How To Choose The Healthiest Milk

If you don’t have time to read this whole post, skip to the end to learn which brands are best and which to avoid.

In recent years, organic food has become big business, and mega-food processors have moved aggressively into the sector to cash in on the boom.

There are now significantly more organic brands and products to choose from when you go to the store than there were even a few years ago. Unfortunately, the corporations behind the majority of those products have powerful lobbyists who are working overtime to weaken the relatively new USDA organic standards in order to maximize their profits. As a result of their efforts, the “organic” label may not mean what you think it means anymore…

Since there are so many big players now and the vast majority of them do not have your best interests (nor the best interests of farmers, animals, or the planet) at heart, there are now a truly dizzying array of factors to consider and choices to make every time you shop. Since there are far too many organic food products to discuss here, I’m going to focus on one of the more basic foodstuffs – milk.

Here are a few important factors to consider in choosing your gallon of milk:

Location. Where was the milk produced and processed? As you’ve probably guessed, the more local, the better. Not only will you be helping to support dairy farmers in your community by buying a locally-produced gallon of milk, you’ll also be saving gallons of fossil fuel that would be needed to transport the milk over state lines and sparing the environment all those pounds of climate-altering carbon that would have been emitted during transport.

Bottle of Straus Family Creamery milk by Eve FoxPasture-raised or grain-fed? Corn-fed cows sound very wholesome, right? Wrong! Cows’ stomachs cannot actually tolerate too much corn (it will eventually kill them.) Although it’s okay to feed cows some grain (and you’d be hard-pressed to find a dairy that is fully pasture-fed since cows need a grain supplement during the winter/dry season) a diet of primarily corn and other grains is bad for the cows and bad for the milk you’ll be drinking (never mind that the grain was probably grown and milled in another state and had to be shipped across state lines.)

Humanely-treated or not? In an effort to increase their production and profit margins, big organic chains like Horizon have basically recreated factory farming with a few minor twists designed to satisfy the ever-weakening USDA organic standards. The fact that a product is labeled organic in no way guarantees that the animals were humanely treated, allowed to go outside, graze freely, etc. Organic agribusiness keeps its cows closely penned indoors munching their organic corn and providing the bare minimum of access to pasture the USDA organic regulations require. Smaller dairies tend to provide much better, more humane conditions for their animals.

Waste. All that constant munching mean that cows produce a lot of cow patties and a lot of methane gas along with them. Unfortunately, methane is one of the big contributors to our quickly-warming climate. Waste from cows also pollutes rivers, streams, and entire watersheds. So the way a dairy handles (or does not handle) the waste it produces is also an important consideration.

Next: which brands are best and which to avoid

If you have the time, I suggest that you research the companies on offer in your local market to see where they fall on all these considerations (and while you’re at it, you might as well check into their labor practices, too…) However, if you’re a normal human and don’t have time to delve into these questions right now, here are a few quick suggestions to inform your dairy shopping.

Horizon_Organics_logo1. Do not buy Horizon or Aurora Organic – they are the organic equivalent of factory farming operations. It’s important to note that Aurora supplies milk for many other private labels including Costco’s “Kirkland Signature,” Safeway’s “O” organics brand, Publix’s “High Meadows,” Giant’s “Natures Promise,” and Wild Oats organic milk – so you should avoid buying any of these brands if possible.

Stonyfield logo small2. Skip Stonyfield Farm, too. Although this company started out great and they have tried to stick to their founding principles as they’ve grown, they sold a controlling stake in their company to Danone Group (a French mega-processor) a few years back. Since then, they’ve been making their choices based on maximizing profit while ignoring the well-being of the farmers that supply them as well as the environmental impact of sourcing ingredients from places as far flung as China, Turkey, and New Zealand (can you say absolutely humongous carbon footprint, boys and girls?)

Organic Valley logo3. Buy Organic Valley, instead. This worker-run cooperative company offers nation-wide distribution by sourcing and distributing all its dairy products locally, cutting down on fuel and carbon emissions while supporting local farmers. They talk the talk AND walk the walk.

4. If you live in CA, AZ, or NV, you can also buy Clover Stornetta milk and dairy products with a clean conscience. This is a family-owned and run Clover Stornetta logobusiness with good principles and a growing number of organic suppliers that was also the first U.S. dairy to become American Humane Certified.

5. If you live in northern California, Straus Family Creamery is a good option. They make delicious organic milk from cows that are allowed to graze freely that is packaged in fully reusable glass bottles. Better yet, the dairy composts all its solid waste and powers 95 percent of its operations with the methane captured through that process. However, I heard some troubling rumors a few months back about Straus working with Aurora to try to scuttle organic standards. Still not quite sure what to make of that…Ronnybrook Farm logo

6. If you live in upstate New York (like me!), look for Ronnybrook Farms milk and products. They’re a small dairy (not organic, but pesticide, hormone and antibiotic-free) that also packages in glass and uses humane, sustainable practices.

Hudson Valley Fresh also offers milk that is locally produced, processed and sold (though neither organic nor antibiotic- nor hormone-free as far as I can tell.)

If there is a dairy like Straus and Ronnybrook near your town or city, please buy from them! Their prices may be a bit higher than the bigger companies (especially if you are buying milk in a glass bottle which will include a hefty, but fully refundable, bottle deposit) but it will be worth it. The milk will be better all-around — better tasting, better for you and your family, better for the cows that produced it, better for the farmers that processed it, better for your local economy and community, and better for the environment.

Greening Your Kitchen logoIf you want to find out which dairy any other brand’s milk is from, check out this handy website: It should work for any of the bigger store brands, including Trader Joe’s, Whole Foods, Safeway, etc.

Visit The Garden of Eating to learn more ways to Green Your Kitchen.

Milk: Easy Greening
Milk Alternatives
Skip Milk? 5 Reasons Why

Love This? Never Miss Another Story.


Duane B.
.2 years ago

Thank you for sharing.

jane richmond
jane richmond4 years ago


Clare E.
Clare Edwards4 years ago

My household use Turtle Mountain non-sweetened Coconut milk. We actually cook with it, it works great. It tastes wonderful and the health benefits of coconuts are awesome. I can't hack the taste soy milk. Almond milk is so-so and hard to cook with. Regular dairy milk has an awful flavor (I'm an omnivore, but I hate dairy milk). Try new stuff, there's so much out there, why not give something new a try?

Carl Nielsen
Carl Nielsen4 years ago

Unless you belong to the unfortunate group of people lacking the genes to be able to digest milk as adults there is no rational reason to abstain from the high quality nutrition milk and milk products are.

Diane S.
Diane S.4 years ago

Cows produce milk for their calves !

Lika S.
Lika S.4 years ago

How about those of us in the Midwest, like Wisconsin?

And unfortunately, the poorer we are, the less we can afford.

Courtney Belyea
Past Member 4 years ago

what about Canadians?

Susana L.
sue l.4 years ago


Lisa S.
Lisa S.4 years ago

The healthiest milk is non-dairy. Read The China Study, Watch Forks Over Knives, and think about it... no animal (and people are animals) require breast milk after weaning - it's food for infants, not children or adults. People are the only animal that not only drinks breast milk into adulthood - but breastmilk from another species (who was raped and had their baby stolen and killed to produce it). There are so many non-dairy options out there, it's easy to be cruelty-free.

Larysa S.
Larysa Sholom4 years ago