Mild Winter, Early Spring: Bad News for Butterflies and Bees

Spring has sprung decidedly early this year, with children where I live on the East Coast already wearing shorts to school. But the early spring is bad news for butterflies. Carol Boggs, a biologist at Stanford University, and other researchers have traced a decline in the population of the Mormon Fritillary butterfly (Speyeria mormonia) to snowmelt caused by climate change in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The early snowmelt has led to a decrease in the number of flowers, which has in turn decreased how much nectar is available for butterflies to feed on.

The researchers’ findings have been published in the journal Ecology Letters.

In their first summer, butterflies lay eggs and then die; laboratory experiments have determined that the amount of nectar a butterfly consumes affects the numbers of eggs she lays. The caterpillars from the eggs do not eat during the winter and become adults the summer after. Science Daily outlines the chain of events, sparked by climate change, that have led to a decline in the butterfly population.

Early snowmelt in the first year leads to lower availability of the butterfly’s preferred flower species, a result of newly developing plants being exposed to early-season frosts that kill flower buds.

The ecologists showed that reduced flower–and therefore nectar–availability per butterfly adversely affected butterfly population growth rate.

Early snowmelt in the second year of the butterfly life cycle worsened the effect, probably through direct killing of caterpillars during early-season frosts.

The combined effects of snowmelt in the two consecutive years explained more than four-fifths of the variation in population growth rate.

Boggs has indeed observed that the upcoming summer will be a difficult one for butterflies “because the very low snowpack in the mountains this winter makes it likely that there will be significant frost damage.” David Inouye, a biologist at the University of Maryland and a co-author of the study, points out that there are “broader effects of weather on an ever-changing Earth.”

Indeed, the conditions wrought by climate change have taken a toll in other ways on the insect population. The oddly mild winter on the East Coast is likely to “wreak havoc” on the bee population in New Jersey. Bees are usually semi-dormant in the winter but, due to mild temperatures, they have remained active in the past few months and eaten through their reserve honey stores, which are meant to last until spring. Without enough food, their numbers are likely to decline.

I’m not sure about you, but I really wish the winter had been colder. As much as some may appreciate wearing summery clothes in early March, wouldn’t you rather bundling up for the sake of the butterflies and bees?

Related Care2 Coverage

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Photo by Bill Bouton

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155 comments

C. R.
Carole R.3 years ago

What a shame.

Cheryl B.
Cheryl B.3 years ago

scary

Cheryl B.
Cheryl B.3 years ago

scary

Ann Breeden
Ann Breeden3 years ago

This year on our property in Maine I've had the good fortune of having lots of butterflies. I used to try to keep a" perfect" garden, free from weeds but now I just let the weeds grow and the butterflies seem to thoroughly enjoy them. I have noticed a decrease in bees which truly saddens me as I know how important they are for pollination. There are certain plants that have bloomed earlier and some that are just struggling.
Having been born a Yankee I've seen dramatic changes in the weather since I was a child growing up in western Mass. The snow cover is ever changing, going from wading through three feet to last winter with barely four inches. I try to think positively about the future but I'm still worried.
Go as organic as you can, everybody and grab some "Bee Mix" from Johhny's Seed catalog to help the bees and butterflies. That's the least we can do after all that the bees and butterflies have given us.

Hope S.
Hope Sellers3 years ago

Is there a way that humans could make a nectar to support the butterflies until flowers bloom and plant flowers to further support them. As for the bees it sounds like we should return honey to the hives if we are to maintain them.

We are wrecking havoc on nature with pesticides, pollution, and taking over their habitat. When are we going to understand if we kill off and upset our ecology it will bring disaster in the near future.

Cheryl B.
Cheryl B.3 years ago

scary

amber j.
amber j.3 years ago

i teared up, ha. i love butterflies.

Mpa Mpa
Mpa Mpa3 years ago

Bad news for the humans.

Love Light
Love Light3 years ago

Bad news for the humans.

Love Light
Love Light3 years ago

Bad news for the humans.