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When Did We Start Making Cheese, and Why?

  • by
  • December 27, 2012
  • 1:00 pm
When Did We Start Making Cheese, and Why?

It was at least 7,000 years ago that humans started making cheese. That’s according to researchers who analyzed the residue in pottery that had been excavated from early Neolithic sites in Poland. The new study was published in the journal Nature.

The shards of pottery were discovered in the 1970s, but archaeologists weren’t sure at first what to make of the small holes in them. New techniques for analyzing the residue suggest that the pottery was used as sieves to process milk into cheese. “The analysis doesn’t tell us whether the milk was from sheep or goat or cattle,” said Melanie Salque, a chemist at the University of Bristol in England and the study’s lead author. “But on the site more than 90 percent of the bones were cattle bones, so cattle is very likely.”

Incorporating dairy into the human diet contributed to the development of modern civilization. “For people who were just beginning to leave hunting behind and beginning to rely on crops that often failed,” Adam Cole and Helen Thompson of NPR report, dairy provided the nutrition they needed. And it was “a food source that didn’t require killing highly prized livestock.”

Like many people today, however, Neolithic Europeans were lactose intolerant. Making and eating cheese gave them an evolutionary advantage, because cheese was milk made digestible, and milk, one evolutionary geneticist called it, was “the ultimate superfood.” To make cheese, milk is curdled with an acidic substance, after which the “fat-rich milk curds” are separated from “the lactose-containing whey” using cheese strainers like those pottery sieves.

While Neolithic humans were adapting to milk as a food source by processing it into cheese, many were also benefiting from a mutation in their genes that enabled them to digest the lactose in milk. “Presumably the extra nutrition was of such great advantage,” the New York Times reported, “that adults able to digest milk left more surviving offspring, and the genetic change swept through the population.”

One way or the other, people managed to incorporate dairy into their diets. It’s nothing short of fascinating that diet was a force of natural selection in evolution — heavily favoring, in some populations, those who evolved to digest milk. In Africa, the lactose tolerant left up to 10 times as many descendants as those who could not drink milk.

But humans are also a resourceful bunch, and it’s equally fascinating that we figured out how to process milk into cheese for the sake of survival. The first cheeses people made were basic. Today, several millennia later, cheese is a major industry on its own, with possibly more than 1,000 varieties now available.

Related Stories:

It’s Just Not Cheese Without the Fat and Salt

What Gross Secret Ingredients are Hiding in Your Food?

Four Questions To Ask Your Dairy Farmer

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201 comments

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8:09PM PDT on Apr 26, 2014

Cheese is delicious, versatile and marvellous. It comes in all forms, soft, hard and medium and can be used in an infinite variety of recipes, or eaten all by its lonesome.

1:07PM PDT on Apr 30, 2013

I LOVE cheese. yum

10:55PM PST on Feb 21, 2013

Colleen P, here is a little ditty about the Tardigrades...and the Krills get their own dance!

http://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/creature-cast/tardigrades

http://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/creature-cast/antartic_krill_love_dance

6:16AM PST on Feb 17, 2013

Dale O.. I have a Krill and Tardigrade. they are great for the science and biology nerd crowd.

6:36PM PST on Feb 16, 2013

Natural Cheese the Real Thing!

The Shadow of Soy
campaignfortruth.com/Eclub/180602/theshadowofsoy.htmCheap, versatile, and karma-free, soy in the 1990s went from obscurity as ... miso or tofu - but soy "burgers," soy "cheese," soy "ice cream," and all of this stuff, .... levels of the mineral manganese (no, not magnesium) often found in soy formula.

* Theres No Business Like Soy Business
* Manganese Madness
* Caveat Emptor
* Babies on Birth Control

11:44AM PST on Feb 16, 2013

Interesting.I love cheese.Thanks for sharing

4:43PM PST on Jan 28, 2013

I LOVE CHEESE! and this article :)

6:40PM PST on Jan 23, 2013

Colleen P...some of these look like something kitty cats would be happy to chase after, the plush smaller toys they could bat with the paws and chase around...loads of fun?

6:10PM PST on Jan 23, 2013

Interesting Colleen P...the link took me to a microbe site...where they actually sell cute (?) plush dolls of microbes...who would have thought that young Joan or Bob would be cuddled up to the Ebola or Anthrax cuddlies? There is even one for bad breath microbes and chicken pox to name but a few. A microbe designed for everyone! Microbes as plush kiddie toys. They think outside the box...or petri dish on this one don' they? Kids toys/stuffies will never be the same!

5:59PM PST on Jan 23, 2013

Some can intone deeply and roil against “lactate secretions” all you want but it won’t alter the fact that this changes very few minds. For example, many vegetarians will drink milk eat cheese, butter and yogurt. The main issue is that many are concerned with a humane way of finding the source of the nourishment they rely on be they omnivores or vegetarian. Some vegans can’t accept this as for them nothing stands in the way of their objective. No milk, cheese…period.

If organic, humane farms are anathema to the cause so be it. The rest of the world simply moves on and ignores zealots. Dogmatic adherence to a cause simply means there are no grey areas, no compromise. For the most part the rest of the world simply ignores such a single minded goal. Some won’t drink milk or eat cheese, fine. The rest of us simply look for humane sources and if you can’t accept people drinking milk that is your cross to bear and not ours. Julie H you can demean, belittle, insult and denounce all you like but the rest of the world will not collapse around you and submit.

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