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New Study: Common Pesticides Kill Frogs on Contact


Science & Tech  (tags: discovery, environment, habitat, health, research, safety, science, scientists, society, technology, world )

JL
- 631 days ago - motherjones.com
Such "endocrine-disrupting chemicals" have what scientists call chronic, not acute, effects on amphibians--that is, they don't kill them outright, but they alter them profoundly--even change their gender.



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JL A. (275)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 10:50 am


Mother Jones
New Study: Common Pesticides Kill Frogs on Contact
Here's what happens when frogs get directly sprayed with farm pesticides.

By Tom Philpott | Sat Feb. 2, 2013 4:02 AM PST

To me, there are few more comforting sights on a farm or in a garden than a frog hopping about amid the crops. Frogs and other amphibians don't just look and sound cool—they also feast upon the insects that feast upon the plants we eat. These bug-scarfing creatures are a free source of what is known as biological pest control [1].

But modern industrial agriculture doesn't have much use for them. It leans on chemistry, not biology, to control pests—and in doing so, it's probably contributing to the catastrophic global decline of amphibians [2], a natural ally to farmers for millennia. The irony is stark: In industrial agriculture's zeal to wipe out pests, it is helping to wipe out those pests' natural predators. The latest evidence: a new study [3] showing that exposure to common pesticides at levels used in farm fields can kill frogs rapidly.

For a decade or so, it has become increasingly clear that widely used herbicides like Syngenta's atrazine, in tiny amounts found in streams after running off from farm fields, do crazy things to the sexual development of frogs [4]. Such "endocrine-disrupting chemicals" have what scientists call chronic, not acute, effects on amphibians—that is, they don't kill them outright, but they alter them profoundly—even change their gender. (See Dashka Slater's profile [5] of a scientist who documented atrazine's impact on frogs, earning a backlash from Syngenta.) Monsanto's blockbuster herbicide Roundup also exerts subtle but important harm on amphibians, research suggests [6].

Again, this research focuses on what happens to amphibians when they encounter agricultural poisons at low levels in ponds and streams. But what happens when they are actually sprayed with chemicals in farm fields? That's where the new study, a recent peer-reviewed paper [3] by a group of German and Swiss scientists, comes in. They write that the phenomenon of frogs experiencing direct contact with pesticides has been little-studied, even though the scenario is quite common on the ground—farmland has become one of the "the largest terrestrial biomes on Earth, occupying more than 40% of the land surface," and thus represents an "essential habitat for amphibians."

In other words, frogs and related species have little choice but to hang out on farms. What happens when they're in the wrong place at the wrong time—i.e., on a field when the crop duster shows up?
For one of the pesticides in the study, all of the frogs died within an hour of exposure.

To find out, the researchers subjected groups of frogs to varying levels of a variety of pesticides (a category that includes insect killers, weed killers, and fungus killers) commonly used in Germany and Switzerland. The exposure came at three different levels: one-tenth of the concentration recommended by the manufacturer, at the recommended level, and ten times the recommended level (because farmers don't always follow the instructions on the bag). And rather than use only the "active" ingredient of each pesticide, as many researchers do, this team used the actual formulation available to farmers. That's because pesticides are a mixture of active poisons and chemical solvents designed to ensure that the poisons work as intended. And these solvents, too, can have toxic properties.

The results are startling. In the chart below, the red lines represent the percentage of frogs that died within seven days of exposure at the recommended rate. As you can see, for two different fungicides—one called Headline and and another called Captan Omya—frogs had 100 percent mortality rate at the recommended concentration level. For Headline, we learn elsewhere in the study, all of the frogs died within an hour of exposure. All seven pesticides in the study delivered mortality rates at the recommended level well above those of the frogs in the control group, which were sprayed with water.
From "Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: An underestimated cause of global decline?," published in Science Reports.

Note the two fungicides at the left end of the chart, Headline and BASF 500 18 F, both made by the German chemical giant BASF. The two fungicides share the same active ingredient, a chemical called pyraclostrobin; but they had widely different mortality rates at the recommended concentration level, 100 percent vs. a bit more than 20 percent. What gives? Turns out that the deadlier one, Headline, is a mixture of pyraclostrobin and a petroleum-based solvent called naphtha, with naphtha making up 67 percent of the mix. The less-deadly one contains less than 25 percent naphtha. This result led the researchers to conjecture that that "other chemicals in the formulation may play a major role in the effect size of pesticides." It should be noted that solvents and other inactive ingredients used in Monsanto's Roundup herbicide (not included in this study) have also shown toxic effects in published research [7].

BASF's pyraclostrobin-based herbicides are widely used in the US. BASF Crop Protection USA promotes Headline as a kind of wonder-substance. On its website [8], the company declares:

Not only does Headline provide excellent disease control, it actually promotes improved Plant Health. The unique chemistry of its active ingredient, F500® [pyraclostrobin], enables more efficient nitrogen uptake, more robust plant growth and better stress tolerance to heat, hail, wind and drought. Ultimately, this means healthier plants and higher yield potential.

BASF pushes Headline particularly hard on corn growers [9]. For other crops, including [10] berries, carrots, grapes, onions, stone fruit, strawberries, tree nuts, hops, and pistachios, the company promotes a pyraclostrobin-based fungicide called Pristine [10]. It's not clear how much naphtha Pristine contains—according to its label [11], it contains 62 percent unnamed "other ingredients." (Pristine wasn't included in this study.)

I asked BASF to respond to the study, and in an emailed statement, the company responded via email that it "takes these findings very seriously and will study them further." But it also disputed their significance:

The study design neither reflects conditions of realistic agricultural use in practice nor the natural behavior of the animals. Amphibians are not exposed to such pesticide concentrations in practice and under normal agricultural conditions. For instance, Pyraclostrobin is not applied to the bare ground but to the crop, and the plants in the field will certainly reduce the exposure to the amphibians. In addition, amphibians tend to hide (under leaves or in the soil) during times of application. Accordingly, BASF considers the risk to amphibians resulting from Pyraclostrobin to be low in practice and under normal agricultural conditions.

But the paper addresses that criticism. "Although interception by crops may reduce exposure, repeated pesticide applications in a growing season might result in multiple contacts with a variety of products," the study states. If all it takes to kill a frog is a single spray, you're using a problematic pesticide, full stop.
Source URL: http://www.motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2013/01/new-study-common-pesticides-kill-frogs-contact

Links:
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_pest_control
[2] http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/our_work/amphibians/
[3] http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130124/srep01135/full/srep01135.html#/affil-auth
[4] http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100301151927.htm
[5] http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2011/11/tyrone-hayes-atrazine-syngenta-feud-frog-endangered
[6] http://www.motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2012/04/study-monsantos-roundup-herbicide-has-weird-effect-frogs
[7] http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/news/roundup-weed-killer-is-toxic-to-human-cells.-study-intensifies-debate-over-inert-ingredients
[8] http://www.agproducts.basf.com/products/headline-fungicide.html
[9] http://www.agro.basf.com/agr/AP-Internet/en/content/sustainability/eco-efficiency-analysis/case-study-corn-grown-with-or-without-BASF-fungicide-headline
[10] http://agproducts.basf.us/products/pristine-fungicide.html
[11] http://agproducts.basf.us/app/cdms?manuf=16&pd=6918&ms=2274
 

Autumn S. (153)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 11:08 am
Thanks, JL!
 

Pat B. (354)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 11:27 am
Thank you, J.L. for this.
 

JL A. (275)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 11:33 am
You are welcome Autumn and Gran!
 

Carol D. (109)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 2:01 pm
noted
thanks for article
 

Angelika R. (142)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 2:06 pm
thx,-hope one day this sh$% made by Monsanto &co will ALTER THEM completely!
 

JL A. (275)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 2:09 pm
You are welcome Carol and Angelika. You cannot currently send a star to Angelika because you have done so within the last week.
 

Nelson Baker (0)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 3:31 pm
Chemicals are killing animals and humans.
 

Petra M. (253)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 3:42 pm
Thanks JL for the article!
 

JL A. (275)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 3:46 pm
You are welcome Petra!
 

Theodore Shayne (56)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 5:12 pm
Any wetland system without amphibians is a dead system or one on the verge of dying.
 

JL A. (275)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 6:25 pm
You cannot currently send a star to Theodore because you have done so within the last week.
 

Kit B. (276)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 7:31 pm

Ummm....wondering how much of that gets into the food supply. Not that it matters much, amphibian life is as critical to ecological balance as predators. Some times I wonder just how stupid we are. I guess we learned nothing from DDT, even now the GMO food supply is loaded with pesticides, which we in turn consume, while drinking the water that is run-off from the toxic chemicals used as fertilizer. I will stop before this becomes a real rant.
 

Terry V. (30)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 7:39 pm
NOTED, thanks.45 years ago we had garter snakes, toads, salamanders,lightening bugs,etc. They have been GONE for years now, because of people using chemicals on their lawns and gardens :(

SAVE PLANET EARTH
 

JL A. (275)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 7:49 pm
Great observations Kit and Terry! Thank you Terry for posting the link to the relevant short video!
You cannot currently send a star to Kit because you have done so within the last week.
You cannot currently send a star to Terry because you have done so within the last week.
 

John B. (173)
Thursday February 7, 2013, 5:28 am
Thanks J.L. for the post and link to the excellent chart. These chemicals affect everything from plants, insects, birds and animals. Read and noted.
 

JL A. (275)
Thursday February 7, 2013, 7:37 am
You're welcome John. The chart is indeed worth a visit to the site.You cannot currently send a star to John because you have done so within the last week.
 

Michael M. (58)
Thursday February 7, 2013, 7:41 am
Logging companies in this area have used herbicides which also disrupt amphibian physiological processes severely., but luckily many areas are not affected.

The overuse (or from my point of view any use) of pesticides and herbicides has had its time, and should be ended -

NOT with home exceptions.
 

Melania Padilla (179)
Thursday February 7, 2013, 9:48 am
Shame!!!
 

Iain A. (69)
Thursday February 7, 2013, 11:19 am
noted, thanks Dianne

What is the lesser of 2 evils..altering them ..or..killing them!! Again, money and profit before nature!!
 

Sonia Minwer Barakat Reque (50)
Thursday February 7, 2013, 12:22 pm
Thanks for sharing
 

JL A. (275)
Thursday February 7, 2013, 1:05 pm
You are welcome Sonia
 

Natalie V. (27)
Thursday February 7, 2013, 3:32 pm
noted
 

Sergio Padilla (62)
Tuesday February 12, 2013, 7:56 am
Thanks
 

JL A. (275)
Tuesday February 12, 2013, 8:41 am
You are welcome Sergio
 
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