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Caldicott received her medical degree from the University of Adelaide Medical School. In 1977 she joined the staff of the Children’s HospitalMedicalCenter in Boston, and taught pediatrics at the HarvardMedicalSchool from 1977 to 1978. She worked to establish the group International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. –Wikipedia
[Rough Transcript of Video By Dr. Caldicott] The problem with plutonium studies is that they did not seem to focus on ANY children. According to Dr Caldicott, children are 20 TIMES more sensitive to radiation than adults. This makes all of the studies on adults worthless, because none of the adult studies can be applied to children or babies, much less a fetus.
According to Dr. Caldicott, in a normal fetus a tiny particle of plutonium can lodge in the brain while it is developing. In a fetus, plutonium can and WILL destroy the genetic material that will develop into the right brain for example.
Plutonium is extremely teratogenasis, meaning it has severe and negative effects on eggs, sperm and developing fetuses.
For this reason, pro nuclear industry supporters will NEVER show studies about how plutonium affects a human fetus, babies or children, because it would be too bad for their public relations campaign.
According to Dr Caldicott MD, plutonium has an affinity for the testicles in men, and lodges next to the sperm production area of the male reproductive system, destroying or damaging the genetic structure of the sperm, which then produces defective human babies. Plutonium is mutagenetic.
She reports it can take up to twenty generations for recessive genetic tendencies to express themselves
10. Uranium 235 ~ 7030.8 million years * (700 million years X 10) “It was discovered in 1935 byArthur Jeffrey Dempster. If at least oneneutronfrom U-235 fission strikes another nucleus and causes it to fission, then the chain reaction will continue. If the reaction will sustain itself, it is said to becritical, and the mass of U-235 required to produce the critical condition is said to be acritical mass. A critical chain reaction can be achieved at low concentrations of U-235 if the neutrons from fission aremoderatedto lower their speed, since the probability for fission withslow neutronsis greater. A fission chain reaction produces intermediatemass fragmentswhich are highlyradioactiveand produce further energy by theirradioactive decay. Some of them produce neutrons, calleddelayed neutrons, which contribute to the fission chain reaction. Innuclear reactors, the reaction is slowed down by the addition ofcontrol rodswhich are made ofelementssuch asboron,cadmium, andhafniumwhich can absorb a large number of neutrons. Innuclear bombs, the reaction is uncontrolled and the large amount ofenergyreleased creates anuclear explosion.”
11. Plutonium 239 - 480,000 years (24,200 years * x 20)
“The nuclear properties of plutonium-239, as well as the ability to produce large amounts of nearly pure Pu-239, led to its use innuclear weaponsandnuclear power stations. Thefissioningof an atom of uranium-235 in the reactor of anuclear power plantproduces two to three neutrons, and these neutrons can be absorbed by uranium-238 to produce plutonium-239 and otherisotopes. Plutonium-239 can also absorb neutrons and fission along with the uranium-235 in a reactor. In any operating nuclear reactor containing U-238, some plutonium-239 will accumulate in the nuclear fuel.Unlike reactors used to produce weapons-grade plutonium, commercial nuclear power reactors typically operate at a highburnupthat allows a significant amount of plutonium to build up in irradiated reactor fuel. Plutonium-239 will be present both in the reactor core during operation and inspent nuclear fuelthat has been removed from the reactor at the end of the fuel assembly’s service life (typically several years). Spent nuclear fuel commonly contains about 0.8% plutonium-239.
Plutonium-239 present in reactor fuel can absorb neutrons and fission just as uranium-235 can. Since plutonium-239 is constantly being created in the reactor core during operation, the use of plutonium-239 as nuclear fuel in power plants can occur withoutreprocessing of spent fuel; the plutonium-239 is fissioned in the same fuel rods in which it is produced. Fissioning of plutonium-239 provides about one-third of the total energy produced in a typical commercial nuclear power plant. Reactor fuel would accumulate much more than 0.8% plutonium-239 during its service life if some plutonium-239 were not constantly being “burned off” by fissioning.
A small percentage of plutonium-239 can be deliberately added to fresh nuclear fuel. Such fuel is calledMOX (mixed oxide) fuel, as it contains a mixture of uranium oxide (UO2) and plutonium oxide (PuO2). The addition of plutonium-239 reduces or eliminates the need toenrich the uraniumin the fuel.”
PLUTONIUM, RADIOACTIVE CASRN: NO CAS RN “This record contains information specific for compounds containing plutonium and plutonium in the zero valence state; all plutonium nuclides are radioactive.
Human Health Effects:
Evidence for Carcinogenicity: There is sufficient evidence in humans that inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols causes lung cancer, liver cancer and bone sarcoma. Exposure to plutonium-239 also entails exposure to plutonium-240 and other isotopes. /Plutonium-239/ [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man.Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work). Available at:http://monographs.iarc.fr/index.phpp. V78 478 (2001)] **PEER REVIEWED**
There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of mixed alpha-particle emitters (radium-224, radium-226, thorium-227, thorium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, neptunium-237, plutonium-238, plutonium-239 (together with plutonium-240), americium-241, curium-244, californium-249 and californium-252). /Mixed-alpha particle emitters/ [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man.Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work). Available at:http://monographs.iarc.fr/index.phpp. V78 478 (2001)] **PEER REVIEWED** ”
See link for the rest of the story…
12. Neptunium 237 – 20,140,000 years (2,144,000 years * x 20)
“19 neptuniumradioisotopeshave been characterized, with the most stable being237Np with ahalf-lifeof 2.14 million years,236Np with a half-life of 154,000 years, and235Np with a half-life of 396.1 day.
Neptunium accumulates in commercial household ionization-chamber smoke detectors from decay of the (typically) 0.2microgramof americium-241 initially present as a source ofionizing radiation. With a half-life of 432 years, the americium-241 in a smoke detector includes about 3% neptunium after 20 years, and about 15% after 100 years.
Due to its long half-life neptunium becomes the major contributor of the total radiation in 10,000 years. As it is unclear what happens to the containment in that long time span, an extraction of the neptunium would minimize the contamination of the environment if the nuclear waste could be mobilized after several thousand years.
“Neptunium is found in reactors as a by-product of plutonium production from uranium-238(about one part neptunium is produced for every 1,000 parts plutonium).All neptunium isotopes are radioactive; the stablest is neptunium-237, with a half-life of 2,144,000 years, and among the most unstable is neptunium-225, with a half-life of more than 2 microseconds.” http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/409395/neptunium-237
Ruthenium 103 ~ 390 days (39 days x 10) [Ruthenium is a fission product of uranium-235.]
Ruthenium 106 ~3 years (374 days * x 10)
Strontium-90 ~ 28.85 years [Strontium-90 is a product of nuclear fission and is found in large amounts in spent nuclear fuel and in radioactive waste from nuclear reactors. It is often attracted to bone, and is one of the causes of leukemia.
Part of the problem is that the nuclear industry and nuclear information disseminators tend to make understanding anything about nuclear radiation very difficult. The speak another language, which is not easy to understand by non nuclear scientists. Maybe they are doing this on purpose, and maybe not. But if everyone uses a different way of describing nuclear breakdowns, how is anyone to be expected to understand and communicate anything meaningful about the entire subject? Having twenty different ways to describe the same thing, tends to hide what is going on in my opinion.
In another way, the long lived radioactive elements are always NEVER mentioned when it comes to nuclear power. The industry and mass media tend to focus solely only on the short lived radioactive elements, such as iodine 131 with a half life of eight days., and Caesium, with a thirty year half life.
Finally, the very description of half lives is meaningless and misleading to the amateur, because this way of describing nuclear radiation is very hard to understand. Most people assume that the element being described will no longer be harmful after the half life period is over. But that again, is another industry ploy perhaps designed to make these things sound more palatable. Iodine 131 is really a short lived radioactive element, but it takes 80 days to decay into something else. And Iodine 129 has a life of 6.5 million years where it remains dangerous, but that again is almost NEVER mentioned in the news. Guess what? Both forms of radioactive iodine are released after a nuclear accident and with nuclear fission. You cannot get one without the other.
Finally, to understand radioactive elements, we have to understand that to become something else, entirely, the following elements have to go through 10 to 20 half lives. So the real time it takes to become 'safe' is 10 to 20 times the half life that the nuclear officials like to talk about.
Many sources claim that there are only 7 long lived radioactive nuclear elements. Actually, there are many more than that. Here is the proof that what nuclear experts claim is actually full of very long lived, dangerous, hot radiation and even more hot air.
The Longest Lived Radiation Producing Elements
1. Technetium 99 - 2 million years (200,000 years X 10) This elementproduces the huge amounts of LLFP radioactivity. It also emits beta particles and is hazardous if ingested. It forms anions that move around easily in environment. Tons of this element have been disposed of in the ocean. This element emits X-rays. The most dangerous part about technetium is inhalation of this element in a dust or liquid form. If it gets in the lungs or intestines, Technetium 99 can cause cancer, and increase the risk of getting cancer. “An estimated 160 TBq(about 250 kg) of technetium-99 was released into the environment up to 1994 by atmospheric nuclear tests.The amount of technetium-99 from nuclear reactors released into the environment up to 1986 is estimated to be on the order of 1000 TBq (about 1600 kg), primarily bynuclear fuel reprocessing; most of this was discharged into the ocean. (The nuclear industry believes that dilution makes it safe) In recent years, reprocessing methods have improved to reduce emissions, but as of 2005the primary release of technetium-99 into the environment is by theSellafieldplant, which released an estimated 550 TBq (about 900 kg) from 1995-1999 into the Irish Sea. From 2000 onwards the amount has been limited by regulation to 90 TBq (about 140 kg) per year. “
2. Tin 126 – 2.3 - 4 million years (230,000 years X 10 or 20) Emits gamma radiation, and is dangerous with external or internal exposure. Tin - 126 decays into antimony -126. Antimony - 126 also emits gamma rays, otherwise called X Rays, making external or internal exposure to Tin-126 dangerous. Fast breeder reactors produce more of this than other reactors, but all nuclear reactors produce some of this element, as well as shorter lived radioactive cousins. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin-126#Tin-126
Nuclear fissionproduces it at a fission yield of 6.2956%, on a par with the other most abundant fission products. Nuclear reactors usually contain large amounts of zirconium asfuel rodcladding(seeZircaloy), and neutron irradiation of92Zr also produces some93Zr.”
“Consuming about 1% of the Zr supply, zirconium is used for cladding nuclear reactor fuels.For this purpose, it is mainly used in the form ofzircaloys. The benefits of Zr alloys is their low neutron-capture cross-sectionand good resistance to corrosion under normal service conditions.The development of efficient methods for the separation of zirconium from hafnium was required for this application.
One disadvantage of zirconium alloys is their reactivity toward water at high temperatures leading to the formation ofhydrogengas and to the accelerated degradation of thefuel rod cladding:
Zr + 2 H2O → ZrO2+ 2 H2
Thisexothermicreaction is very slow below 100 °C, but at temperature above 900 °C the reaction becomes rapid and is proportional to the square of mass of metal available. Most metals undergo similar reactions, such ase.g.ironwhose reaction with water steam inside an incandescent tube was used byAntoine Lavoisierto produce hydrogen. The redox reaction is relevant to the instability offuel assembliesat high temperatures,This reaction was responsible for a small hydrogen explosion first observed inside the reactor building ofThree Mile Islandaccident at the nuclear power plant in 1979, but then, the containment building was not damaged. The same reaction occurred in the reactors 1, 2 and 3 of theFukushima I Nuclear Power Plant(Japan) and in thespent fuel poolof reactor 4 after the reactors cooling was interrupted by the earthquake and tsunami disaster of March 11, 2011 leading to theFukushima I nuclear accidents. After venting of hydrogen in the maintenance hall of these three reactors, the explosive mixture of hydrogen with airoxygendetonated, severely damaging the installations and at least one of the containment buildings. To avoid explosion, the direct venting of hydrogen to the open atmosphere would have been a preferred design option. Now, to prevent the risk of explosion in manypressurized water reactor(PWR) containment buildings, acatalyst-based recombinator is installed to rapidly convert hydrogen and oxygen into water at room temperature before explosivity limit is reached.”
5. Iodine 129 - 157 million years (15.7 million years X 10) This radioactive iodine has a half life about a billion times longer than iodine 131. “129I is primarily formed from thefissionofuraniumandplutoniuminnuclear reactors. Significant amounts were released into theatmosphereas a result ofnuclear weapons testingin the 1950s and 1960s.” 129I decays with ahalf-lifeof 15.7 million years, with low-energybetaandgammaemissions, toxenon-129(129Xe)” It is also released in large quantities when a nuclear reactor melts down, along with it’s shorter lived radioactive cousin.
7. Caesium 135 - 23 million years (2.3 million years x 10) The longest-livedradioisotopesare135Cs with a half-life of 2.3 million years…..Beginning in 1945 with the commencement ofnuclear testing, caesium isotopes were released into theatmospherewhere it is absorbed readily into solution and is returned to the surface of the earth as a component ofradioactive fallout.
“The other caesium isotopes have half-lives from a few days to fractions of a second. Almost all caesium produced from nuclear fission comes from beta decay of originally more neutron-rich fission products, passing throughisotopes of iodinethenisotopes of xenon. Because these elements are volatile and can diffuse through nuclear fuel or air, caesium is often created far from the original site of fission.”Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium-135#Caesium-135
8. Uranium 234 ~ 2.46 million years * , (246,000 years x 10) “U-234 occurs as an indirectdecay productofuranium-238, but it makes up only 0.0055% (55parts per million) of the raw uranium because itshalf-lifeof just 245,500 years is only about 1/18,000 as long as that of U-238. The path of production of U-234 vianuclear decayis as follows: U-238 nuclei emit analpha particleto becomethorium-234(Th-234). Next, with a short half-life, Th-234 nuclei emit abeta particleto becomeproactinium-234 (Pa-234). Finally, Pa-234 nuclei decay byalpha emissionto thorium-230, except for the small percentage of nuclei which undergospontaneous fission.Depleted uraniumcontains much less U-234 (around 0.001%) which makes the radioactivity of depleted uranium about one-half of that of natural uranium. Natural uranium has an "equilibrium" concentration of U-234 at the point where an equal number of decays of U-238 and U-234 will occur. Depleted uranium also contains less U-235, but in spite of its half-life that is much shorter than the one of U-238, the concentration of U-235 in natural uranium is low enough (about 0.7%) so that the U-235 depletion does not result in a significant reduction in radioactivity.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium-234
Gundersen expresses concerns that the nuclear industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are not addressing major safety issues that have become evident since Fukushima. These issues include serious design flaws in the BWR Mark 1 containment, fundamental flaws in the Boiling Water Reactor vessel design, and problems with detonation shockwaves.
The NRC and the nuclear industry are using a flawed cost benefit computer code that underestimates the value of human life and minimize property damages after an accident, which has the effect of justifying continued operation of reactors without safety modifications.
Also, Fairewinds announces the launch of the Japanese language version of its site, Fairewinds.jp.
He also talks about how SAMA, or Severe Accident Mitigation Analysis works, and how this is being ignored with Fukushima.
[NOTE: Half-life is the time taken for a radioactive substance to decay by half.] * Cesium-134 ~ 2 years * Cesium-137 ~ 30 years * Iodine-131 ~ 8 days * Plutonium-239 ~ 24,200 years * Ruthenium-103 ~ 39 days [Ruthenium is a fission product of uranium-235.] * Ruthenium-106 ~ 374 days * Strontium-90 ~ 28.85 years [Strontium-90 is a product of nuclear fission and is found in large amounts in spent nuclear fuel and in radioactive waste from nuclear reactors.] * Uranium-234 ~ 246,000 years * Uranium-235 ~ 703.8 million years * Uranium-238 ~ 4.468 billion years
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Nuclear expert; #Fukushima black smoke is most likely oxides of uranium plutonium, which makes this a disaster that is on par with Chernobyl and possibly much worse, if they don't get a handle on it NOW.
Many reports have talked about how Russia tried to deny Chernobyl even happened at first. Then they lied to workers as the example above points out, as well as to the public. They let people drink the water, milk and eat the food that they KNEW were contaminated.
The Russian government minimized the radiation release and made it sound minor and trivial for a long time, resulting in huge consequences for hundreds of millions of people. They did not want to 'look bad'. Over 800,000 people worked on Chernobyl, and as the lady above suggests, none of them were told about any dangers or exposure either.. It was one HUGE coverup and denial, from beginning to end. ............................................................................
Governments have a tendency to lie, minimize, deny, and obstruct the truth of just about any disaster, especially when it involves large donors from a huge and powerful corporate entity, with many connections within govt. agencies. The corporation is often powerful enough to affect what is said by those agencies, and can spoon feed it soft 'spin' which makes things look much better, than they actually are. ...........................................................................................
In the Japan example, no onsite radiation monitors are sampling the air DOWNWIND of the plant, and have not been doing so, since the accident began. No water radiation or toxic element measurements have been taken, except for one bucket of water, once, up to yesterday. Who took that sample in a bucket, a fisherman? How did the person who tested the sample, do the test, and what were they looking for? ..................................................................................
The US has sent over radiation detector equipment and planes, but is not releasing any information about what it is finding. Between the TEPCO denials, safety claims and the silence of the US govt, plus assurances that 'everything is fine', people are being left in the dark...............................................................................................
The problem with this approach of just relying on TEPCO to give all of the information voluntarily? TEPCO has said that it is not even looking for plutonium or uranium in the toxic emissions and does not have equipment to measure it onsite. So how would they even know when they have a meltdown?
The news has reported numerous EXPLOSIONS, black smoke, neutron beams on numerous occassions, white smoke, grey smoke, and fires... But NONE of this is serious.. Who believes that? What idiot would agree that all of this is just minor stuff that is not resulting in anything serious and it is all 'under control'? In the case of the black smoke today, they evacuated all staff from the plant, and reported that "no additional radiation was measured to the WEST of the plant" . Of course not.. any idiot can see that West is UPWIND. This means nothing, as the smoke is going EAST. Why are they ignoring what is going on? How stupid do they think people are? .............................................................................................
If you had an ordinary building contractor who was responsible for a house you were building explode, smoke, burn and radiate, while saying he does not know what is going on, what would you think of that person? Incompetent, stupid, bumbling, all come to mind immediately.. If people will die or suffer from radiation related sicknesses as a result, then the words criminal, gangster, fraud, scam, crime and coverup as well as conspiracy all come up for me, how about you?
So who wants proof that the reactors are NOT shut down, as the government and TEPCO claim? Here it is... Neutron beams can only happen if fission is in process... ..............................................
Right... nothing to see here, move on, everything normal, safe and secure.. We know what we are doing. Meanwhile they are LYING, by saying nothing to worry about, situation ok, no fission happening, no danger, a little more water and we will fix it all.. Bu##sh#t.
I have stopped believing anything TEPCO or the government says.. They are covering up an active fissioning, out of control meltdown, with plutonium and/or uranium plus all of the toxic radiation and toxic breakdown products that come as a result of this, and they KNOW IT. They are poisoning the whole world, and nobody is calling them on it. ...............................................................................
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