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Why Can’t the United States Disincentivize Driving?

Why Can’t the United States Disincentivize Driving?

Visit Amsterdam, which feels like the bicycle capital of the world, and you’ll see everyone on bikes, from chic ladies on their way to coffeehouses (a longstanding tradition in this European city) to office workers. The city offers dedicated bicycle paths, ample bike parking and lots more options to encourage people to cycle and it creates active disincentives for driving. It’s a decision born of practical and environmental concerns: Amsterdam is a small, easily-crowded city, where cars could become a serious hazard and frustration if they multiplied on the streets, and its residents are very eco-conscious.

It’s not the only city that’s effectively taken an aggressive anti-car stance; London, for example, charges a high toll for entering the heart of the city in a car, encouraging drivers to think twice about making the trip. Around the world, cities are making themselves car-unfriendly to get people out from behind the wheel and into more ecologically-friendly forms of transit, like bicycle saddles, train seats, bus benches and good old fashioned shoes. The United States, however, seems to be struggling with this; in a nation where the car is practically a national icon, few cities want to make the first move when it comes to getting drivers off the road, and Emily Badger atThe Atlantic suggests this is because we are too afraid.

The situation is a complicated one, though, as she herself acknowledges. On the one hand, disincentivizing driving is an excellent way to get people to stop doing it. Fuel is much more expensive globally than in the United States, for example, and pushing fuel costs up to a more natural level could be effective, as could increasing taxes to turn them into a realistic reflection of the costs of road maintenance. Eliminating parking spaces, increasing parking fees and tolls and replacing parts of the road with walkways and bike paths are more options, limiting the space available for cars. There’s also the carrot approach; employers can pay employees for not using parking and provide other rewards for using alternate transit to get to work, for instance.

All these approaches might seem sound on the surface, but there are several problems with them. The first is that they don’t acknowledge the fundamental infrastructure problems that can make it difficult for people to switch to public transit. In centralized, logically-built cities, the choice can be obvious: drive a car, or take excellent public transit? In more far-flung American cities with poor transit options, this choice is much harder, especially in areas where public transit doesn’t reach, or is so unreliable that people can’t use it. The only way to improve public transit is to get people riding it and supporting it through fair revenue, though, which creates an awkward double bind.

These disincentives also effectively penalize low-income drivers, who, incidentally, are the most likely to live in areas where public transit is not a viable option. They tend to live further away from central hubs and major areas of activity due to the fact that it’s cheaper to live on the outskirts, forcing them to use cars for commutes, doctor visits and other daily needs. Car ownership can already be an expensive proposition for them, and a disincentive program could make their lives even more difficult, forcing them to sacrifice in order to maintain their cars.

While it’s clear that the United States is slowly moving towards a stage of decreased reliance on cars, the nation struggles with paradoxes like the push to revitalize the auto industry versus the desire to get people to stop driving. Until it can resolve these issues, it will continue to fight with itself over the best way to encourage people to change their habits to help the environment.

How could the United States adopt some habits from its European cousins? A start might be a shift in the US auto industry to promote the production of even smaller, more efficient cars alongside more US-made buses and other pubic transit vehicles. Cities could incorporate issues like walkability and bikability into revitalization schemes and improvement projects, while individual companies could join the bandwagon of paying a premium to employees who bike, walk or take public transit to work. Meanwhile, public transit could be extended into low-income areas to live the “if you build it, they will come” philosophy. While it might be necessary to take a loss in early years as people get into the swing of using it, with a well-designed program and good funding (through parking fees, meter revenue, and other car-related fees and taxes), cities could get public transit self-supporting in communities over time.

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Photo credit: Library and National Archives Canada.

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5:02PM PDT on Apr 12, 2014

I live in a rural area, and distances are very separate to shop, etc. Consequently, I've begun shopping on line more, and lumping all of my errands, doctors appointments, etc. in one or two intense days, rather than spreading them out all over the calendar. It can be done. When there was gas rationing and higher gas prices in California, people did begin to car pool, make less spur-of-the-moment jaunts, and move in closer. It can work, but it's not politically favored because it produces unhappy voters.

4:41AM PDT on Mar 25, 2014

A lot of people like me live in the country. The nearest town is over 10 miles, hard to walk that far, do your errands and make it back. This country is so vast that it is very hard to get along with out some kind of vehicle.

8:28AM PDT on Mar 21, 2014

Stop talking and start doing. If more people are willing to speak up to try and get city planners to improve public transport then it can happen. I do believe a lot of not wanting to cut back on car usage is due to one thing - laziness!

7:46AM PDT on Mar 21, 2014

ty

6:43AM PDT on Mar 21, 2014

Thanks for sharing! A very interesting article.

4:16AM PDT on Mar 21, 2014

thank you for sharing

2:19AM PDT on Mar 21, 2014

Distances here are vast, especially west of Chicago. Cities spread more here. Plus, car culture exists here like it cannot anywhere else in the world, primarily because we built the damned things.

8:47PM PDT on Mar 20, 2014

The U.S. can't disincentivize driving because it is so geographically large, with its population spread across an enormous region. With rapidly (on the timescale of huge infrastructure-projects) changing population-densities, it just cannot lay down the railways necessary to allow movement of people and freight by any means other than automobiles except between major transit-hubs. To travel those last few miles, Americans need cars.

Improvements in bus-systems and other small-scale public transit can do a lot of good, but Americans tend to travel long distances, at least every so often, within the country. To do that, they need to have access to vehicles anyways, and once they own cars, it's very, very difficult to make buses a more attractive option.

3:27PM PDT on Mar 19, 2014

Sorry to say, but, to American men, AUTOMOBILES are a symbol of a large penis. I'm not trying to be vulgar, just realistic.

3:17PM PDT on Mar 19, 2014

I am sure the lobbyists for the oil industry make sure Congress will never disincentivize driving!

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Kristina Chew Kristina Chew teaches and writes about ancient Greek and Latin and is Online Advocacy and Marketing... more
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