthy homosexuals living in New York, San Francisco and
Los Angeles -- again supporting the speculation that AIDS originated
from the hepatitis B experiments from 1978 and 1980 (Goliszek).
Thirty percent of the test subjects
used in the CDC's hepatitis B vaccine experiment are HIV-positive by
this point (Goliszek).
SFBC Phase I research clinic
Miami, Fla. By 2005, it would become the largest experimental drug
testing center in North America with centers
in Miami and Montreal, running Phase I to Phase IV clinical trials (Drug
A former U.S. Army sergeant tries
to sue the Army for using drugs on him in without his consent or even
his knowledge in United States
v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669. Justice Antonin Scalia writes the
decision, clearing the U.S. military from any liability in past,
present or future medical
experiments without informed consent (Merritte,
Philadelphia resident Doris Jackson
discovers that researchers have removed her son's brain post mortem
for medical study. She later learns that the state of Pennsylvania has
a doctrine of "implied consent," meaning that unless a patient signs a
document stating otherwise, consent for organ removal is automatically
The U.S. Justice Department pays
nine Canadian survivors of the CIA
and Dr. Cameron's "psychic driving" experiments (1957 - 1964) $750,000
in out-of-court settlements, to avoid any further investigations into
(1988 - 2001) The New York City
Administration for Children's Services begins allowing foster care
children living in about two dozen children's homes to be used in
National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) experimental AIDS drug
trials. These children -- totaling 465 by the program's end --
experience serious side effects, including inability to walk, diarrhea,
vomiting, swollen joints and cramps. Children's home employees are
unaware that they are giving the HIV-infected children experimental
drugs, rather than standard AIDS treatments (New York
City ACS, Doran).
The United States sends 1.7 million
members of the armed forces, 22 percent of whom are African-American,
to the Persian Gulf for the Gulf War ("Desert
Storm"). More than 400,000 of these soldiers are ordered to take an
experimental nerve agent medication
called pyridostigmine, which is later believed to be the cause of Gulf
War Syndrome -- symptoms ranging from skin disorders, neurological
disorders, incontinence, uncontrollable drooling and vision problems --
affecting Gulf War veterans (Goliszek; Merritte,
The CDC and Kaiser
Southern California inject 1,500 six-month-old black and Hispanic
babies in Los Angeles with an "experimental" measles vaccine that had
never been licensed for use in the United States. Adding to the risk,
children less than a year old may not have an adequate amount of myelin
around their nerves, possibly resulting in impaired neural development
because of the vaccine. The CDC later admits that parents were never
informed that the vaccine being injected into their children was
The FDA allows the U.S.
Defense to waive the Nuremberg Code and use unapproved drugs and
vaccines in Operation Desert Shield (Sharav).
In the May 27 issue of the Los
Angeles Times, former U.S. Navy radio operator Richard Jenkins
writes that he suffers from leukemia,
chronic fatigue and kidney and liver disease as a result of the
radiation exposure he received in 1958's Operation Hardtack (Goliszek).
While participating in a UCLA
study that withdraws schizophrenics off of their medications,
Tony LaMadrid commits suicide (Sharav).
Columbia University's New York
Psychiatric Institute and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine give 100
males -- mostly African-American and Hispanic, all between the ages of
six and 10 and all the younger brothers of juvenile delinquents -- 10
milligrams of fenfluramine (fen-fen) per kilogram of body weight in
order to test the theory that low serotonin levels are linked to
violent or aggressive behavior. Parents of the participants received
$125 each, including a $25 Toys 'R' Us gift certificate (Goliszek).
Researchers at the West Haven VA in
Connecticut give 27 schizophrenics -- 12 inpatients and 15 functioning
volunteers -- a chemical called MCPP that significantly increases their
psychotic symptoms and, as researchers note, negatively affects the
test subjects on a long-term basis ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
In a double-blind experiment at New
VA Hospital, researchers take 23 schizophrenic inpatients off of their
medications for a median of 30 days. They then give 17 of them 0.5
mg/kg amphetamine and six a placebo as a control, following up with PET
scans at Brookhaven Laboratories. According to the researchers, the
purpose of the experiment was "to specifically evaluate metabolic
effects in subjects with varying degrees of amphetamine-induced
psychotic exacerbation" ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
Eileen Welsome receives a Pulitzer Prize for her investigative
reporting into Col. Warren's plutonium experiments on patients at
Strong Memorial Hospital in 1945 (Burton
In a federally funded experiment
at New York VA Medical Center, researchers give schizophrenic veterans
amphetamine, even though central nervous system
stimulants worsen psychotic symptoms in 40 percent of schizophrenics ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
Researchers at Bronx VA Medical
recruit 28 schizophrenic veterans who are functioning in society and
give them L-dopa in order to deliberately induce psychotic relapse ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
President Clinton appoints the
Commission on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), which finally
reveals the horrific experiments conducted during the Cold War era in
A 19-year-old University of
student named Nicole Wan dies from participating in an MIT-sponsored
experiment that tests airborne pollutant chemicals on humans. The
experiment pays $150 to human test subjects (Sharav).
In the Mar. 15 President's
Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), former human
subjects, including those who were used in experiments as children,
give sworn testimonies stating that they were subjected to radiation
experiments and/or brainwashed, hypnotized, drugged, psychologically
tortured, threatened and even raped during CIA experiments. These sworn
- Christina DeNicola's
in Tucson, Ariz., from 1966 to 1976, "Dr. B" performed mind control
experiments using drugs, post-hypnotic injection and drama, and
irradiation experiments on her neck, throat, chest and uterus. She was
only four years old when the experiments started.
- Claudia Mullen's testimony
Sidney Gottlieb (of MKULTRA fame) used chemicals, radiation, hypnosis,
drugs, isolation in tubs of water, sleep deprivation, electric shock,
brainwashing and emotional, sexual and verbal abuse as part of mind
control experiments that had the ultimate objective of turning her, who
was only a child at the time, into the "perfect spy." She tells the
advisory committee that researchers justified this abuse by telling her
that she was serving her country "in their bold effort to fight
- Suzanne Starr's statement
physician, who was retired from the military, got children from the
mountains of Colorado for experiments." She says she was one of those
children and that she was the victim of experiments involving
environmental deprivation to the point of forced psychosis, spin
programming, injections, rape and frequent electroshock and mind
control sessions. "I have fought self-destructive programmed messages
to kill myself, and I know what a programmed message is, and I donít
act on them," she tells the advisory committee of the experiments'
long-lasting effects, even in her adulthood (Goliszek).
President Clinton publicly
the thousands of people who were victims of MKULTRA and other
mind-control experimental programs (Sharav).
In Dr. Daniel P. van Kammen's
"Behavioral vs. Biochemical Prediction of Clinical Stability Following
Haloperidol Withdrawal in Schizophrenia," researchers recruit 88
veterans who are stabilized by their medications enough to make them
functional in society, and hospitalize them for eight to 10 weeks.
During this time, the researchers stop giving the veterans the
medications that are enabling them to live in society, placing them
back on a two- to four-week regimen of the standard dose of Haldol.
Then, the veterans are "washed-out," given lumbar punctures and put
under six-week observation to see who would relapse and suffer
once again; 50 percent do ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
President Clinton appoints the
National Bioethics Advisory Committee (Sharav).
Justice Edward Greenfield of the
State Supreme Court rules that parents do not have the right to
volunteer their mentally incapacitated children for non-therapeutic medical research
studies and that no mentally incapacitated person whatsoever can be
used in a medical experiment without informed consent (Sharav).
Professor Adil E. Shamoo of the
University of Maryland and the organization Citizens for Responsible
Care and Research sends a written testimony on the unethical use of
veterans in medical research to the U.S. Senate's Committee on
Governmental Affairs, stating: "This type of research is on-going
nationwide in medical centers and VA hospitals supported by tens of
millions of dollars of taxpayers money. These experiments are high risk
and are abusive, causing not only physical and psychic harm to the most
vulnerable groups but also degrading our societyís system of basic
human values. Probably tens of thousands of patients are being
subjected to such experiments" ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
The Department of Defense admits
Gulf War soldiers were exposed to chemical agents; however, 33 percent
of all military personnel afflicted with Gulf War Syndrome never left
the United States during the war, discrediting the popular mainstream
belief that these symptoms are a result of exposure to Iraqi chemical
In a federally funded experiment
Haven VA in Connecticut, Yale University researchers give schizophrenic
veterans amphetamine, even though central nervous system stimulants
worsen psychotic symptoms in 40 percent of schizophrenics ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
President Clinton issues a
formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and their
In order to expose unethical
medical experiments that provoke psychotic relapse in schizophrenic
patients, the Boston Globe publishes a four-part series
entitled "Doing Harm: Research on the Mentally Ill" (Sharav).
Researchers give 26 veterans at
a VA hospital a
chemical called Yohimbine to purposely induce post-traumatic stress
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
In order to create a "psychosis
University of Cincinnati researchers give 16 schizophrenic patients at
Cincinnati VA amphetamine in order to provoke repeats bouts of
psychosis and eventually produce "behavioral sensitization" (Sharav).
National Institutes of Mental
(NIMH) researchers give schizophrenic veterans amphetamine, even though
central nervous system stimulants worsen psychotic symptoms in 40
percent of schizophrenics ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
In an experiment sponsored by
government, researchers withhold medical treatment from HIV-positive
African-American pregnant women, giving them a placebo rather than AIDS
Researchers give amphetamine to
schizophrenic patients in a repetition of the 1994 "amphetamine
challenge" at New York VA Hospital. As a result, the patients
experience psychosis, delusions and hallucinations. The researchers
claim to have informed consent ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
On Sept. 18, victims of
experiments at major U.S. research centers, including the National
Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) testify before the National
Bioethics Advisory Committee (Sharav).
Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D. testifies on
Unethical Use of Human Beings in High-Risk Research Experiments" before
the U.S. House of Representatives' House Committee on Veterans'
Affairs, alerting the House on the use of American veterans in VA
Hospitals as human guinea pigs and calling for national reforms ("Testimony
of Adil E. Shamoo, Ph.D.").
Doctors at the University of
inject 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger with an experimental gene therapy as
part of an FDA-approved clinical trial. He dies four days later and his
father suspects that he was not fully informed of the experiment's risk
During a clinical trial
effectiveness of Propulsid for infant acid reflux, nine-month-old Gage
Stevens dies at Children's Hospital in Pittsburgh (Sharav).
The Department of Defense begins
declassifying the records of Project 112, including SHAD, and locating
and assisting the veterans who were exposed to live toxins and chemical
agents as part of Project 112. Many of them have already died
President Clinton authorizes the
Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Act, which compensates the
Department of Energy workers who sacrificed their health to build the
United States' nuclear defenses (Sharav).
The U.S. Air Force and rocket
Lockheed Martin sponsor a Loma Linda University study that pays 100
Californians $1,000 to eat a dose of perchlorate
-- a toxic component of rocket fuel that causes cancer, damages the
thyroid gland and hinders normal development in children and fetuses --
every day for six months. The dose eaten by the test subjects is 83
times the safe dose of perchlorate set by the State of California,
which has perchlorate in some of its drinking water. This Loma Linda
study is the first large-scale study to use human subjects to test the
harmful effects of a water pollutant and is "inherently unethical,"
according to Environmental Working Group research director Richard
Wiles (Goliszek, Envirnomental
Healthy 27-year-old Ellen Roche dies in a
challenge study at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland (Sharav).
On its website, the FDA
admits that its policy to include healthy children in human experiments
"has led to an increasing number of proposals for studies of safety and
pharmacokinetics, including those in children who do not have the
condition for which the drug is intended" (Goliszek).
During a tobacco
Alzheimer's experiment at Case Western University in Cleveland, Elaine
Holden-Able dies after she drinks a glass of orange juice containing a
dissolved dietary supplement (Sharav).
Radiologist Scott Scheer of
dies from kidney failure, severe anemia and possibly lupus -- all
caused by blood pressure drugs he was taking as part of a five-year
clinical trial. After his death, his family sues the Institutional
Review Board of Main Line Hospitals, the hospital that oversaw the
study, and two doctors. Investigators from the federal Office for Human
Research Protections, which is part of the Department of Health and
Human Services, later conclude in a Dec. 20, 2002 letter to Scheer's
oldest daughter: "Your father apparently was not told about the risk of
hydralazine-induced lupus Ö OHRP found that certain unanticipated
problems involving risks to subjects or others were not promptly
reported to appropriate institutional officials" (Willen
and Evans, "Doctor Who Died in Drug Test Was Betrayed by System He
In Higgins and Grimes v.
Kennedy Krieger Institute
The Maryland Court of Appeals makes a landmark decision regarding the
use of children as test subjects, prohibiting non-therapeutic
experimentation on children on the basis of "best interest of the
individual child" (Sharav).
President George W. Bush signs the
Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA), offering pharmaceutical
companies six-month exclusivity in exchange for running clinical drug
trials on children. This will of course increase the number of children
used as human test subjects (Hammer
Two-year-old Michael Daddio of
Delaware dies of congestive heart failure.
After his death, his parents learn that doctors had performed an
experimental surgery on him when he was five months old, rather than
using the established surgical method of repairing his congenital heart
defect that the parents had been told would be performed. The
established procedure has a 90- to 95-percent success rate, whereas the
inventor of the procedure performed on baby Daddio would later be fired
from his hospital in 2004 (Willen
and Evans, "Parents of Babies Who Died in Delaware Tests Weren't Warned").
In his BBC documentary "Guinea Pig
and BBC News article of the same name, reporter Jamie Doran reveals
that children involved in the New York City foster care system were
unwitting human subjects in experimental AIDS drug trials from 1988 to,
in his belief, present times (Doran).
In response to the BBC documentary
and article "Guinea
Pig Kids", the New York City Administration of Children's Services (ACS)
sends out an Apr. 22 press release admitting that foster care children
were used in experimental AIDS drug trials, but says that the last
trial took place in 2001 and thus the trials are not continuing, as BBC
reporter Jamie Doran claims. The ACS gives the extent and statistics of
the experimental drug trials, based on its own records, and contracts
the Vera Institute of Justice to conduct "an independent review of ACS
policy and practice regarding the enrollment of HIV-positive children
in foster care in clinical drug trials during the late 1980s and 1990s"
York City ACS).
In exchange for receiving $2
million from the American Chemical Society, the EPA
proposes the Children's Health Environmental Exposure Research Study
(CHEER to learn how children ranging from infancy to three years old
ingest, inhale and absorb chemicals by exposing children from a poor,
predominantly black area of Duval County, Fla., to these toxins. Due to
pressure from activist groups, negative media coverage and two
Democratic senators, the EPA
eventually decides to drop the study on Apr. 8, 2005 (Organic Consumers
Bloomberg releases a series of
suggesting that SFBC, the largest experimental drug testing center of
its time, exploits immigrant and other low-income test subjects and
runs tests with limited credibility due to violations of both the FDA's
and SFBC's own testing guidelines (Bloomberg).
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Sims: Father Butcher." Seed
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Cockburn, Alexander and Jeffrey
St. Clair, eds. "Germ War: The U.S. Record." Counter Punch.
"Donald Ewan [sic]
Doran, Jamie. "Guinea Pig Kids."
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Elliston, Jon. "MKULTRA: CIA
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Name of Science. New York: St. Martin's, 2003.
Greger, Michael, M.D. Heart
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Griffiths, Joel and Chris
Bryson. "Toxic Secrets: Fluoride and the Atom Bomb." Nexus
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Hammer Breslow, Lauren. "The
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Nov 20, 2006 11:05am
Nov 20, 2006
Originally published March 6 2006
experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of
modern medicine and psychiatry (1833-1965)
Introduction by the
The United States claims to be the world leader in medicine. But
there's a dark side to western medicine that few want to acknowledge:
The horrifying medical experiments performed on impoverished people and
their children all in the name of scientific progress. Many of these
medical experiments were conducted on people without their knowledge,
and most were conducted as part of an effort to seek profits from newly
approved drugs or medical technologies.
Today, the medical
continue on the U.S. population and its children. From the mass
drugging of children diagnosed with fictitious behavioral disorders
invented by psychiatry
to the FDA's approval of mass-marketed drugs that have undergone no
legitimate clinical trials, our population is right now being subjected
to medical experiments on a staggering scale. Today, nearly 50% of
Americans are on a least one prescription drug, and nearly 20% of schoolchildren
are on mind-altering amphetamines like Ritalin or antidepressants like
Prozac. This mass medication
of our nation is, in every way, a grand medical experiment taking place
But to truly understand how this
experimentation on modern Americans came into being, you have to take a
close look at the horrifying history of conventional medicine's
exploitation of people for cruel medical experiments.
WARNING: What you are about to
truly shocking. You have never been told this information by the
American Medical Association, nor drug companies,
nor the evening news. You were never taught the truth about conventional
in public school, or even at any university. This is the dark secret of
the U.S. system of medicine, and once you read the true accounts
reported here, you may never trust drug companies again. These images
are deeply disturbing. We print them here not as a form of
entertainment, but as a stern warning against what might happen to us
and our children if we do not rein in the horrifying, inhumane actions
of Big Pharma and modern-day psychiatry.
Now, I introduce this shocking
researched and authored by Dani Veracity, one of our many talented
staff writers here at Truth Publishing.
Read at your own risk. - The
Human experimentation -- that is,
subjecting live human
beings to science experiments that are sometimes cruel, sometimes
painful, sometimes deadly and always a risk -- is a major
part of U.S. history that you won't find in most history or science
books. The United
is undoubtedly responsible for some of the most amazing scientific
breakthroughs. These advancements, especially in the field of medicine,
have changed the lives of billions of people around the world --
sometimes for the better, as in the case of finding a cure for malaria
and other epidemic diseases, and sometimes for the worse (consider
modern "psychiatry" and the drugging of schoolchildren).
However, these breakthroughs
come with a
hefty price tag: The human beings used in the experiments that made
these advancements possible. Over the last two centuries, some of these
test subjects have been compensated for the damage done to their
emotional and physical health, but most have not. Many have lost their
lives because of the experiments they often unwillingly and sometimes
even unwittingly participated in, and they of course can never be
compensated for losing their most precious possession of all: Their
As you read through these
science experiments, you'll learn the stories of newborns injected
with radioactive substances, mentally ill people placed in giant
personnel exposed to chemical weapons by the very government they
served and mentally challenged children being purposely infected with hepatitis.
These stories are facts, not fiction: Each account, no matter how
horrifying, is backed up with a link or citation to a reputable source.
These stories must be heard
experimentation is still going on today. The reasons behind the
experiments may be different, but the usual human guinea pigs
are still the same -- members of minority groups, the poor and the
disadvantaged. These are the lives that were put on the line in the
name of "scientific" medicine.
Dr. William Beaumont, an army
physician, pioneers gastric medicine with his study of a patient with a
permanently open gunshot wound to the abdomen and writes a human medical
code that asserts the importance of experimental treatments, but also
lists requirements stipulating that human subjects must give voluntary,
informed consent and be able to end the experiment when they want.
Beaumont's Code lists verbal, rather than just written, consent as
(1845 - 1849) J. Marion Sims, later
hailed as the "father of gynecology," performs medical experiments on
enslaved African women without anesthesia. These women would usually
die of infection soon after surgery. Based on his belief that the
movement of newborns' skull bones during protracted births causes
trismus, he also uses a shoemaker's awl, a pointed tool shoemakers use
to make holes in leather, to practice moving the skull bones of babies
born to enslaved mothers (Brinker).
New York pediatrician Henry Heiman
infects a 4-year-old boy whom he calls "an idiot with chronic epilepsy"
with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment ("Human
Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After").
Dr. Arthur Wentworth turns 29
Boston's Children's Hospital into human guinea pigs when he performs
spinal taps on them, just to test whether the procedure is harmful (Sharav).
U.S Army doctors working in
the Philippines infect five Filipino prisoners with plague and withhold
to create Beriberi in 29 prisoners; four test subjects die (Merritte,
et al.; Cockburn
and St. Clair, eds.).
Under commission from the U.S.
general, Dr. Walter Reed goes to Cuba and uses 22 Spanish immigrant
workers to prove that yellow fever is contracted through mosquito
bites. Doing so, he introduces the practice of using healthy test
subjects, and also the concept of a written contract to confirm
informed consent of these subjects. While doing this study, Dr. Reed
clearly tells the subjects that, though he will do everything he can to
help them, they may die as a result of the experiment. He pays them
$100 in gold for their participation, plus $100 extra if they contract
yellow fever (Berdon,
Harvard professor Dr. Richard
infects prisoners in the Philippines with cholera to study the disease;
13 of them die. He compensates survivors with cigars and cigarettes.
During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors cite this study to justify
their own medical experiments (Greger,
Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the
Institute for Medical Research publishes data on injecting an inactive
syphilis preparation into the skin of 146 hospital patients
and normal children in an attempt to develop a skin test for syphilis.
Later, in 1913, several of these children's parents sue Dr.
Noguchi for allegedly infecting their children with syphilis ("Reviews and
Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation
in America before the Second World War").
Medical experimenters "test" 15
at the children's home St. Vincent's House in Philadelphia with
tuberculin, resulting in permanent blindness
in some of the children. Though the Pennsylvania House of
Representatives records the incident, the researchers are not punished
for the experiments ("Human
Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After").
Dr. Joseph Goldberger, under order
U.S. Public Health Office, produces Pellagra, a debilitating disease
that affects the central nervous system,
in 12 Mississippi inmates to try to find a cure for the disease. One
test subject later says that he had been through "a thousand hells." In
1935, after millions die from the disease, the director of the U.S
Public Health Office would finally admit that officials had known that
it was caused by a niacin deficiency for some time, but did nothing
about it because it mostly affected poor African-Americans. During the
Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors used this study to try to justify their
medical experiments on concentration camp inmates (Greger;
Cockburn and St.
In response to the Germans' use of
chemical weapons during World War I, President Wilson creates the
Chemical Warfare Service (CW as a branch of the U.S. Army.
Twenty-four years later, in 1942, the CWS would begin performing
mustard gas and lewisite experiments on over 4,000 members of the armed
(1919 - 1922) Researchers perform
testicular transplant experiments on inmates at San Quentin State
Prison in California, inserting the testicles of recently executed
inmates and goats into the abdomens and scrotums of living prisoners (Greger).
Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, purposely infects human
test subjects in Puerto Rico with cancer cells;
13 of them die. Though a Puerto Rican doctor later discovers that
Rhoads purposely covered up some of details of his experiment and
Rhoads himself gives a written testimony stating he believes that all
Puerto Ricans should be killed, he later goes on to establish the U.S.
Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah and Panama, and is
named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, where he begins a series of
radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian
hospital patients (Sharav;
Cockburn and St.
(1931 - 1933) Mental patients at
Elgin State Hospital in Illinois are
injected with radium-266 as an experimental therapy for mental illness
(1932-1972) The U.S. Public Health
Service in Tuskegee, Ala. diagnoses 400 poor, black sharecroppers with
syphilis but never tells them of their illness nor treats them; instead
researchers use the men as human guinea pigs to follow the symptoms and
progression of the disease. They all eventually die from syphilis and
their families are never told that they could have been treated
of Virginia Health System Health Sciences Library).
Scientists at Cornell University
Medical School publish an angina drug study that uses both placebo
and blind assessment techniques on human test subjects. They discover
that the subjects given the placebo experienced more of an improvement
in symptoms than those who were given the actual drug. This is first
account of the placebo
effect published in the United States ("Placebo
In order to test his theory on the
of stuttering, prominent speech pathologist Dr. Wendell Johnson
performs his famous "Monster Experiment" on 22 children at the Iowa
Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport. Dr. Johnson and his graduate
students put the children under intense psychological pressure, causing
them to switch from speaking normally to stuttering heavily. At the
time, some of the students reportedly warn Dr. Johnson that, "in the
aftermath of World War II, observers might draw comparisons to Nazi
experiments on human subjects, which could destroy his career" (Alliance for Human
Dr. William C. Black infects a
12-month-old baby with herpes as part of a medical experiment. At the
time, the editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine,
Francis Payton Rous, calls it "an abuse of power, an infringement of
the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness
which followed had implications for science" (Sharav).
An article in a 1941 issue of Archives
describes medical studies of the severe gum disease Vincent's angina in
which doctors transmit the disease from sick children to healthy
children with oral swabs (Goliszek).
Drs. Francis and Salk and other
researchers at the University of Michigan spray large amounts of wild
influenza virus directly into the nasal passages of "volunteers" from
mental institutions in Michigan. The test subjects develop influenza
within a very short period of time (Meiklejohn).
Researchers give 800
poverty-stricken pregnant women
at a Vanderbilt University prenatal clinic "cocktails" including
radioactive iron in order to determine the iron requirements of
pregnant women (Pacchioli).
The United States creates Fort
92-acre facility, employing nearly 500 scientists working to create
biological weapons and develop defensive measures against them. Fort
Detrick's main objectives include investigating whether diseases are
transmitted by inhalation, digestion or through skin absorption; of
course, these biological warfare experiments
heavily relied on the use of human subjects (Goliszek).
U.S. Army and Navy doctors
prison inmates in Chicago with malaria to study the disease and
hopefully develop a treatment for it. The prisoners are told that they
are helping the war effort, but not that they are going to be infected
with malaria. During Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors later cite this
American study to defend their own medical experiments in concentration
camps like Auschwitz (Cockburn
and St. Clair, eds.).
The Chemical Warfare Service
mustard gas and lewisite experiments on 4,000 members of the U.S.
military. Some test subjects don't realize they are volunteering for
chemical exposure experiments, like 17-year-old Nathan Schnurman, who
in 1944 thinks he is only volunteering to test "U.S. Navy summer
In an experiment sponsored by
Navy, Harvard biochemist Edward Cohn injects 64 inmates of
Massachusetts state prisons with cow's blood (Sharav).
Merck Pharmaceuticals President
is named director of the War Research Service (WR, an agency designed
to oversee the establishment of a biological warfare program
In order to "study the effect of
temperature on mental disorders," researchers at University of
Cincinnati Hospital keep 16 mentally disabled patients in refrigerated
cabinets for 120 hours at 30 degrees Fahrenheit (Sharav).
As part of the Manhattan Project
would eventually create the atomic bomb, researchers inject 4.7
micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at the Oak Ridge facility, 20
miles west of Knoxville, Tenn. ("Manhattan
Project: Oak Ridge").
Captain A. W. Frisch, an
microbiologist, begins experiments on four volunteers from the state
prison at Dearborn, Mich., inoculating prisoners with
hepatitis-infected specimens obtained in North Africa.
One prisoner dies; two others develop hepatitis but live; the fourth
develops symptoms but does not actually develop the disease (Meiklejohn).
Laboratory workers at the
Minnesota and University of Chicago inject human test subjects with
phosphorus-32 to learn the metabolism of hemoglobin (Goliszek).
(1944 - 1946) In order to
a cure for malaria -- a disease hindering Allied success in World War
II -- University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Alving
infects psychotic patients at Illinois State Hospital with the disease
through blood transfusions and then experiments malaria cures on them (Sharav).
A captain in the medical corps
an April 1944 memo to Col. Stanford Warren, head of the Manhattan
Project's Medical Section, expressing his concerns about atom bomb
component fluoride's central nervous system (CN effects and asking
for animal research to be done to determine the extent of these
effects: "Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have
a rather marked central nervous system effect ... It seems most likely
that the F [code for fluoride] component rather than the T [code for
uranium] is the causative factor ... Since work with these compounds is
essential, it will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects
may occur after exposure." The following year, the Manhattan Project
would begin human-based studies on fluoride's effects (Griffiths
The Manhattan Project medical
by the now infamous University of Rochester radiologist Col. Safford
Warren, injects plutonium into patients at the University's teaching
hospital, Strong Memorial (Burton
Continuing the Manhattan Project,
researchers inject plutonium into three patients at the University of
Chicago's Billings Hospital (Sharav).
The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence
and the CIA begin Operation Paperclip, offering Nazi scientists
immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top-secret
government projects on aerodynamics and chemical warfare medicine in
the United States ("Project
Researchers infect 800 prisoners
in Atlanta with malaria to study the disease (Sharav).
(1945 - 1955) In Newburgh, N.Y.,
researchers linked to the Manhattan Project begin the most extensive
American study ever done on the health effects of fluoridating public
drinking water (Griffiths
Gen. Douglas MacArthur strikes a
deal with Japanese physician Dr. Shiro Ishii to turn over 10,000 pages
of information gathered from human experimentation in exchange for
granting Ishii immunity from prosecution for the horrific experiments
he performed on Chinese, Russian and American war prisoners, including
performing vivisections on live human beings (Goliszek, Sharav).
Male and female test subjects at
Chicago's Argonne National Laboratories are given intravenous
injections of arsenic-76 so that researchers can study how the human body
absorbs, distributes and excretes arsenic (Goliszek).
Continuing the Newburg study of
Manhattan Project commissions the University of Rochester to study
fluoride's effects on animals and humans in a project codenamed
"Program F." With the help of the New York State Health Department,
Program F researchers secretly collect and analyze blood and tissue
samples from Newburg residents. The studies are sponsored by the Atomic
Energy Commission and take place at the University of Rochester Medical
Center's Strong Memorial Hospital (Griffiths
(1946 - 1947) University of
researchers inject four male and two female human test subjects with
uranium-234 and uranium-235 in dosages ranging from 6.4 to 70.7
micrograms per one kilogram of body weight in order to study how much
uranium they could tolerate before their kidneys become damaged
Six male employees of a
Chicago metallurgical laboratory are given water
contaminated with plutonium-239 to drink so that researchers can learn
how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract (Goliszek).
Researchers begin using patients
hospitals as test subjects for human medical experiments, cleverly
worded as "investigations" or "observations" in medical study reports
to avoid negative connotations and bad publicity (Sharav).
The American public finally
learns of the
biowarfare experiments being done at Fort Detrick from a report
released by the War Department (Goliszek).
(1946 - 1953) The U.S. Atomic
Commission sponsors studies in which researchers from Harvard Medical
School, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Boston University School
of Medicine feed mentally disabled students at Fernald State School
Quaker Oats breakfast cereal spiked with radioactive tracers every
morning so that nutritionists can study how preservatives move through
the human body and if they block the absorption of vitamins and
minerals. Later, MIT
researchers conduct the same study at Wrentham State School (Sharav,
Human test subjects are given
one to four
injections of arsenic-76 at the University of Chicago Department of
Medicine. Researchers take tissue biopsies from the subjects before and
after the injections (Goliszek).
Col. E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S.
Energy Commission (AEC) issues a top-secret document (707075) dated
Jan. 8. In it, he writes that "certain radioactive substances are being
prepared for intravenous administration to human subjects as a part of
the work of the contract" (Goliszek).
A secret AEC document dated
reads, "It is desired that no document be released which refers to
experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public
opinion or result in legal suits," revealing that the U.S. government
was aware of the health risks its nuclear tests posed to military
personnel conducting the tests or nearby civilians (Goliszek).
begins studying LSD's potential as a weapon by using military and
civilian test subjects for experiments without their consent or even
knowledge. Eventually, these LSD studies will evolve into the MKULTRA
program in 1953 (Sharav).
(1947 - 1953) The U.S. Navy
Project Chatter to identify and test so-called "truth serums," such as
those used by the Soviet Union to interrogate spies. Mescaline and the
central nervous system depressant scopolamine are among the many drugs
tested on human subjects (Goliszek).
Based on the secret studies
Newburgh, N.Y. residents beginning in 1945, Project F researchers
publish a report in the August 1948 edition of the Journal of the
American Dental Association,
detailing fluoride's health dangers. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
(AEC) quickly censors it for "national security" reasons (Griffiths
(1950 - 1953) The CIA and later the
Office of Scientific Intelligence begin Project Bluebird (renamed
Project Artichoke in 1951) in order to find ways to "extract"
information from CIA agents, control individuals "through special
interrogation techniques," "enhance memory" and use "unconventional
techniques, including hypnosis
and drugs" for offensive measures (Goliszek).
(1950 - 1953) The U.S. Army
chemical clouds over six American and Canadian cities. Residents in
Winnipeg, Canada, where a highly toxic chemical called cadmium is
dropped, subsequently experience high rates of respiratory illnesses (Cockburn and St.
In order to determine how
susceptible an American city could be to biological attack, the U.S.
Navy sprays a cloud of Bacillus globigii bacteria
from ships over the San Francisco shoreline. According to monitoring
devices situated throughout the city to test the extent of infection,
the eight thousand residents of San Francisco inhale five thousand or
more bacteria particles, many becoming sick with pneumonia-like
Dr. Joseph Strokes of the
University of Pennsylvania infects 200 female prisoners with viral
hepatitis to study the disease (Sharav).
Doctors at the Cleveland City
Hospital study changes in cerebral blood flow
by injecting test subjects with spinal anesthesia, inserting needles in
their jugular veins and brachial arteries, tilting their heads down
and, after massive blood loss causes paralysis and fainting, measuring
pressure. They often perform this experiment multiple times on the
same subject (Goliszek).
Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, later of
MKULTRA infamy due to his 1957 to1964 experiments on Canadians,
publishes an article in the British Journal of Physical Medicine,
in which he describes experiments that entail forcing schizophrenic
patients at Manitoba's Brandon Mental Hospital to lie naked under 15-
to 200-watt red lamps for up to eight hours per day. His other
experiments include placing mental patients in an electric cage that
overheats their internal body temperatures to 103 degrees Fahrenheit,
and inducing comas by giving patients large injections of insulin (Goliszek).
The U.S. Navy's Project Bluebird is
renamed Project Artichoke and begins human medical experiments that
test the effectiveness of LSD, sodium pentothal and hypnosis for the
interrogative purposes described in Project Bluebird's objectives
The U.S. Army secretly
Norfolk Naval Supply Center in Virginia and Washington, D.C.'s National
Airport with a strain of bacteria chosen because African-Americans were
believed to be more susceptible to it than Caucasians. The experiment
causes food poisoning, respiratory problems and blood poisoning (Cockburn and St.
(1951 - 1952) Researchers
insulin from diabetic patients for up to two days in order to observe
the effects of diabetes; some test subjects go into diabetic comas
(1951 - 1956) Under contract
with the Air
Force's School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), the University of Texas M.D.
Anderson Cancer Center in Houston begins studying the effects of
radiation on cancer
-- many of them members of minority groups or indigents, according to
sources -- in order to determine both radiation's ability to treat cancer
and the possible long-term radiation effects of pilots flying
nuclear-powered planes. The study lasts until 1956, involving 263
cancer patients. Beginning in 1953, the subjects are required to sign a
waiver form, but it still does not meet the informed consent guidelines
established by the Wilson memo released that year. The TBI studies
themselves would continue at four different institutions -- Baylor
University College of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute for
Cancer Research, the U.S. Naval Hospital in Bethesda and the University
of Cincinnati College of Medicine -- until 1971 (U.S.
Department of Energy, Goliszek).
American, Canadian and British
and intelligence officials gather a small group of eminent
psychologists to a secret meeting at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Montreal
about Communist "thought-control techniques." They proposed a
top-secret research program on behavior modification -- involving
testing drugs, hypnosis, electroshock and lobotomies on humans (Barker).
Military scientists use the Dugway
Proving Ground -- which is located 87 miles southwest of Salt Lake
City, Utah -- in a series of experiments to determine how Brucella
suis and Brucella melitensis
spread in human populations. Today, over a half-century later, some
experts claim that we are all infected with these agents as a result of
these experiments (Goliszek).
In a U.S. Department of
Denfense-sponsored experiment, Henry Blauer dies after he is injected
with mescaline at Columbia University's New York State Psychiatric
At the famous Sloan-Kettering
Chester M. Southam injects live cancer cells into prisoners at the Ohio
State Prison to study the progression of the disease. Half of the
prisoners in this National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) study
are black, awakening racial suspicions stemming from Tuskegee, which
was also an NIH-sponsored study (Merritte,
(1953 - 1970) The CIA begins
MKNAOMI to "stockpile incapacitating and lethal materials, to develop
gadgetry for the disseminations of these materials, and to test the
effects of certain drugs on animals and humans." As part of MKNAOMI,
the CIA and the Special Operations Division of the Army Biological
Laboratory at Fort Detrick try to develop two suicide
pill alternatives to the standard cyanide suicide pill given to CIA
agents and U-2 pilots. CIA agents and U-2 pilots are meant to take
these pills when they find themselves in situations in which they (and
all the information they hold in their brains) are in enemy hands. They
also develop a "microbioinoculator" -- a device that agents can use to
fire small darts coated with biological agents that can remain potent
for weeks or even months. These darts can be fired through clothing
and, most significantly, are undetectable during autopsy. Eventually,
by the late 1960s, MKNAOMI enables the CIA to have a stockpile of
biological toxins -- infectious viruses, paralytic shellfish toxin,
lethal botulism toxin, snake venom and the severe skin
disease-producing agent Mircosporum gypseum. Of course, the
development of all of this "gadgetry" requires human experimentation
(1953 - 1974) CIA Director Allen
authorizes the MKULTRA program to produce and test drugs and biological
agents that the CIA could use for mind control and behavior
modification. MKULTRA later becomes well known for its pioneering
studies on LSD, which are often performed on prisoners or patrons of
brothels set up and run by the CIA. The brothel experiments, known as
"Operation Midnight Climax," feature two-way mirrors set up in the
brothels so that CIA agents can observe LSD's effects on sexual
behavior. Ironically, governmental figures sometimes slip LSD into each
other's drinks as part of the program, resulting in the LSD
psychosis-induced suicide of Dr. Frank Olson indirectly at the hands of
MKULTRA's infamous key player Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Of all the hundreds
of human test subjects used during MKULTRA, only 14 are ever notified
of the involvement and only one is ever compensated ($15,000). Most of
the MKULTRA files are eventually destroyed in 1973 (Elliston; Merritte,
et al.; Barker).
The U.S. Atomic Energy
Commission (AEC) sponsors iodine
studies at the University of Iowa. In the first study, researchers give
pregnant women 100 to 200 microcuries of iodine-131 and then study the
women's aborted embryos in order to learn at what stage and to what
extent radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. In the second
study, researchers give 12 male and 13 female newborns under 36 hours
old and weighing between 5.5 and 8.5 pounds iodine-131 either orally or
via intramuscular injection, later measuring the concentration of
iodine in the newborns' thyroid glands
Secretary of Defense Charles
issues the Wilson memo, a top-secret document establishing the
Nuremberg Code as Department of Defense policy on human
experimentation. The Wilson memo requires voluntary, written consent
from a human medical research subject after he or she has been informed
of "the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and
means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards
reasonably to be expected; and effects upon his health or person which
may possibly come from his participation in the experiment." It also
insists that doctors only use experimental treatments when other
methods have failed (Berdon).
As part of an AEC study,
28 healthy infants at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine
iodine-131 through a gastric tube and then test concentration of iodine
in the infants' thyroid glands 24 hours later (Goliszek).
(1953 - 1957) Eleven patients at
Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston are injected with uranium as
part of the Manhattan Project (Sharav).
In an AEC-sponsored study at the
University of Tennessee, researchers inject healthy two- to
three-day-old newborns with approximately 60 rads of iodine-131
Newborn Daniel Burton becomes
blind when physicians
at Brooklyn Doctors Hospital perform an experimental high oxygen
treatment for Retrolental Fibroplasia, a retinal disorder affecting
premature infants, on him and other premature babies. The physicians
perform the experimental treatment despite earlier studies showing that
high oxygen levels cause blindness. Testimony in Burton v.
Brooklyn Doctors Hospital
(452 N.Y.S.2d875) later reveals that researchers continued to give
Burton and other infants excess oxygen even after their eyes had
swelled to dangerous levels (Goliszek, Sharav).
The CIA begins Project MKDELTA
the use of biochemicals "for harassment, discrediting and disabling
A 1953 article in Clinical
describes a medical experiment in which researchers purposely blister
the abdomens of 41 children, ranging in age from eight to 14, with
cantharide in order to study how severely the substance irritates the
The AEC performs a series of
known as "Green Run," dropping radiodine 131 and xenon 133 over the
Hanford, Wash. site -- 500,000 acres encompassing three small towns
(Hanford, White Bluffs and Richland) along the Columbia River (Sharav).
In an AEC-sponsored study to
whether radioactive iodine affects premature babies differently from
full-term babies, researchers at Harper Hospital in Detroit give oral
doses of iodine-131 to 65 premature and full-term infants weighing
between 2.1 and 5.5 pounds (Goliszek).
The CIA begins Project QKHILLTOP to
Chinese Communist Party brainwashing techniques and use them to further
the CIA's own interrogative methods. Most experts speculate that the
Cornell University Medical School Human Ecology Studies Program
conducted Project QKHILLTOP's early experiments (Goliszek).
(1954 - 1975) U.S. Air Force
officers assigned to Fort Detrick's Chemical Corps Biological
Laboratory begin Operation Whitecoat -- experiments involving exposing
human test subjects to hepatitis A, plague, yellow fever, Venezuelan
equine encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia and intestinal
microbes. These test subjects include 2,300 Seventh Day Adventist
military personnel, who choose to become human guinea pigs rather than
potentially kill others in combat. Only two of the 2,300 claim
long-term medical complications from participating in the study ("Operation
In a general memo to university
researchers under contract with the military, the Surgeon General
of the U.S. Army asserts the human experimentation guidelines --
including informed, written consent -- established in the classified
Wilson memo (Goliszek).
In U.S. Army-sponsored experiments
performed at Tulane University, mental patients are given LSD and other
drugs and then have electrodes implanted in their brain to measure the
"The Cold War Experiments").
(1955 - 1957) In order to learn
weather affects human physiology, researchers give a total of 200 doses
of iodine-131, a radioactive tracer that concentrates almost
immediately in the thyroid gland,
to 85 healthy Eskimos and 17 Athapascan Indians living in Alaska. They
study the tracer within the body by blood, thyroid tissue, urine and
saliva samples from the test subjects. Due to the language barrier, no
one tells the test subjects what is being done to them, so there is no
informed consent (Goliszek).
(1955 - 1965) As a result of
with the CIA's mind control experiments in Project QKHILLTOP, Cornell
neurologists Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle begin the Society for the
Investigation of Human Ecology (later renamed the Human Ecology Fund)
to study "man's relation to his social environment as perceived by him"
(1956 - 1957) U.S. Army covert
weapons researchers release mosquitoes infected with yellow fever and
dengue fever over Savannah, Ga., and Avon Park, Fla., to test the
insects' ability to carry disease. After each test, Army agents pose as
officials to test victims for effects and take pictures of the
unwitting test subjects. These experiments result in a high incidence
of fevers, respiratory distress, stillbirths, encephalitis and typhoid
among the two cities' residents, as well as several deaths (Cockburn and St.
The U.S. military conducts
Plumbbob at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas.
Operation Pumbbob consists of 29 nuclear detonations, eventually
creating radiation expected to result in a total 32,000 cases of
thyroid cancer among civilians in the area. Around 18,000 members of
the U.S. military participate in Operation Pumbbob's Desert Rock VII
and VIII, which are designed to see how the average foot soldier
physiologically and mentally responds to a nuclear battlefield ("Operation
(1957 - 1964) As part of
MKULTRA, the CIA
pays McGill University Department of Psychiatry founder Dr. D. Ewen
Cameron $69,000 to perform LSD studies and potentially lethal
experiments on Canadians being treated for minor disorders like
post-partum depression and anxiety at the Allan Memorial Institute,
which houses the Psychiatry Department of the Royal Victoria Hospital
in Montreal. The CIA encourages Dr. Cameron to fully explore his
"psychic driving" concept of correcting madness through completely
erasing one's memory and rewriting the psyche. These "driving"
experiments involve putting human test subjects into drug-,
electroshock- and sensory deprivation-induced vegetative states for up
to three months, and then playing tape loops of noise or simple
repetitive statements for weeks or months in order to "rewrite" the
"erased" psyche. Dr. Cameron also gives human test subjects paralytic
drugs and electroconvulsive therapy 30 to 40 times, as part of his
experiments. Most of Dr. Cameron's test subjects suffer permanent
damage as a result of his work (Goliszek, "Donald
In order to study how blood
children's brains, researchers at Children's Hospital in Philadelphia
perform the following experiment on healthy children, ranging in age
from three to 11: They insert needles into each child's femoral artery
(thigh) and jugular vein (neck), bringing the blood down from the
brain. Then, they force each child to inhale a special gas through a
facemask. In their subsequent Journal of Clinical Investigation
article on this study, the researchers note that, in order to perform
the experiment, they had to restrain some of the child test subjects by
bandaging them to boards (Goliszek).
Approximately 300 members of the
U.S. Navy are exposed to radiation when the Navy destroyer Mansfield
detonates 30 nuclear bombs off the coasts of Pacific Islands during
Operation Hardtack (Goliszek).
The U.S. Atomic Energy
drops radioactive materials over Point Hope, Alaska, home to the
Inupiats, in a field test known under the codename "Project Chariot" (Sharav).
In response to the Nuremberg
psychologist Stanley Milgram begins his famous Obedience to Authority
Study in order to answer his question "Could it be that (Adolf)
Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just
following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?" Male test
subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 40 and coming from all education
backgrounds, are told to give "learners" electric shocks for every
wrong answer the learners give in response to word pair questions. In
reality, the learners are actors and are not receiving electric shocks,
but what matters is that the test subjects do not know that.
Astoundingly, they keep on following orders and continue to administer
increasingly high levels of "shocks," even after the actor learners
show obvious physical pain ("Milgram
Researchers at the Laurel
Children's Center in Maryland test experimental acne
antibiotics on children and continue their tests even after half of the
young test subjects develop severe liver damage because of the
experimental medication (Goliszek).
The U.S. Army's Deseret Test Center begins Project 112. This includes
SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense), which exposes U.S. Navy and Army
personnel to live toxins and chemical poisons in order to determine
naval ships' vulnerability to chemical and biological weapons. Military
personnel are not test subjects; conducting the tests exposes them.
Many of these participants complain of negative health effects at the
time and, decades later, suffer from severe medical problems as a
result of their exposure (Goliszek, Veterans
The FDA begins requiring that a
pharmaceutical undergo three human clinical trials before it will
approve it. From 1962 to 1980, pharmaceutical companies satisfy this
requirement by running Phase I trials, which determine a drug's
toxicity, on prison inmates, giving them small amounts of cash for
Chester M. Southam, who injected
State Prison inmates with live cancer cells in 1952, performs the same
procedure on 22 senile, African-American female patients at the
Brooklyn Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in order to watch their
immunological response. Southam tells the patients that they are
receiving "some cells," but leaves out the fact that they are cancer
cells. He claims he doesn't obtain informed consent from the patients
because he does not want to frighten them by telling them what he is
doing, but he nevertheless temporarily loses his medical license
because of it. Ironically, he eventually becomes president of the
American Cancer Society (Greger,
Researchers at the University of
Washington directly irradiate the testes of 232 prison inmates in order
to determine radiation's effects on testicular function. When these
inmates later leave prison and have children, at least four have babies
born with birth defects. The exact number
Nov 20, 2006 10:45am
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