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To Save the Earth, We Must Change What We Eat

To Save the Earth, We Must Change What We Eat

Written by Richard Schiffman

What will we be eating in the future? If the past is any guide, we won’t be eating the same foods that we are eating today. The history of food has been one long, changeable feast, as we humans have introduced new foods into our diet and learned how to modify plants and animals to fill our bellies and delight our taste buds.

The 20th century saw not just the explosion of crop yields through the spread of modern irrigation and chemical-intensive industrial agriculture, but it also witnessed the ubiquity of that strange new hybrid, the processed food, which has increasingly replaced the whole-food staples that nourished previous generations. Will the 21st century see a trend toward new super-foods like algae, or the development of synthetic foodstuffs in the laboratory? And how will global warming change what we can grow and where we can grow it? Will we need to go back to some old crop varieties and traditional planting techniques, which are friendlier on the soil and don’t require huge inputs of fossil-fuel produced fertilizers and agro-chemicals?

These are a few of the questions addressed in Our Global Kitchen, a new exhibit at the Museum of Natural History in New York City which will tour nationwide next year. I was guided through the show by its co-curator Eleanor Sterling, the director of the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation.

If you want to know what Olympic swimmer Mark Phelps eats to prepare for his six hours of daily training, the 18 gold medal winner’s breakfast is on display (a mega-calorie power meal which includes three fried egg sandwiches, a heaping bowl of grits, syrup laden pancakes, a 5 egg omelet, plus a stack of french toast.)

You can also peer into an Aztec market replete with mouthwatering goodies like bicolor corn, chiles of all shapes and sizes, fresh iguana, nopales cactus pads, maguey worms, a rainbow array of pumpkins and squashes, and baskets heaped with green tomatoes (they are a lot tastier than our store-bought red varieties, we learn.) And while there is not too much to actually eat, there is lots to smell — lemongrass from Asia, fresh fennel, cocoa and lavender — in aerosol displays.

Where Our Global Kitchen really shines, however, is in its exploration of the future of food through the lens of its past. After showing us how human cultures have molded food species over the millennia to suit their diverse appetites and tastes through selective breeding techniques as radical as anything today’s bioengineers have in store (a single species of wild cabbage was bred to produce kale, bok choi, cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli and kohlrabi) the exhibition asks: Where do we go from here? How do we feed the nine billion hungry humans who are expected by the year 2050 without exhausting the soil, water and other resources that agriculture depends on.

This question is critical in light of the projected impacts of global warming, which is already altering climate zones and rain patterns worldwide. The answer of the museum scientists is that we need to build more flexibility into the agricultural system by, for example, planting hardier and more varied crop varieties, growing deep-rooting perennial grains like wheat grass, which are drought and heat resistant and do not need to be replanted on a yearly basis, and expanding urban agriculture (in futuristic glass-walled geodesic domes like the one modeled in the show) and home-based systems like the water-based hydroponics “window-farm” on display, which allow food to be produced where it is consumed.

Our Global Kitchen also serves up alternatives to environmentally disastrous meat production, which uses75 percent of the land dedicated to agriculture for grazing and growing feed for livestock, whose belching produces 18 to 50 percent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gases. There are display cases which illustrate high-tech alternatives like culturing animal cells to create “test tube beef,” something even a vegetarian could partake of with a clear conscience. There are also models of closed tank systems for breeding fish, which would be non-polluting and relieve the pressure on wild stocks of current fish farms.

An eye opener is how much food we waste. Museum visitors see a towering plexiglass obelisk containing a jumble of cans, cartons and fruits representing the three quarters of a ton of food that the average American family throws away each year. A lot of perfectly good food gets trashed because it is cosmetically flawed, or the expiration date has passed, or it is served but not eaten. Discarded food, we read in an information tag, is the largest component of waste in US landfills, and a major source of methane in its own right. Poor countries lose more to insect pests, in transport, or due to poor refrigeration. All told, an astonishing third of the food that humans grow goes to waste.

This loss underscores one of the shows main themes — that despite the bounty of modern agriculture, hundreds of millions of people (fully one in eight worldwide) do not get enough to eat. This is not because we don’t grow food in sufficient quantities, Stirling told me, but due to a witches brew of social problems: poverty, volatile food prices, poor distribution, armed conflict and lack of access to land.

Yet in the face of world hunger, portions in the United States have metastasized. Restaurant meals contain four times more calories today than in the 1950s, as we see in a graphic display, creating epidemics of obesity and food related illnesses like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Eleanor Sterling told me that around 40 percent of the calories we eat come from three crops — corn, wheat and soy. But the huge chemical and irrigation-dependent monocultures that produce these staples are exhausting soils and underground aquifers faster than they can be replenished.

The good news is that there are alternatives. This is my takeaway from Our Global Kitchen. We may indeed be able to feed the hungry mouths of the future — if we continue to change what we eat and how we grow it, as humans have done throughout history.

 

Related Stories:

Is Veganism a Religion? Court Considers Claim

5 Reasons That More Than Half of the Nation’s Produce Goes to Waste

When Did We Start Making Cheese, and Why?

 

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104 comments

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11:31AM PDT on Apr 20, 2013

Thanks.

2:06AM PST on Feb 25, 2013

Im vegan ... and I invite you all to entertain the idea for yourselves also. Better health, better for the planet and respect and love for all life on planet earth : )

2:06AM PST on Feb 25, 2013

Im vegan ... and I invite you all to entertain the idea for yourselves also. Better health, better for the planet and respect and love for all life on planet earth : )

4:13PM PST on Jan 28, 2013

Thank you for the eye opening information

11:46AM PST on Jan 28, 2013

I love potatoes especially the yams (sweet potatoes) They compliment a nice meal as long as they aren't contaminated with pesticides.

I'd love to hear other solutions people have.

4:02PM PST on Jan 26, 2013

Our planet can only be saved if we take action now. World population is rapidly increasing while fresh water gets more and more scarce. Solution: POTATOES. Compared to all other basic food products (rice, wheat, grains) potatoes need significantly less water during growth. Furthermore potatoes are very healthy and contain all necessary nutritients. Even China acknowledged the nutritional value of potatoes; the last few years potato production in China shows an astonishing increase.
Trust me: POTATOES are essential for the future of our planet.
Regards from Jacoba (The Netherlands)

12:54PM PST on Jan 25, 2013

Of course

9:06PM PST on Jan 20, 2013

Not only do we harm the earth by buying so much processed food, instead of producing & cooking it ourselves, we also harm our children. The future generations won't know how to grow their own food or cook their own food, & the worse thing is, their immune has been so weakened, that they now have so many allergies & other health problems, that it has become an epidemic. When people lived a simple life, with enough food to sustain them, they were healthy. The poor were healthier then the rich, just not with the power, when people lived of the land, right up to our time. There have been tribes of people who hadn't seen any outsiders before, & they lived a healthy life, but when outsiders invaded they lives, they started to get sick.
It'll come a time when our children will not be able to live without some sort of drugs to keep them alive, & if climate change keeps happening, it won't matter.

8:32PM PST on Jan 18, 2013

Thank You!

10:28AM PST on Jan 18, 2013

We are what we eat...we have to think about this...Thanks for the article!

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