Maples, Moose, Mussels and Acid Rain

Written by Laura Michelle Burns

When I was a college student, acid rain was a buzzword for pollution that fell from the sky. It was a topic we briefly touched on in Ecology class, accompanied by a warning — if things didn’t change in our environment, the US would soon experience the adverse effects of acid rain. To be honest, I didn’t really take it all that seriously until I visited India and we were told to take shelter indoors as soon as it started raining. We could not eat the fruit because rain water would have touched it. While I am very grateful the pollution in the US has not yet reached such a point of caution, we still have much to worry about.

Acid rain is a current reality in the Unites States. According to the EPA:

Acid rain, snow, hail, fog, dust, or soot containing high levels of acid. Pollutants that are transferred from the air into the Great Lakes are responsible for harming the quality of the water in the Lakes, as well as the health of the plants and animals that call the Great Lakes home.

Emissions from fossil fuels that release sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Oxide (NO) combine with the water vapors in the air and change the pH, ultimately resulting in acid rain. Acid rain will originate in urban areas where pollution is concentrated, but as the wind blows, rain travels, and no one is left untouched. Often, we tend to think of humans as being impacted, but we are not the only creatures living on this earth that feels the effects.

Maple Trees

Around the Great Lakes, we see how pollution changes the pH down deep in the soil. Sugar Maples require soil that is calcium poor and the acidification that results from the rain makes it difficult for these beautiful trees to thrive. In fact, in the past four decades, we’ve seen a decline in the Sugar Maple population. 

Scientists at the University of Michigan have determined that the excess nitrogen from the acid rain slows the decomposition of the leaves on the forest floor. Because of the actual physical barrier these leaves pose, the seeds that fall from the trees aren’t able to root easily and the ones that do, have to fight even harder to reach the sunlight. Currently, students and professors at the University of Michigan are studying trees and gathering data to increase potential future growth.


The Minnesotan moose population has also declined in the last 40 years. A surprising climate change effect has brought an increase in parasitic infections to the moose population. The rise in these infections correlates directly to the rise in our temperatures. As climate change brings an average rise in the winter temperatures by 12 degrees and an average of 4 degrees in the summers, these pathogens are given the advantage.

Analysis of moose fecal matter, shows they are adequately nourished throughout the winter, but the summer leaves them with distinct deficiencies in copper and selenium, indicative of malnutrition. This leads researchers to equate the changes in the bottom of the plant food chain to changes in climate.


Merely a small link above the bottom of the food chain, sits the zebra mussel. Because of the increase in temperature, the invasive zebra mussel population has increased. The zebra mussel increase brings an increase in the demand for food. These mussels devour the phytoplankton in the Great Lakes, leaving little for the fish populations. In turn, the mussels then specifically filter out the blue-green algae and leave behind nutrients that encourage the growth of the algae that choke the Great Lakes of nutrients.

Climate Change Choice

Acid rain is not just a buzzword, it’s pollution reality. Our air has changed the pH in the water vapor. As humans, we have the choice to make changes. We can choose to strengthen our clean air laws and regulations and not deny the facts. We can choose to develop and advocate for safer energy sources. We must protect our plants and animals from environmental destruction. And it’s not fair to our children and our children’s children to let climate change rain on their parade.

Protect clean air: support new fuel & emissions standards


Photo credit: Shutterstock

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Fred Hoekstra
Fred Hoekstra2 years ago

Thank you Mom's Clean Air Force, for Sharing this!

David V.
David V.2 years ago

Humans will be the cause of this planet's desrtuction unless mother nature puts a stop to it soon

Carrie-Anne Brown

thanks for sharing

Sheila D.
GGmaSheila D.2 years ago

The largest fight is with the GOP, The Tea Party, and the Far Right Extremists who are still pouring billions of dollars into the ad campaigns, Fox News and misinformation givenout by Geln Beck, Rush Limbaugh, and other of their darlings to make sure the majority of Americans don't believe in Acid Rain, in Global Warming, in the need for more stringent pollution controls.

My mother is staunch Republican. Ronald Reagan is her God, and Glen Beck sits at his right side, with the Fox News people not far behind. She will no longer allows me to bring up any of these, and a few other, topics because "Fox News never lies. They explain things so people like myself can understand it all".

People like my mother don't want scientific jargon, they want plain American English. This mentality is what we have to fight. Misinformation and misdirection is out there and damned hard to defeat!

Mark Botermuc
Mark Botermuc2 years ago

Thank you sharing this ith us ...

Ernie Miller
william Miller2 years ago

so sad and the majority of man really dont even care. they just want their next piece of crap.

Sandi C.
Sandi C.2 years ago


Cynthia B.
cynthia B.2 years ago

Pollution is a global killer. the majority of the world buries it's head to these very real ManMade issues.. We have to take a stand and do whatever to raise awareness Stop the pollution of oceans and the very air we breathe. It stems from greed of the past decades Wake up you can't eat money

Teresa Wlosowicz
Teresa W.2 years ago

Well said, Michael!

Teresa Wlosowicz
Teresa W.2 years ago

thank you