Old Dog, Good Dog

By Jeannette Cooperman, The Bark

There’s something disconcerting about being middle-aged and watching my once-agile dog leap ahead of me into old age. No, not leap – she’s too creaky for that, stiff and slow almost overnight, it seems. She’s suddenly terrified of the kinds of storms she once danced through; she spurns a morning walk to go back to bed, circling awkwardly in an effort to get comfortable. Once down, she’ll lie there for hours on end, chin over the edge like Snoopy at his most dejected.

She’s depressed about getting old, I decide – never dreaming that it’s I who haven’t made the necessary accommodations.

“A lot of old dogs get what I call the shrinking world’ syndrome,” says certified veterinary behaviorist Dr. Lore Haug. “Their owners get in a rut with them; they start walking the dog less” (gulp) “and they don’t train the dog or teach him tricks. The dog doesn’t get as much stimulation and enrichment maybe they stop taking the dog to the dog park and there’s a significant decline in mental and physical challenges.” Stung, I mention Sophie’s arthritis. “So maybe she can swim. Or the walks are shorter. Or maybe you just take her into a wooded park, lie down on a blanket and let her look around and sniff.”

It’s the slowing we have trouble with; we expect our dogs to be the same forever. Instead, their senses of sight and smell grow less acute, their joints stiffen, or their legs may splay like Bambi’s on slick hardwood floors. Some develop a canine equivalent of Alzheimer’s: “It’s called cognitive dysfunction syndrome,” Haug explains, “and it shows up with dementia, changes in their sleep-wake cycles – they might pace all night and sleep all day – vocalizing at night, forgetting their training. You say ‘Sit’ and they stare at you blankly.”

Other dogs develop anxiety disorders for the first time, anything from separation anxiety to storm phobias or nocturnal panic attacks. “The dog may be less social, not coming to greet you, or might get clingier with increased anxiety,” Haug says. “Sometimes they’re just disoriented; they go to the back door but poke their nose at the hinge side. Sometimes we see aggression and irritability. But because anxiety is one of the symptoms, the more you keep the dog stretched mentally, the more you are able to control some of those reactions.”

The wonderful paradox is that by working within your dog’s new limits, you can lessen the change in her responses. Choose games she can still play readily, amusements that don’t stress her, and she’ll be as eager as ever.

“Find new ways to connect with your dog,” Haug urges. “Teaching a trick is not only good for the dog’s brain, but it’s a fun, low-pressure way to do something that doesn’t require a lot of physical strength. The trick doesn’t need to be a back flip. They can bow, cover their eyes with their paws, flick their ears… “Grooming is another way to connect; so is hanging out on the porch or at the park.”

It’s not just the dog who needs to learn new tricks – we do too.

Next: How to accommodate your dog’s physical changes

Easing Their Way

Start by accommodating your dog’s physical changes: Put down carpet runners, plug in a night-light, buy a memory-foam dog bed or steps or a ramp up to your bed. Luckily, dogs are so firmly entrenched as family members that manufacturers have responded with a variety of products that improve seniors’ quality of life: There are thermoregulating cooling pads for dogs who don’t handle heat well and heated beds for dogs with arthritis (there’s a reason old dogs are always sleeping by the fire in those chilly English country houses).

“Older dogs need softer toys,” notes Catherine Frost, brand and product champion for Planet Dog. Her whitemuzzled black Lab, Ollie, is the model for Planet Dog’s line of Old Soul toys, which are made from a compound that’s gentle on dogs with older jaws, sensitive teeth, reduced “snout strength” and weakened muscles and joints. Similarly, Senior Kongs are constructed with softer rubber.

“Their olfactory sense has probably diminished, so stronger scents are good,” Frost adds, “and high-contrast colors are important so they can see the toy clearly. But the notion that they don’t want to play anymore? That’s not true at all! To be able to lie down and just chew helps them relax and keeps them from being bored. You can’t ever assume that your dog doesn’t want to play.”

Even for dogs at their healthiest, transportation can be tough, and older dogs often don’t hop into a back seat the way they used to. Haug suggests creating a surface that provides stable footing but is not so firm that when the dog lies down, he’s uncomfortable. For big cars and vans, there are ramps and steps; take breed and body shape into account when making your selection, however. If you have a Dachshund, you don’t want the short, steep steps, which are popular because they take up less space. Make sure the steps treads are deep enough for sure footing and wide enough to forgive a misstep.

It’s also a kindness to soften distractions such as sudden loud noises, and to avoid abrupt changes in routine. Older dogs can be more easily startled; as they’re less able to maneuver or defend themselves, they feel more fragile and grow more fearful, reluctant to play with new dogs or children, distressed by chaos and commotion. (Dr. Debra Horowitz, a veterinary behaviorist, notes that dogs’ neurotransmitter functions change with age – oxygen levels go down and brain chemistry is altered.)

Sometimes, the startle or anxiety is just because the dog can’t see or hear as well as he once did. Cataracts can start to form as early as age seven, for example. But overall, sensory declines are rarely as traumatic for dogs as they are for us egoridden humans; often the changes are so gradual that the dog adapts, and you might not even realize he’s blind or deaf, especially if you have other dogs and he’s following their lead. Susan McCullough, author of Senior Dogs for Dummies, says, “If you sense your dog’s hearing is going bad and he or she doesn’t already know hand signals, teach them now. If your dog is blind, now is not the time to change the furniture. Dogs are amazing, though, in their ability to compensate. I had a dog who still responded to vibrations, so I’d clap my hands and she’d come to me. Creativity goes a long way.”

Food for senior dogs isn’t as complicated as the marketers make it, according to Dr. Donna Raditic, a vet certified in alternative therapies and currently a post-grad resident in nutrition at the University of Tennessee. “Older dogs can eat the adult diets. The development of geriatric diets is a bit of marketing, plus some old beliefs that lowering protein levels spares the kidneys. Actually, we now know that older dogs and humans need more protein. The main concern for geriatrics is to watch calories, because they tend to be less active, especially in winter.”

Older dogs should be monitored for dental problems, like bleeding gums or tooth loss. Even bad breath can signal something as simple as tartar buildup or as serious as oral cancer, kidney disease or diabetes mellitus. And when dogs do fall ill, nausea can decrease their appetite. “Often owners think their dogs are being picky – they are not – they don’t feel well!” Raditic exclaims. “It can be very difficult to keep weight and condition on an old dog with a disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract.”

Glucosamine and chondroitin are thought to be beneficial for arthritis, and anti-inflammatory pain meds can help, too. How do you know when your dog’s in pain? According to Haug, the signs are pretty obvious. Look for restlessness, crankiness, irritability when handled, difficulty getting up or lying down, looking stiff, being unstable, moving very slowly. Sometimes, if they move suddenly, their joints scrape together.” She sighs. “The thing that’s underappreciated, even sometimes by veterinarians, is how much these dogs can benefit from pain medication. Some are restless at night, only because they can’t get comfortable.”

Next: Check your assumptions

Check Your Assumptions
Another thing to remember is that you need to observe your dog closely, scrutinize your own assumptions about aging (some of us think getting old is the end of the world) and act accordingly. “The most crushing thing is this sense I’m sure it’s not intentional but it’s almost like the worth of the dog isn’t the same anymore,” Haug says. “People will stop giving heartworm prevention or shots; they say, ‘Oh well, he’s old, we’re just going to feed him until he dies.’” She pauses, then says quietly, “They deserve better than that.”

Ted Kerasote, author of the acclaimed memoir Merle’s Door, is a superb athlete; when his dog Merle couldn’t do the ski runs anymore, it broke Kerasote’s heart. Then it made him examine his own impulses. “The first thing to be clear about is whom you’re indulging. Very often, because we want to run or mountain bike, we delude ourselves into thinking, “The dog loves this,” and we push the dog far beyond where he needs to go. The problem is, dogs age much more quickly than we do. Say you get a dog when you’re 30, you’re now 38 and in fine shape, and the dog is possibly geriatric.”

Kerasote is currently working on a new book, titled Why Dogs Die Young and What We Can Do about It. “Most of the people I’ve spoken with who have really long-lived dogs change their dog’s food periodically, seasonally,” he remarks, “just the way a wild wolf would have different food seasonally, and the way we would.”

The biggest factor of all, though, is real engagement. “We are very self-serving: Many of us live busy urban lives, so we buy a whole passel of toys and leave the dog alone all day,” Kerasote says. “The older the dog gets, and the more he’s been left at home, the more he spirals into this kind of depression. People may need to think about budgeting for a dog walker. Or your dog might even be happier driving to work with you, enjoying the ride, sleeping in the car, going for a few short walks and driving home with you. We tend to think, “Oh, that’s just an old dog, he loves just lying around.” Well, have you given the dog a choice?

“You need to find ways to perk up your dog,” he continues. “I’ve never seen a dog who preferred playing with a toy to two or three friendly peers.” Of course, as the dog gets older, the key is finding other dogs who won’t be rough or over-exuberant. But the results are worth the search.

McCullough has one final reminder: Don’t write everything off to aging. A single imperious diva bark to summon you might not be a sign of reduced mobility or altered brain chemistry; it might just be a single imperious diva bark because it’s fun to summon you. Refusal to eat or mobility issues could be signs of other problems, not age-related at all.

The Bark is the award-winning magazine of modern dog culture—it speaks to the committed dog enthusiast—and is the indispensable guide to life with dogs, showing readers how to live smartly and rewardingly with their canine companions. Bark is the recognized expert on the social/cultural world of dogs in America, and what they mean to us. Click here for your FREE issue.

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Maria D'Oporto
Past Member 3 years ago

WE have a rescue dog that seems to be around 9 or 10 years old, he is partially toothless and seems to be partially blind too, in some angles he can't focus; seems like he had a bad hit on his face that made him blind and knocked the teeth off, he was scared of all even to be cared, so needed long time to adjust and now he loves to get belly rubs and jumps happily to greet us, no more fear of noises or strange things, he seems to be so happy that has a nice smile in is face, we love him bunches and his furry buddies does too.

Ryder W.
Past Member 4 years ago

i walked my dog every day and kept teaching her new tricks, even when she got old and gray. she was really happy and never lost her excitement to go have fun. she got a walk in her favorite park the day she died, even though i had to carry her most of the way.

Laura H.
Past Member 4 years ago

Our little man just turned 13 years old. The vet said he has the heart of a puppy. Thanks for sharing this wonderful article.

Danielle Herie
Danielle Herie4 years ago


Suzy J.
Suzy J.4 years ago

My Cavaliers are 12 and 15 respectively. The younger, a female, is under the care of a canine cardiologist for the heart disease often found in the breed and is on four daily medications.. The older suffers only from deafness and poor eyesight. They both have soreness and weakness in their legs. Now here's the thing - I'm the one who needs therapy. i find myself loathe to leave them as "something" may happen in my absence. I watch them like a hawk as they sleep (which they do alot) to be sure they are still breathing. I can't imagine life without them and I know they can't last much longer, It's feels like premature mourning. Does anyone else suffer from this phenomonen? Appreciate any good advice. Thanks.

Mara C.
Mara Comitas4 years ago

Good article. My senior dachshund developed Cushing's Disease at age 10. He's now almost 12 1/2. He's on oral chemo drugs which compromise his immune system so I stopped his boosters and only gave him the rabies vaccine. Because he got no shots, I can't take him to many public places anymore. He recently lost his hearing. I had the vet check to see if he had impacted wax in his ears, but they are fine. He looks so depressed and sleeps most of the day & night. I decided to teach him hand signals and he seems much happier now. He also has a few good games of catch in him. I will see what new tricks I can teach him as suggested. Keep your fingers crossed it works!

Linda Marsik
Linda Marsik5 years ago

It is a great article.
I have had many older dogs.
It's so hard when the end is near.
I took my dogs with me on car trips and errands.
I love spending time and spoiling my animals.
They deserve our time and love.
They give us so unconditional love.

Sharon Wilkie
Sharon W.5 years ago

Really good, pertinent article. And so so true. We had/have ramps all over the house and outside for the deck. When my Max developed doggie Alzheimer's and partial blindness, we put rectangular planters all along the deck to "guide" him to the ramp and even put side-barriers on the ramp top so he wouldn't fall. And a zillion rugs all over the hardwood floors, especially in front of the water and food bowls. Luckily, he had his buddy Rocky to follow around and he'd listen for Rocky to bark to join in and "protect" his home. When Rocky died much too quickly of liver cancer, poor 17-yr old Max didn’t last a month, howling and crying, wandering all around the yard looking for Rocky and wanting to be held. I was grieving along with him and thought of rescuing another dog to keep him company but then he was diagnosed with another painful hernia, this time too unstable to survive the operation - and we lost him just 30 days after Rocky.

But this article really focuses on what needs to be done for them, and that they are bored alone and sleep (or chew, etc) to adjust to that loneliness. We are their family and family needs to comfort, spend time not money on them and "play" together......They are pack animals, after all.

Now we have four rescues, our home is complete again and they interact so well. The oldest, at 12 or 13, is like a puppy again!

mr Crowley
mr Crowley5 years ago

good article!

Jennifer V.
Past Member 5 years ago

what a great article. its so important to keep your older dog engaged and happy, just as you would want to still be involved with family and friends and enjoyable activities... just with more naps and resting and a slower pace.