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- 3872 days ago -
Late Smt. Indira Gandhi ji is our pride & we respect her as our mother but some sick mentality people for cheap publicity, they are spreading mud- spoiling image of others, YOU TUBE please stop it at once & do not allow these kinds of materials - crimes.

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Past Member (0)
Friday December 7, 2007, 10:35 pm
Indira Gandhi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indira Gandhi


3rd & 6th Prime Minister of India
In office
15 January 1980 – 31 October 1984
President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Giani Zail Singh
Preceded by Choudhary Charan Singh
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi
In office
19 January 1966 – 24 March 1977
President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Zakir Hussain, Varahagiri Venkata Giri, Muhammad Hidayatullah, Varahagiri Venkata Giri, and Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Preceded by Gulzarilal Nanda
Succeeded by Morarji Desai


Minister for External Affairs of India
In office
9 March 1984 – 31 October 1984
Preceded by Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi
In office
21 August 1967 – 14 March 1969
Preceded by Mahommedali Currim Chagla
Succeeded by Dinesh Singh


Finance Minister of India
In office
26 June 1970 – 29 April 1971
Preceded by Morarji Desai
Succeeded by Yashwantrao Chavan


Born 19 November 1917(1917-11-19)
Mughalsarai, United Provinces, British India
Died October 31, 1984 (aged 66)
New Delhi, India
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse Feroze Gandhi
Children Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi

A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of his fastsIndira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: इंदिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गांधी) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. She was India's first and to date only female prime minister (though her daughter-in-law, Sonia Gandhi, was offered the post, but refused, preferring to remain a power behind the throne[1] [2]).

Born in the politically influential Nehru dynasty, she grew up in an intensely political atmosphere. Her grandfather, Motilal Nehru, was a prominent Indian nationalist leader. Returning to India from Oxford in 1941, she became involved in the Indian Independence movement.

In the 1950s, she served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as India's first Prime Minister. After her father's death in 1964, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha by the President of India and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting[3].

The then Congress Party President K. Kamaraj was instrumental in making Indira Gandhi as the Prime Minister after the sudden demise of Shastri, Gandhi soon showed an ability to win elections and outmaneuver opponents through populism. She introduced more left-wing economic policies and promoted agricultural productivity. A crushing victory in the 1971 war with Pakistan was followed by a period of instability that led her to impose a state of Emergency in 1975; she paid for the authoritarian excesses of the period with three years in opposition.

Returned to office in 1980, she became increasingly involved in an escalating conflict with separatists in Punjab that eventually led to her assassination by her own bodyguards in 1984.

Contents [hide]
1 Early life
2 President of the Indian National Congress
3 Prime Minister
3.1 Foreign and Domestic Policy and National Security
3.2 Nuclear Program
3.3 Green Revolution
3.4 Indian Emergency of 1975 - 1977
3.5 Changing Domestic Policy
3.6 Charges
3.7 State of Emergency
3.8 Rule by Decree
3.9 Elections
3.10 Removal, Arrest, and Return
3.11 Operation Blue Star and assassination
4 Personal life
4.1 Nehru-Gandhi family
5 Indira Gandhi in popular culture
6 External links
7 References
8 Further reading

[edit] Early life

The Nehru family - Motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and standing (L to R) are Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesing, Indira, and Ranjit Pandit; Seated: Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru and Kamala Nehru (circa 1927).Indira Priyadarshini, was born on November 19, 1917 to Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and his young wife Kamala Nehru. The Nehru family can trace their ancestry to the Brahmins of Jammu and Kashmir and Delhi. Indira's grandfather Motilal Nehru was a wealthy barrister of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. Nehru was one of the most prominent members of the Indian National Congress in pre-Gandhi times and would go on to author the Nehru Report, the people's choice for a future Indian system of government as opposed to the British system. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru was a well-educated lawyer and was a popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. At the time of Indira's birth, Nehru entered the independence movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

Growing up in the sole care of her mother, who was sick and alienated from the Nehru household, Indira developed strong protective instincts and a loner personality. Her grandfather and father continually being enmeshed in national politics also made mixing with her peers difficult. She had conflicts with her father's sisters, including Vijayalakshmi Pandit, and these continued into the political world.

Indira created the Vanara Sena movement for young girls and boys which played a small but notable role in the Indian Independence Movement, conducting protests and flag marches, as well as helping Congress politicians circulate sensitive publications and banned materials. In an often-told story, she smuggled out from her father's police-watched house an important document in her schoolbag that outlined plans for a major revolutionary initiative in the early 1930s.

In 1936, her mother, Kamala Nehru, finally succumbed to tuberculosis after a long struggle. Indira was 18 at the time and thus never experienced a stable family life during her childhood. She attended prominent Indian, European and British schools like Santiniketan, Badminton School and Oxford, but she showed no incandescence for academics, and was detained from obtaining a degree.[citation needed]

While studying at Somerville College, University of Oxford, England, during the late 1930s, she became a member of the radical pro-independence London based India League[4].

In her years in continental Europe and the UK, she met Feroze Gandhi,a Congress activist. Nehru was not happy; Kamala was dead already or dying. Just before the beginning of the Quit India Movement - the final, all-out national revolt launched by Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Party. In September 1942 they were arrested by the British authorities and detained without charge. She was ultimately released on 13 May 1943 having spent over 243 days in jail [5]. In 1944, she gave birth to Rajiv Gandhi with Feroze Gandhi, and followed by Sanjay Gandhi.

During the chaotic Partition of India in 1947, she helped organize refugee camps and provide medical care for the millions of refugees from Pakistan. This was her first exercise in major public service, and a valuable experience for the tumult of the coming years.

The couple later settled in Allahabad where Feroze worked for a Congress Party newspaper and an insurance company. Their marriage started out well, but deteriorated later as Gandhi moved to New Delhi to be at the side of her father, now the Prime Minister, who was living alone in a high-pressure environment at Teen Murti Bhavan. She became his confidante, secretary and nurse. Her sons lived with her, but she eventually became permanently separated from Feroze, though they remained married.

When India's first general election approached in 1951, Gandhi managed the campaigns of both Nehru and her husband, who was contesting the constituency of Rae Bareilly. Feroze had not consulted Nehru on his choice to run, and even though he was elected, he opted to live in a separate house in Delhi. Feroze quickly developed a reputation for being a fighter against corruption by exposing a major scandal in the nationalized insurance industry, resulting in the resignation of the Finance Minister, a Nehru aide.

At the height of the tension, Gandhi and her husband separated. However, in 1958, shortly after re-election, Feroze suffered a heart attack, which dramatically healed their broken marriage. At his side to help him recuperate in Kashmir, their family grew closer. But Feroze died on September 8, 1960, while Gandhi was abroad with Nehru on a foreign visit.

[edit] President of the Indian National Congress

Indira and Mahatma Gandhi circa the 1930sDuring 1959 and 1960, Gandhi ran for and was elected the President of the Indian National Congress. Her term of office was uneventful. She also acted as her father's chief of staff. Nehru was known as a vocal opponent of nepotism, and she did not contest a seat in the 1962 elections.

Nehru died on May 27, 1964, and Gandhi, at the urgings of the new Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, contested elections and joined the Government, being immediately appointed Minister for Information and Broadcasting. She went to Madras when the riots over Hindi becoming the national language broke out in non-Hindi speaking states of the south. There she spoke to government officials, soothed the anger of community leaders and supervised reconstruction efforts for the affected areas. Shastri and senior Ministers were embarrassed, owing to their lack of such initiative. Minister Gandhi's actions were probably not directly aimed at Shastri or her own political elevation. She reportedly lacked interest in the day-to-day functioning of her Ministry, but was media-savvy and adept at the art of politics and image-making.

"During the succession struggles after 1965 between Mrs. Gandhi and her rivals, the central Congress [party] leadership in several states moved to displace upper caste leaders from state Congress [party] organizations and replace them with backward caste persons and to mobilize the votes of the latter castes to defeat its rivals in the state Congress [party] and in the oppositiion. The consequences of these interventions, some of which may justly be perceived as socially progressive, have nevertheless often had the consequences of intensifying inter-ethnic regional conflicts...[6]

When the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 broke out, Gandhi was vacationing in the border region of Srinagar. Although warned by the Army that Pakistani insurgents had penetrated very close to the city, she refused to relocate to Jammu or Delhi. She rallied local government and welcomed media attention, in effect reassuring the nation. Shastri died in Tashkent, hours after signing the peace agreement with Pakistan's Ayub Khan, mediated by the Soviets.

The then Congress Party President K. Kamaraj was instrumental and supportive in making Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister,despite the oppostion from Morarji Desi who was later defeated by the members of the Congress Parliamentary Party,where Indira Gandhi beat Morarji Desai by 355 votes to 169 to become the fifth Prime Minister of India and the first woman to hold that position.

[edit] Prime Minister

[edit] Foreign and Domestic Policy and National Security

Dr. Radhakrishnan, the second President of India, administering the oath of office to Indira Gandhi on 24 January 1966.When Mrs. Gandhi became Prime Minister in 1966 there was no unity in the Congress. Her main party rival, Morarji Desai called her 'Gungi Gudiya' which means 'Dumb Doll'. The internal problems showed in the 1967 election where the Congress lost nearly 60 seats winning 297 seats in the 545 seat Lok Sabha. She had to accommodate Desai as Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister. In 1969 after a lot of disagreements with Desai, the Congress split. she ruled with support from Socialist Parties for the next two years. In the same year, she nationalised banks.During the 1971 War, the US had sent its Seventh Fleet to the Bay of Bengal as a warning to India keep away from East Pakistan as a pretext to launch a wider attack against West Pakistan, especially over the disputed territory of Kashmir. This move had further alienated India from the First World, and Prime Minister Gandhi now accelerated a previously cautious new direction in national security and foreign policy. India and the USSR had earlier signed the Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Cooperation, the resulting political and military support contributing substantially to India's victory in the 1971 war.

[edit] Nuclear Program
But Gandhi now accelerated the national nuclear program, as it was felt that the nuclear threat from the People's Republic of China and the intrusive interest of the two major superpowers were not conducive to India's stability and security. She also invited the new Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to Shimla for a week-long summit. After the near-failure of the talks, the two heads of state eventually signed the Shimla Agreement, which bound the two countries to resolve the Kashmir dispute by negotiations and peaceful means. It was Gandhi's stubbornness which made even the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister sign the accord according to India's terms in which Zulfikar Bhutto had to write the last few terms in the agreement in his own handwriting.[citation needed]

Indira Gandhi was criticized by some for not making the Line of Control a permanent border while a few critics even believed that Pakistan-administered Kashmir should have been extracted from Pakistan, whose 93,000 prisoners of war were under Indian control. But the agreement did remove immediate United Nations and third party interference, and greatly reduced the likelihood of Pakistan launching a major attack in the near future. By not demanding total capitulation on a sensitive issue from Bhutto, she had allowed Pakistan to stabilize and normalize. Trade relations were also normalized, though much contact remained frozen for years.

In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named as smiling Buddha, near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. Describing the test as for peaceful purposes, India nevertheless became the world's youngest nuclear power.

[edit] Green Revolution
Main article: Green Revolution in India

Richard Nixon and Indira Gandhi in 1971. They had a deep personal antipathy that coloured bilateral relations.Special agricultural innovation programs and extra government support launched in the 1960s that had finally resulted in India's chronic food shortages were gradually being transformed into surplus production of wheat, rice, cotton and milk. Rather than relying on food aid from the United States - headed by a President whom Mrs. Gandhi disliked considerably (the feeling was mutual: to Nixon, Indira was "the old witch"[7]), the country became a food exporter. That achievement, along with the diversification of its commercial crop production, has become known as the Green Revolution. At the same time, the White Revolution was an expansion in milk production which helped to combat malnutrition, especially amidst young children. 'Food security', as the programme was called, was another source of support for Mrs. Gandhi in the years leading up to 1975. [1]

Established in the early 1960s, the Green Revolution was the unofficial name given to the Intense Agricultural District Programme (IADP) which sought to insure abundant, inexpensive grain for urban dwellers upon whose support Gandhi -- as indeed all Indian politicians -- heavily depended. [8] The program was based on four premises: 1) New varieties of seed(s), 2) Acceptance of the necessity of the chemicalization of Indian agriculture, i.e. fertilizers, pesticides, weed killers, etc., 3) A commitment to national and international cooperative research to develop new and improved existing seed varieties, 4) The concept of developing a scientific, agricultural institutions in the form of land grant colleges. [9]. Lasting about ten years, the program was ultimately to bring about a tripling of wheat production, a lower but still impressive increase of rice; while there was little to no increase (depending on area, and adjusted for population growth) of such cereals as millet, gram and coarse grain, though these did, in fact, retain a relatively stable yield.

[edit] Indian Emergency of 1975 - 1977
Main article: Indian Emergency (1975 - 77)
Gandhi's government faced major problems after her tremendous mandate of 1971. The internal structure of the Congress Party had withered following its numerous splits, leaving it entirely dependent on her leadership for its election fortunes. Garibi Hatao (Abolish Poverty) was the theme for Gandhi's 1971 bid. The slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give Gandhi an independent national support, based on rural and urban poor. This would allow her to by-pass the dominate rural castes both in and of state and local government; likewise the urban commercial class. And, for their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight.

The programs created through garibi hatao, though carried out locally, were funded, developed, supervised, and staffed by New Delhi and the Congress [party]. "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed...throughout the country."[10] All and all, garibi hatao did little and accomplished a bit less: Only about 4% of all funds allocated for economic development went to the three main anti-poverty programs, and precious few of these ever reached the 'poorest of the poor'. But it did help secure Gandhi's election.

[edit] Changing Domestic Policy
Gandhi had already been accused of tendencies towards authoritarianism. Using their strong parliamentary majority, her ruling Congress party had amended the Constitution, altering the balance of power between the Centre and the States established under the federal system. The central government had twice imposed President's Rule under Article 356 of the Constitution by deeming states ruled by opposition parties as "lawless and chaotic", thus winning administrative control of those states. Elected officials and the administrative services resented the growing influence of Sanjay Gandhi, who had become Gandhi's close political advisor at the expense of men like P. N. Haksar, Gandhi's chosen strategist during her rise to power. Renowned public figures and former freedom-fighters like Jaya Prakash Narayan, Satyendra Narayan Sinha and Acharya Jivatram Kripalani now toured the North, speaking actively against her Government.

[edit] Charges
On June 12, 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Gandhi's election invalid on grounds of alleged malpractices in an election petition filed by Raj Narain (who had repeatedly contested her Parliamentary constituency of Rae Bareli without success). The court thus ordered her to be removed from her seat in Parliament and banned from running in elections for six years. Since the Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha (lower house in the Parliament of India) or the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of the Parliament), this decision had the effect of removing her from office.

Gandhi appealed the decision; the opposition parties rallied en masse, calling for her resignation. Strikes by unions and protest rallies paralyzed life in many states. J. P. Narayan even called upon the police to disobey orders if asked to fire on an unarmed public. Public disenchantment combined with hard economic times and an unresponsive government. A huge rally surrounded the Parliament building and Gandhi's residence in Delhi, demanding her to behave responsibly and resign.

A still from Anand Patwardhan's first documentary Waves of Revolution, about the unrest in Bihar, distributed clandestinely within India and smuggled out in sections to create awareness abroad.
[edit] State of Emergency
Gandhi advised President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed to declare a state of emergency, claiming that the strikes and rallies were creating a state of 'internal disturbance'. Ahmed was a longtime political ally, and it is a strong convention in India that the president acts on the advice of the prime minister. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352 of the Constitution, on June 26, 1975.

Even before the Emergency Proclamation was ratified by Parliament, Gandhi on the night of June 26, 1975 moved to put an end to any and all opposition to order the arrest of all her principal opposition, including those within the Congress Parliamentary Party. Many of these were men who had first been jailed by the British in the 1930s and 1940s.

[edit] Rule by Decree
Within a few months, President's Rule was imposed on the two non-Congress (party)-ruled states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu thereby bringing the entire country under direct dictorial rule from Delhi. [11] Police were granted powers to impose curfews and indefinitely detain citizens, while all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Finally, impending legislative assembly elections were indefinitely postponed, with all opposition-controlled state governments being removed by virtue of the constitutional provision allowing for a dismissal of a state government on recommendation of the state's governor.

Gandhi used the emergency provisions to grant herself extraordinary powers.

"Unlike her father [Nehru], who preferred to deal with strong chief ministers in control of their legislative parties and state party organizations, Mrs. Gandhi set out to remove every Congress chief minister who had an independent base and to replace each of them with ministers personally loyal to her...Even so, stability could not be maintained in the states..."[12]

She further utilized President Ahmed, to issue ordinances that did not need to be debated in Parliament, allowing her to effectively rule by decree. Inder Kumar Gujral, a future prime minister himself, resigned as Minister for Information and Broadcasting to protest Sanjay Gandhi's interference in his work of the ministry.

The prime minister's emergency rule lasted nineteen months.

Simultaneously, a draconian campaign to stamp out dissent included the arrest and torture of thousands of political activists; the ruthless clearing of slums around Delhi's Jama Masjid ordered by Sanjay and carried out by Jagmohan, which left hundreds of thousands of people homeless and thousands killed, and led to the permanent ghettoization of the nation's capital; and the family planning program which forcibly imposed vasectomy on thousands of fathers and was often poorly administered, nurturing a public anger against family planning that persists into the 21st century.
In 1977, Gandhi called elections. One factor was the economic gains, though there may have been political considerations at play. Gandhi may have grossly misjudged her popularity by reading what the heavily censored press wrote about her, or may have feared a military coup had she attempted to rule by decree any longer (There were reports that the Armed Forces would forcibly remove her from power and hold elections. See Tapishwar Narain Raina). In any case, she was roundly defeated by the Janata Party. Janata, led by her long-time rival, Desai and with Jai Prakash Narayan as its spiritual guide, claimed the elections were the last chance for India to choose between "democracy and dictatorship." Indira and Sanjay Gandhi both lost their seats, and Congress was cut down to 153 seats (compared with 350 in the previous Lok Sabha), 92 of which were in the south.
Removal, Arrest, and Return
Mrs. Gandhi with M.G. Ramachandran, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. In the post-emergency elections in 1977, only the Southern states returned Congress majorities.Desai became Prime Minister and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, the establishment choice of 1969, became President of the Republic. Gandhi found herself without work, income or residence until winning a by-election in 1978. The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977 with veteran Gandhi supporters like Jagjivan Ram abandoning her for Janata. The Congress (Gandhi) Party was now a much smaller group in Parliament, although the official opposition.

Unable to govern owing to fractious coalition warfare, the Janata government's Home Minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered the arrest of Indira and Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. The arrest meant that Indira was automatically expelled from Parliament. However, this strategy backfired disastrously. Her arrest and long-running trial, however, gained her great sympathy from many people who had feared her as a tyrant just two years earlier.

The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Mrs. Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her); the government was so bogged down by infighting. She was able to use the situation to her advantage. She began giving speeches again, tacitly apologizing for "mistakes" made during the Emergency. Desai resigned in June 1979, and Charan Singh was appointed Prime Minister by Reddy after Mrs. Gandhi promised that Congress would support his government from outside.

After a short interval, she withdrew her initial support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in the winter of 1979. In elections held the following January, Congress was returned to power with a landslide majority.

Indira Gandhi was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize (for 1983-84).

1984 USSR commemorative stamp
Operation Blue Star and assassination
Main article: Operation Blue Star
Main article: 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots

The neutrality and factual accuracy of this section are disputed.
Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

Gandhi's later years were bedeviled with problems in Punjab. In September 1981, Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, a freedom fighter associated with a[citation needed] separatist[citation needed] Sikh religious group took up positions within the precincts of the Golden Temple, Sikhism's holiest shrine from the safety of the shrine.[13] Gandhi ordered the Army, and hundreds of innocent Sikhs[citation needed] were killed in the resultant gunfire. The Sikhs where there to pay pilgrimage to Guru Arjun Dev Ji's martyrdom anniversary.

Indira Gandhi had numerous bodyguards, two of whom were Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, both Sikhs. On October 31, 1984 they assassinated Indira Gandhi with machine guns in the garden of the Prime Minister's Residence at No. 1, Safdarjung Road in New Delhi. As she was walking to be interviewed by the British actor Peter Ustinov filming a documentary for Irish television, she passed a wicket gate, guarded by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, where they opened fire with machine pistols before being shot themselves by other bodyguards. One bodyguard was killed and the other wounded.

Gandhi died on her way to the hospital, in her official car, but she was not declared dead until many hours later. She was taken to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, where doctors operated on her and reportedly removed 31 bullets from her body. She was cremated on November 3, near Raj Ghat and the place was called Shakti Sthal.

After her death, sectarian unrest engulfed New Delhi and several other cities in India, including Kanpur, Asansol and Indore, leading to the death of thousands of Sikhs and leaving many homeless. At that time many Gurudwaras were burnt. Some members of the Delhi Pradesh Congress Committee, long accused by independent human rights organisations of a hand in the violence, were tried for incitement to murder and arson many years later - none was found guilty. Three prominent Congress politicians - HKL Bhagat, Jagdish Tytler and Sajjan Kumar - were implicated on numerous occasions but were never brought to trial. The present Indian Commerce and Industry Minister, Mr. Kamal Nath, has repeatedly been accused of ordering a mob to fire at a Gurdwara [deposition to Justice Nanavati Commision] during the riots, but he denies this. Numerous enquiries, themselves dragging on for several years during which time witnesses often died, revealed that little or no action was taken to protect the people by either the Indian police or the Army. In many instances, eye witnesses reported collusion with the mob by the police. Indira's son, Rajiv, when asked to comment on what became known as the Delhi Pogrom, simply stated "when a large tree falls, the earth is bound to shake". This was taken as tacit approval of the anti-Sikh riots. To date not a single person has been found guilty of the estimated 20,000 Sikhs that lost their lives in the anti-Sikh Delhi riots.

Gandhi's friend and biographer Pupul Jayakar would later reveal Indira's tension, and her premonition about what might happen in the wake of Operation Blue Star.

Personal life

Nehru-Gandhi family
Main article: Nehru-Gandhi Family
Initially Sanjay had been her chosen heir; but after his death in a flying accident, his mother persuaded a reluctant Rajiv Gandhi to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981.

After Indira Gandhi's death, Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister. In May 1991, he too was assassinated, this time at the hands of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam militants. Rajiv's widow, Sonia Gandhi, led the United Progressive Alliance to a surprise electoral victory in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections.

Sonia Gandhi declined the opportunity to assume the office of Prime Minister but remains in control of the Congress' political apparatus; Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, formerly finance minister, now heads the nation. Rajiv's children, Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi, have also entered politics. Sanjay Gandhi's widow, Maneka Gandhi - who fell out with Indira after Sanjay's death and was famously thrown out of the Prime Minister's house[14] - as well as Sanjay's son, Varun Gandhi, are active in politics as members of the main opposition BJP party. At the same time, scandals from Indira Gandhi's final years, including the Ottavio Quattrocchi affair, continue to cast its shadow on Sonia Gandhi[15].

Indira Gandhi in popular culture
Although never mentioned by name, Indira Gandhi is clearly the prime minister in A Fine Balance by Rohinton Mistry.
In Salman Rushdie's novel Midnight's Children, Indira is responsible for the eponymous characters' downfall, referred to throughout the novel as "The Widow." This portrayal of Indira Gandhi raised controversy in some circles for its harsh depiction both of her and of her policies.
In Shashi Tharoor's The Great Indian Novel, the character of Priya Duryodhani clearly refers to Indira Gandhi.
"Aandhi," a Hindi movie directed by Gulzar, is a partly fictionalized adaptation of some events in Indira's life, particularly her (played by Suchitra Sen) difficult relationship with her husband (played by Sanjeev Kumar).

External links
Obituary, NY Times, November 1, 1984 Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India
Indira Profile

^ Gandhi, Indira. (1982) My Truth
^ Frank, Katherine. (2001) Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi.
^ Frank, Katherine. (2001) Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. Page 186
^ Ibid #2 p. 154
^ BBC News
^ Ibid. #3 p. 295
^ Farmer, B.H.,"Prespectives on the 'Green Revolution'

Past Member (0)
Friday December 7, 2007, 10:38 pm

Past Member (0)
Friday December 7, 2007, 11:19 pm
Indira Gandhi

Indian history has been witness to only one female Prime Minister - Indira Gandhi. She was the third Prime Minister of India and the daughter of the first - Pandit Jawarharlal Nehru. Her charm, intelligence and charisma made her a powerful statesperson, much loved and admired by her people.

A Politically Charged Childhood

Born on 19th November 1917, in Allahabad, she was greatly loved by her parents and her grandfather Motilal Nehru, who was a famous lawyer, and a public figure in his own right.

Her father had joined the freedom struggle, so little Indira, or Priyadarshani as she was lovingly called, was exposed to politics from the age of 3 or 4 years. Her house was the centre of political activity, as all the important leaders stayed there on visiting Allahabad. Mahatma Gandhi was a frequent visitor to her father's residence and she was greatly affected by his thinking. A visit to the Sabarmati Ashram left an indelible mark on her psyche and she was impressed by the simple, hard life and patriotic feelings that she witnessed there.

She passed her Metric from Pune University and was then sent on to Shantiniketan, formed by Rabindranath Tagore. Here she was made to lead a strict highly disciplined life. From here she went on to study in Switzerland and then to Oxford University in London.

Her Father's Daughter

After her return to India she married Feroze Gandhi, in March 1941 much against the wishes of the conservative Hindu community, as he was a Parsee. But Nehru was on her side. When Indira's father was in jail he used to write beautiful, long letters to her about his patriotic feelings and the current political situation. This led her to understand the intricacies of the nation, better than the most. In 1942, she joined the 'Quit India' Movement along with her husband and was arrested and jailed.

After India gained freedom, Pandit Nehru was elected Prime Minister. After his death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri took over. And then in 1966, Indira Gandhi was elected leader of the Congress.

Her Tenure As Prime Minister

Indira will be remembered for her commendable efforts in the development and progress of science, space exploration, irrigation, as well as policies like the nationalisation of banks and the 20-point programme.

But on the other hand, the enormity of the problems she faced was the cause of much heartache. There were problems in Assam, Punjab as well as East Bengal. And in 1971, Pakistan attacked India and forced another smaller partition - the creation of Bangladesh.

On June 26th, 1975, Mrs. Gandhi declared an emergency, due to the turbulent political situation in the country at that time. Janta Party leaders like J.P. Narayan were arrested and jailed. But Mrs. Gandhi lost out to them in the next election in 1977 and was re-elected to power in 1980. Later, in Punjab there was a demand for a separate state of Khalistan, and the Sardarji's were up in arms. But their demands were not met and this was the cause of her ultimate assassination.

The End

On Wednesday, October 31, 1984, when Indira Gandhi was proceeding to her office, she was gunned down by her own bodyguards. This day has gone down in History as national Unity Day, as a tribute to the memory of a Great lady, leader and statesperson.


Past Member (0)
Saturday December 8, 2007, 5:30 am
This should be not happen with a great person.
Good Article

Nuria Coe (0)
Saturday December 8, 2007, 10:31 pm
Noted! I will do my part to spread the word. :)
The world remembers her very well, and her legacy is much too formidable for anyone to even begin to tarnish it. Fear not.

Past Member (0)
Sunday December 9, 2007, 2:12 am
I request fo the Prime Minister of India / Home Minister of India & all state's Chief Minister along with the DGP's of all States in India may take cognizence about this matter& direct the Google - You Tube to withdraw this vulgar & filthy language used against Bharat Raten Former Prime Minister of India Late Smt. India Gandhi as this is the violation of the law of the land.

Past Member (0)
Sunday December 9, 2007, 4:37 am
Dear friends,
Please flag INAPPROPRIATE the video at YOU TUBE as I flag it already,
Naresh Kadyan

Carolyn T (234)
Sunday December 9, 2007, 11:00 am
There is no excluse for this yellow journalism. Nothing redeeming about it...just a smear. The language and allegations are abominable. Those who have engaged in running this smut should be held liable and fined and those monies forthcoming from the suits used to assist India's poor.

Past Member (0)
Monday December 10, 2007, 3:29 am > Thanx God, this link now in Delhi is not functioning but still the video is very much active at YOU TUBE, please this video must be removed & operater / promoters be punished.

Past Member (0)
Monday December 10, 2007, 4:17 pm
FIR against ‘You Tube’ sought
Tribune News Service

Chandigarh, December 10
Convener of the Haryana unit of the People for Animals organisation Naresh Kadyan has written to the state police to lodge an FIR against “You Tube” for posting highly objectionable video against former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

Faridabad-based Kadyan told TNS today that he had sent a complaint to the director-general of the Haryana police with a copy to the Chief Minister, urging him to take an action against the internet site under the Information Technology Act for hurting the sentiments of Indians.

He said a strict action should be taken against the offending sites and their promoters.

Past Member (0)
Monday February 4, 2008, 3:34 am
To day Naresh Kadyan moved to the court for further directions.

Past Member (0)
Saturday February 9, 2008, 12:37 am
In a PIL, social activist Naresh Kadyan has sought directions to Google and You Tube to withdraw the videoclip on the late Indira Gandhi. The petition is expected to come up before Justice Nawab Singh of the Punjab and Haryana High Court on Tuesday.

Kadian has also sought directions to the Chandigarh Police to register an FIR against Google, You Tube and others for showing the video, which was “vulgar.” Kadian will appear in person in the matter.

Past Member (0)
Saturday February 9, 2008, 12:38 am
Notice issued to the Home Secretary / SSP , Chandigarh for March 28th, 2008.

Past Member (0)
Sunday March 9, 2008, 4:56 am

joravaar s. (0)
Wednesday June 12, 2013, 12:47 am
she was EVIL
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