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Nov 2, 2012

Salem I New Jersey Nuclear Plant Loses Primary Plus Backup Cooling System; via A Green Road 

http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/11/salem-i-new-jersey-nuclear-plant-loses.html

 

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Posted: Nov 2, 2012 9:59pm
Mar 2, 2012

FCNL

On February 8, 35 members of Congress introduced legislation that could reduce wasteful spending on the enormous nuclear weapons stockpile by over $100 million. Since then, six more members have joined in cosponsoring this piece of legislation. However, your representative is not one of the cosponsors. Please ask your representative to cosponsor the Smarter Approach to Nuclear Expenditures (SANE) Act, H.R. 3974. There is still time for your representative to join the effort to end wasteful spending on nuclear weapons.

The Cold War is long over, but the United States still maintains a nuclear arsenal designed for that era. The U.S. spends billions of dollars every year on a stockpile of thousands of nuclear weapons and nuclear weapons facilities. The SANE Act makes strides to reduce the nuclear weapons arsenal to meet the budget and strategic challenges of today.

The bill would:

  • Cut the fleet of ballistic-missile submarines from 12 to eight and delay the purchase of new submarines
  • Reduce the number of submarine launched ballistic missiles from 450 to 250
  • Reduce the number of ICBMs from 288 to 200
  • End the nuclear mission of strategic bombers
  • Cancel new, wasteful nuclear weapons facilities

In today's difficult budget environment, Rep. Ed Markey (MA), the original sponsor of the SANE Act, and 40 cosponsors have raised important questions in Congress about the need to spend so much on nuclear weapons. The SANE Act is an important step towards a world free of nuclear weapons and a practical step in addressing the country's budget problems.

Please ask your representative to support this bill.. Thank you.

 

Sincerely,

David Culp
Legislative Representative, Nuclear Disarmament

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Posted: Mar 2, 2012 4:01pm
Feb 6, 2012

Radioactive xenon-135 is produced from iodine-135 as a result of nuclear fission, and it acts as the most significant neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.[11]

 

129Xe is produced by beta decay of129I, which has a half-life of 16 million years, while 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe are some of the fission products of both 235U and 239Pu,[60] and therefore used as indicators of nuclear explosions.

 

Some radioactive isotopes of xenon, for example, 133Xe and 135Xe, are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors.[7] 135Xe is of considerable significance in the operation of nuclear fission reactors. 135Xe has a huge cross section for thermal neutrons, 2.6×106 barns,[11] so it acts as a neutron absorber or "poison" that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation.

 

This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. Fortunately the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor's reactivity (the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel).[69] 135Xe reactor poisoning played a major role in the Chernobyl disaster.[70]

 

A shutdown or decrease of power of a reactor can result in buildup of 135Xe and getting the reactor into the iodine pit. Under adverse conditions, relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes may be found emanating from nuclear reactors due to the release of fission products from cracked fuel rods,[71] or fissioning of uranium in cooling water.[72]

 

In nuclear energy applications, xenon is used in bubble chambers,[144] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert nature is desirable. A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon-133 and xenon-135. The detection of these isotopes is used to monitor compliance with nuclear test ban treaties,[145] as well as to confirm nuclear test explosions by states such as North Korea.[146]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon

 

 

One of the common fission products is tellurium-135, which undergoes beta decay with half-life of 19 seconds to iodine-135. Iodine-135 itself is a weak neutron absorber. It builds up in the reactor in the rate proportional to the rate of fission, which is proportional to the reactor thermal power. Iodine-135 undergoes beta decay with half-life of 6.57 hours to xenon-135. The yield of 135Xe for uranium fission is 6.3%; about 95% of xenon-135 originates from decay of iodine-135.

 

Xenon-135 is the most powerful known neutron absorber. Its buildup in the fuel rods significantly lowers reactivity of the reactor core. By a neutron capture, Xe-135 is transformed ("burned") to xenon-136, which is stable and does not significantly absorb neutrons. The burn rate is proportional to the neutron flux, which is proportional to the reactor power; a reactor running on twice the power will have twice the xenon burn rate.

 

Xenon-135 beta-decays with half-life of 9.2 hours to caesium-135; a poisoned core will spontaneously recover after several half-lives. For some reactors, the 135Xe concentration will be equal to its equilibrium concentration at full power. After about 3 days of shutdown, the core can be assumed to be free of 135Xe, without it introducing errors into the reactivity calculations.[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_pit

 

129Xe is produced by beta decay of 129I (half-life: 16 million years); 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe are some of the fission products of both 235U and 239Pu, and therefore used as indicators of nuclear explosions.

The artificial isotope 135Xe is of considerable significance in the operation of nuclear fission reactors. 135Xe has a huge cross section for thermal neutrons, 2.65×106barns, so it acts as a neutron absorber or "poison" that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation.

 

This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. Fortunately the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor'sreactivity (the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel). Relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes are also found emanating from nuclear reactors due to the release of this fission gas from cracked fuel rods or fissioning of uranium in cooling water.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_xenon

 

133Xe, 137Xe, and 135Xe that has not captured a neutron all beta decay to isotopes of caesium. Fission produces 133Xe, 137Xe, and 135Xe in roughly equal amounts, but after neutron capture, fission caesium will contain more stable 133Cs (which however can become 134Cs on further neutron activation) and highly

radioactive137Cs than 135Cs.

 

135Xe that does not capture a neutron decays to Cs-135, one of the 7 long-lived fission products,(SEE BELOW) while 135Xe that does capture a neutron becomes stable 136Xe. Estimates of the proportion of 135Xe during steady-state reactor operation that captures a neutron include 90%,[6] 39%–91%[7] and "essentially all".[8]136Xe from neutron capture ends up as part of the eventual stable fission xenon which also includes 136Xe, 134Xe, 132Xe, and 131Xe produced by fission and beta decay rather than neutron capture.

 

133Xe, 137Xe, and 135Xe that has not captured a neutron all beta decay to isotopes of caesium. Fission produces 133Xe, 137Xe, and 135Xe in roughly equal amounts, but after neutron capture, fission caesium will contain more stable 133Cs (which however can become 134Cs on further neutron activation) and highly radioactive137Cs than 135Cs.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon-135#Decay_and_capture_products

 

Very little has changed since Chernobyl blew up and radiated everyone, except that many more nuclear accidents, meltdowns, melt throughs and ‘accidental’ radiation releases happened, plus way more radioactive substances are now in the air, on the ground and in the ocean as well as inside all of us.

How many radioactive elements and isotopes are released from something like Fukushima, some of which eventually end up inside all of us?

 

According to Asahi: about 1,000 kinds of radioactive materials have been released from  Fukushima reactors. http://enenews.com/asahi-sources-reveal-about-1000-kinds-of-radioactive-materials-released-from-fukushima/comment-page-1#comment-195658

 

Let’s focus on just 93 out of the 1,000 total, shall we? There are 93 different long lived radioactive elements that hang around and pollute both the environment and us for at least 17,000 years and up to BILLIONS of years in total decay life. Want to see the list of all 93?

http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3069680

 

 

Long half life radioactive elements

Part I http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3047473  Elements 1-9

Part II http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3048444  Elements 10-13

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Posted: Feb 6, 2012 8:00pm
Feb 5, 2012

Nuclear Bafflegab: what is it?

http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3092659

 

Nuclear Bafflegab: what is it?

“(a) Each licensee shall conduct operations so that – (1) The total effective dose… does not exceed…”  

Bafflegab is something that is said that makes no logical or common sense. Bafflegab is saying nothing, while stating something ‘official’. 

Bafflegab relies on the power producer, the nuclear marketing agencies (IAIA and NRC) to produce and come up with ‘official’  radiation figures. When those radiation figures are released,  months after an 'accident', they do not make any sense whatsoever, especially when applied to the real world we all live in and to those who live close by and downwind of a nuclear power plant such as Chernobyl, TMI or Sellafield, much less to those living downwind of the 2,000+ nuclear bomb tests. 

If a company has a nuclear accident and they cover up the amount of radiation released, what would be the penalty for violating any ‘estimated’ or ‘effective’ dose exactly?  Who determines this penalty?  Who calculates this harmful dose to the public in the first place, and how is it calculated? The Devil is truly in the details, and those details are left to the 'experts' to figure out. 

What if the fox gets to make the ‘rules’ if those darn chickens turn up with genetic damage or health effects, or if the chickens actually disappeared after an accidental release?  http://youtu.be/dOI-wpMlq28

For example, at Three Mile Island, the 'experts' calculated the ‘effective’ MAXIMUM radiation dose that any person would get by taking all people living within 100 miles of the plant in a big circle, and dividing the amount of radiation that they ‘estimated’ was released among all of them equally. Never mind that 98% of the radiation went downwind in a narrow strip. That is not how dosage absorbed per person was calculated, and they ignored this 'downwinder' effect completely.

Computers and software trumped reality drawing up artificial circles with radiation distributed equally to everyone, based on a made up figure of the amount released, not based on any actual downwind radiation meter readings. 

To make the dose even lower, the complete circle of radiation meters around the plant was determined to be useless and unneeded, according to some stories, or that only two meters were working that day, according to other stories.  

What they did to get an ‘estimate’ of the total radiation was to throw out all radiation readings from meters that may have been downwind of the plant that went off the maximum scale of what they could read. They called those meters defective and tossed those readings out completely.

Readings from ‘working’ meters were ‘averaged’, in order to come up with an ‘estimate’ of the total radiation released. Based on this ‘average reading’, very little radiation was released.

Combining these two ‘estimation’ techniques resulted in a reduction of the ‘effective’ radiation dose to a meaningless, low, and ‘safe’ level for everyone. This is how the authorities including the utility came up with the ‘official’ radiation amount released.

Since they don’t have to factor in internal radiation, and no low level radiation can cause harm in their view, no harm was done to anyone and no one could have died from this small amount of radiation released.

When they were done massaging these numbers through software, estimates, averaging and more, then this figure was made the ‘official’ figure. Courts can and do rely on these figures if someone sues for damages caused by radiation.

Of course, anyone suing will lose, because the ‘official’ dose that ‘experts’ come up with is so low that no one can prove any harm was done, no matter how much radiation was released. Plus, the courts have to completely rely on the 'experts' and ignore the public and whatever they come up with that may make common sense.  So sorry about that…

This now ‘official government sanctioned’ radiation reading was also used by a judge, who threw out any evidence that contradicted this ‘official’ radiation report around TMI.  Thus, the utility never had to pay anyone for anything, because no harm was ever caused.

If somehow the utility company actually let off more than the ‘effective’ or ‘estimated’ dose for whoever was living around the leaking, melted down, blown up or melted through nuclear power plant, what exactly is the penalty?

I do not seem to recall any nuclear plant ever getting any financial penalty for anything; not Three Mile Island, not Chernobyl, notFukushima.. No CEO or other authority ever went to jail for 'accidental' radiation releases that I am aware of. 

These nuclear plants do seem to get a lot of corporate welfare payments, to build them, to fix them when they break and to clean up the messes when they blow up and melt down. The nuclear industry never seems to be responsible for anything financially speaking.

 

The public always seems to end up paying and holding the bills and dealing with the problems, but with little or no compensation for the harm caused. Meanwhile, the companies keep the profits and the CEO’s end up with golden parachutes.

 

Up to today, they always seem to have taxpayers footing the bill for storage of waste, cleanup after accidents, and guaranteeing the loans put in place to build them. No investor in their right mind would invest in something that could kill millions of people and turn thousands of square miles of land into a wasteland for tens of thousands, if not millions of years, (a la Chernobyl exclusion zones).  Read more about Chernobyl here: UN and OCHA States There Are 9 Million Victims From Chernobyl

http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3091323

 

So if they break their ‘contract’ with the public and expose them to harmful radiation or cause millions of cancers in a given pollution, or they are the cause of a huge increase in infant deaths, will they get any kind of punishment or consequences?

Will there be at least a memo of reprimand, or a letter of explanation in their HR file, when it comes time to quit the utility job and go through the revolving door into the NRC or IAEA or to some university as a Dean of a nuclear education program?

To get a few details on the corruption within the nuclear industry and the regulatory agencies, watch Dr. Chris Busby  http://youtu.be/QxgB30nfBrA?t=8m1s

In this video he asks; “what is the meaning of the World Health Organization if it does not investigate the health of people in the world, especially when it comes to releases of radioactive substances, DU weapons, and nuclear accidents? No money is being put into research in these areas.

In this video; http://youtu.be/dOI-wpMlq28 Busby follows up his 2007 book "Wolves of Water", in which Chris Busby calls for the development of legal mechanisms to investigate issues of scientific dishonesty like those in Denmark. The nuclear issues discussed in the video, he argues, can be seen in the same category as perjury in criminal court cases for which serious sanctions exist.

The essay has been published in Iraq-Silent Death edited by Chris Scherrer (University Sains Malaysia 2011) and is also to be found, (together with several examples of possible scientific dishonesty) presented on the website of the Low Level Radiation Campaign http://www.llrc.org

The matter is one of democracy and goes to the core of expert evidence on nuclear policy to governments. It is argued that scientists (like those who talk down the Fukushima catastrophe) or those like Prof. Wade Allison who advise people to move into radioactive areas because doses of up to 100mSv a month are harmless, should be investigated in an impartial court of law. If found guilty of knowingly giving bad advice (rather than being stupid or careless) they should suffer penalties or even jail time.”

In all nuclear accidents that I am aware of there has been no warning on the day of the accident that radiation is being released. Certainly, they never seem to say that a melt down is happening, even if they know it is happening…Here is just one example of many nuclear accidents that were kept completely secret. This one was called Windscale and was located in Britian. http://youtu.be/XW6FQj66lc4

 

Windscale was a military coverup since the beginning of it’s construction. Electricity production was a cover for producing nuclear bomb grade plutonium and tritium for the military nuclear bomb program.  When it caught fire and spewed toxic uranium radiation over the surrounding countryside, it was kept completely secret.

 

The phrase “before you’re required to evacuate them” seems to be interpreted into; “for fear of causing unnecessary panic”. This fear of causing a panic then turns into withholding of information about radiation release amounts, directions, dangers. As a result, it is more or less a standard operating procedure that few or no people are warned that they are being radiated.

Their justification for not telling the public that radiation is coming out, is that the release of inconvenient facts like this would panic the public and cause more harm than the actual invisible radiation that no one knows that they are being exposed to anyways, so why bother telling anyone that radiation is coming out and that a nuclear meltdown or radioactive fire is in progress? 

This was the case with 2,400 nuclear bomb tests globally, Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Fukushima, Windscale as well as MANY other nuclear accidents worldwide. These and other ‘accidents’ released dangerous amounts of radiation but no one was ever warned in time, and very few were ever compensated for anything.

These nuclear plant operators seem to NEVER notify anyone until precious time passes after something really bad happened, even if they KNEW for sure it was happening. Then when a warning is issued many hours, days, weeks or months later, it is usually insufficient and inadequate.

According to the US, people should have been evacuated 50 Km away from Fukushima.. What did the Japanese authorities do? At first they evacuated only 10 km, which they then raised to 20 Km, and finally they advised people within 30 KM to ‘remain indoors’. How do an estimated 100-700,000 people shelter inside for nearly a year after the accident without going out to get food, water, or work? 

Even if they KNOW that dangerous radiation was released, the authorities seem to just slowly dribble the information out in a small, incremental, and slowly increasing radiation ‘estimated’ amounts, until they can no longer avoid evacuating people. 

But by then, the downwind population has been exposed to high levels of radiation. This seems to have been the case with 
Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Fukushima, as well as all other accidents. Since they NEVER seem to release actual radiation figures on downwind meters in ANY accident, no one can ever figure out what they were exposed to.

Do not count on the NRC, IAEA, EPA or the utility company that owns the nuclear power plant to protect you or your family from the radiation caused by a meltdown or worse.. Buy a digital Geiger Counter, plug it into the wall, and mount it on the wall. Turn it on and leave it on, just like a smoke detector.

No radiation meter readings have ever been or will ever be released from downwind radiation meters after an ‘accident’ whether minor or major, as a standard rule of thumb. You will never be told if it is a minor radiation release or a major one until it is too late.

These nuclear companies know that they only way that they can avoid all liability is to deny everything, never give specific information and to categorically use bafflegab every time they say ANYTHING. In other words, the press releases or statements that they make are all designed to confuse, mislead or minimize anything that is happening, on purpose.

The ONLY way that YOU or your community knows exactly what is coming out of any nuclear power plant is to get your very own Geiger Counter and have it operating 24 hours a day, much like a smoke alarm.

Otherwise, you will find that you are baffled, guessing, frustrated, and waiting for non existent information to come out, while you hear lots of ‘experts’ gabbing about stuff that has no relationship to what is really going on. In other words, you will more than likely experience a state of bafflegab.

So what would be some logical, common sense solutions for these problems? First, like the airline industry, all nuclear power plants could be required to install black boxes that would keep operating and recording all radiation meter readings even in cases of power loss, for up to a week or longer.

Further, all radiation meters could be required to be in a complete circle and to be kept in good repair at all times, or subject the utility to high Dollar amount fines and sanctions, such as loss of license and operating permit, by a local city or county government, NOT a nuclear regulatory agency. These meters should be available for viewing online by anyone connected to the Internet.

Further, any releases of radiation should be disclosed immediately, online and available to the public in real time in a simple, easy to understand method. What happens now is that releases are categorized in hard to understand, bafflegab language that convey ZERO information for the average person.

If the airline industry can put black boxes in all of their thousands of aircraft, then surely 400 nuclear power plants can put black boxes somewhere on the property, accessible to local government officials whenever they want to check it out.

 

For more information about bafflegab, jargons, abbreviations and acronyms, see link below;

http://www.llrc.org/jargonbuster.htm

http://www.llrc.org

http://www.bsrrw.org

http://www.greenaudit.org

http://www.euradcom.org

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Posted: Feb 5, 2012 3:05pm
Jan 27, 2012

Almost all of the nuclear reactors in Japan are shut down, leaving only 3 out of 54 of them operational. 

This should be a lesson for all countries; that nuclear power is not required to maintain adequate energy reserves and capacity. 


http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/20120127p2g00m0dm030000c.html


 

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Posted: Jan 27, 2012 3:16pm
Jan 21, 2012

‘Three Mile Island: Exposing the Government’s Cover Up of Our Most Infamous Nuclear Accident; People died -- and are still dying -- at Three Mile Island “ This article goes into some detail about all of the initial assurances of safety by regulators and industry, all of which turned out to be lies.

http://www.alternet.org/health/134174

 

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Three Mile Island: ‘They Say Nothing Happened’

“Harvey Wasserman, co-author of Killing Our Own: The Disaster of America’s Experience With Atomic Radiation, stressed that the What Happened? account comes amid virtually complete inactivity by U.S. media in following up the Three Mile Island accident. (Wasserman has written about the aftermath of TMI for Harrowsmith—5-6/87—and other publications.)”

 

They interview a lady who did door to door cancer surveys years after the accident, and she said that she found cancer cases AT EVERY HOUSE. This article also points out how the medical industry and the media served as the means to help cover up the whole disaster and all of the consequences of it.

Same old, same old.. The pattern repeats itself… ad nauseum.. In Russia, at Chernobyl, at TMI, in the USA, and now in Japan, at Fukushima.

Same old, same old, only getting worse, and bigger. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=4021

 

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‘Investigation: Revelations about Three Mile Island disaster raise doubts over nuclear plant safety’

 

The official govt report and NRC said that no one was hurt or killed by TMI, just like Fukushima. This report illustrates that the cancer rate of downwinders was increased by 80% over average citizens not exposed. Read the chilling reports of ‘downwinders’ who experienced high radiation dose signs, which were completely ignored and discounted by the nuclear industry. It sounds just like what is happening around Fukushima and also Chernobyl.

http://www.southernstudies.org/2009/04/post-4.html

 

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Another Coverup At Three Mile Island… Lies Discovered About Control Rods

 

There was an initial cover up phase right after TMI-2. The NRC Rogovin Commission and the Kennedy Commission claimed that all 69 out of 69 control rods were inserted during the emergency cooling effort, called a scram and that they all worked properly. 

 

Later, everyone involved on the nuclear industry, media and government side came out with public statements officially assuring everyone that not only did all control rods worked properly, they all claimed that no one was harmed or killed, and that no harmful radiation amounts were released. This all turned out to be a lie.

 

At TMI-2 it was found that the entire central control rod group failed to fall into the core, which is required in order to cool the reactor and keep it from melting down. The rod group circling core central became known as “The Void at the Center of the Core”.

 

The GEND report was produced to answer questions raised about these control rods. They found that only 61 of them actually did get inserted into the nuclear core, but the rest DID NOT. This is part of what caused a partial meltdown of the core, resulting in 20 tons of nuclear material melting down, with a huge radiation release, that resulted in massive numbers of cancers, genetic diseases and deaths.

 

http://www.southernstudies.org/images/sitepieces/control_rod_analysis.pdf

 

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Study suggests Three Mile Island radiation may have injured people living near reactor

"Several hundred people at the time of the accident reported nausea, vomiting, hair loss and skin rashes, and a number said their pets died or had symptoms of radiation exposure," he said. " After adjusting for pre-accident cancer incidence, we found a striking increase in cancers downwind from Three Mile Island….it is known that plant radiation monitors went off scale when the accident started.”

http://www.unc.edu/news/archives/feb97/wing.html

 

“Using better analytic and statistical techniques, he found that among the 20,000 people who lived near the plant and close to the plume's path, lung cancer and leukemia rates were two or more times higher than what they were near the plant but upwind from the plume. Among those in the most direct path of the plumes, lung cancer incidence went up by 300 to 400 percent, and leukemia rates were up by 600 to 700 percent.” http://www.albionmonitor.com/9703a/3milecancer.html

 

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TMI Facts [Source: Arnold Gundersen, expert witness TMI 1994 trial, video link at http://www.nirs.org/reactorwatch/accidents/tmipowerpoint.pdf

“TMI’s radiation monitors onsite were off-scale; radiation estimates are based math assumptions applied upon off-site dose readings. 

Early on in the accident, the NRC estimated that 10,000,000 Curies of radiation were released. The NRC estimate is based on a report by NRC manager, Mr. Lake Barrett. NUREG-0637, Appendix C. Barrett used time averaged plume dispersion (Chi/Q); assumed the center (highest concentration) of the plume hits the detector; and then averaged many days of releases. Time averaged plume dispersion can be wrong on the low side by a factor of 10. Center line Chi/Q can be wrong on the low side by a factor of a 1000. Averaging the data is wrong on the low side by a factor of 3.4. Barrett recorded the maximum curies released each day; the grand total of each day’s recording adds up to 36,062,000 curies released at TMI; yet the NRC insists that only 10,000 curies were released. 

During the 1994 TMI Trial, John Daniel (industry’s expert), determined that 17,000,000 Curies were released. Industry's own expert estimated that more radiation was released than the NRC, the guardian of public safety. Another industry expert report by Dr. Sinovy V. Reytblatt, structural engineer from the University of Bridgeport, estimated that 8-10% of containment was released as result of the spike in pressure inside the containment. The containment had 10 billion curies – 10%= 1 billion curies.  

A thorough analysis of the TMI accident indicates that releases were 100 to 1000 times higher than the NRC estimated and that the containment failed after the hydrogen detonation.

NRC and FEMA continue to use NRC’s mischaracterization of what was released at TMI. For example NRC’s Senior Advisor for Emergency Preparedness Patricia Milligan’s claimed [when giving a lecture at Harvard School of Public Health,  Radiological Emergency Planning: Terrorism, Security, and Communication August 7, 2008] that when emergency plans were initially written NRC/FEMA did not know that there had been core melt. However now that NRC knows that there had been core melt and that our data still “shows” only a “small release” of radiation  occurred, emergency plans and guidelines based on a then lack of understanding of the seriousness of the accident thereby are too conservative. In other words the continued mischaracterization of TMI’s releases is used to justify reducing the area in which emergency planning is necessary and to generally water down response planning and exercise scenarios.

Perhaps Sir Walter Scott said it best, "Oh, what a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive."”

http://www.pilgrimwatch.org/planning2.html

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Posted: Jan 21, 2012 5:51pm
Jan 9, 2012

A UFO alien from another galaxy visited our planet last week. I saw him land so I wanted to give him a hearty welcome, rather than the military showing up and blasting him to smithereens and possibly starting an intergalactic war..

He had a universal translater, so we engaged in conversation...
Among other things, he asked me what we humans did to create energy.

I told him our LEADING scientists assure us that our BEST energy source is heating water with toxic and deadly nuclear bomb radioactive types of man made elements.

He asked me; "Don't these radioactive elements contaminate the surrounding area both during mining and operation of the plants?" I said yes, but our scientists and nuclear industry experts assured us this was all 'safe'. I told him that these nuclear plant heat water to make steam which then created energy in turbines for about 30 years. Then we have to guard this toxic, deadly nuclear waste for millions of years, as it very slowly becomes less deadly. But we have NO plan on how to do this, so all of the toxic waste is building up at these 400 plus plants globally, in every increasing amounts.   

Long half life radioactive elements

Part I http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3047473
Elements 1-9
PartII http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3048444
Elements 10-13

He initially seemed very interested in helping the human race, but after I told him this, his eyes got wide open, and he told me; "Humanity has gone insane. You are using a life and gene destroying weapon of mass destruction that poisons the whole planet for millions of years for a couple of years of energy. In case of one accident or the Carrington Effect from the sun that your planet orbits around, one or more nuclear plants could blow up and kill everyone on the planet.

He continued by saying; "I was going to offer you humans help. Our race was going to teach yours how to build space traveling craft, but if this is how you express your love for fellow humans, as well as all other life forms, then we must leave you to your fate’.

He took off in this spaceship and I have not seen or heard from him or his kind since then.

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Posted: Jan 9, 2012 2:08pm
Jan 1, 2012

Radioactive xenon-135 is produced from iodine-135 as a result of nuclear fission.[11] Radioactive xenon known as 129Xe is produced by beta decay of Radioactive Iodine, known as I29I, which has a half-life of 16 million years, while 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe are some of the fission products of both 235U and 239Pu,[60] and therefore used as indicators of nuclear explosions.

Some radioactive isotopes of xenon, for example, 133Xe and 135Xe, are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors.[7] 135Xe is of considerable significance in the operation of nuclear fission reactors. 135Xe has a huge cross section for thermal neutrons, 2.6×106 barns,[11] so it acts as a neutron absorber or "poison" that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation.

This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. Fortunately the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor's reactivity (the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel).[69] 135Xe reactor poisoning played a major role in the Chernobyl disaster.[70]

A shutdown or decrease of power of a reactor can result in buildup of 135Xe and getting the reactor into the iodine pit. Under adverse conditions, relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes may be found emanating from nuclear reactors due to the release of fission products from cracked fuel rods,[71] or fissioning of uranium in cooling water.[72] (This is what happened at Chernobyl and Fukushima for example.)

In nuclear energy applications, xenon is used in bubble chambers,[144] probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert nature is desirable. A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon-133 and xenon-135. The detection of these isotopes is used to monitor compliance with nuclear test ban treaties,[145] as well as to confirm nuclear test explosions by states such as North Korea.[146] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon

One of the common fission products is tellurium-135, which undergoes beta decay with half-life of 19 seconds to iodine-135. Iodine-135 itself is a weak neutron absorber. It builds up in the reactor in the rate proportional to the rate of fission, which is proportional to the reactor thermal power. Iodine-135 undergoes beta decay with half-life of 6.57 hours to xenon-135. The yield of 135Xe for uranium fission is 6.3%; about 95% of xenon-135 originates from decay of iodine-135.

129Xe is produced by beta decay of radioactive Iodine - 129I (half-life: 16 million years); 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe are some of the fission products of both 235U and 239Pu, and therefore used as indicators of nuclear explosions.

The artificial isotope 135Xe is of considerable significance in the operation of nuclear fission reactors. 135Xe has a huge cross section for thermal neutrons, 2.65×106barns, so it acts as a neutron absorber or "poison" that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation.

This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. Fortunately the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor'sreactivity (the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel). Relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes are also found emanating from nuclear reactors due to the release of this fission gas from cracked fuel rods or fissioning of uranium in cooling water.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_xenon

133Xe, 137Xe, and 135Xe that has not captured a neutron all beta decay to isotopes of caesium. Fission produces 133Xe, 137Xe, and 135Xe in roughly equal amounts, but after neutron capture, fission caesium will contain more stable 133Cs (which however can become 134Cs on further neutron activation) and highly radioactive137Cs than 135Cs.

135Xe that does not capture a neutron decays to Cs-135, one of the 7 long-lived fission products,(SEE BELOW) while 135Xe that does capture a neutron becomes stable 136Xe. Estimates of the proportion of 135Xe during steady-state reactor operation that captures a neutron include 90%,[6] 39%–91%[7] and "essentially all".[8]136Xe from neutron capture ends up as part of the eventual stable fission xenon which also includes 136Xe, 134Xe, 132Xe, and 131Xe produced by fission and beta decay rather than neutron capture.133Xe, 137Xe, and 135Xe that has not captured a neutron all beta decay to isotopes of caesium. Fission produces 133Xe, 137Xe, and 135Xe in roughly equal amounts, but after neutron capture, fission caesium will contain more stable 133Cs (which however can become 134Cs on further neutron activation) and highly radioactive137Cs than 135Cs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon-135#Decay_and_capture_products

Long half life radioactive elements

Part I http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3047473  Elements 1-9

Part II http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/3048444  Elements 10-13

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