Software in the Classroom: Does It Really Improve Learning?


Teachers and students offered “some of the most heartfelt online tributes” at the passing of Apple co-founder and innovator Steve Jobs. The Mac’s graphical interface takes well-deserved credit for helping to convince educators in the 1980s to introduce computers in the classroom, and to younger and younger students. Today, schools and teachers “integrating technology” into learning has become synonymous with improving student achievement.

The Case of Carnegie Learning’s Software

That technology can make a difference in students’ academic performance is not just assumed. You could say there is a bit of a blind faith that computers, software and the like will, just by using them, raise test scores. But two federal reviews of the flagship math-teaching software, Cognitive Tutor, of Carnegie Learning, have shown that using it had “no discernible effects” on the standardized test scores of high school students. The company’s promotional literature suggests otherwise:

…the gold standard of education research is a field trial in which similar groups of students are randomly assigned to classes where one uses the curriculum and the other does not.

The Carnegie Web site lists five such trials and says they all show positive results for Cognitive Tutor.

Three of these studies, however, were rejected by the [Education Department’s] What Works Clearinghouse, for flaws in their design; in a fourth, the clearinghouse identified a problem with part of the study — the part that purported to show benefits. One of the rejected studies had found that users of Cognitive Tutor in 10 Miami high schools scored better on Florida state exams than a control group, but the clearinghouse found that the students being compared were not equivalent.

Carnegie Learning was founded in 1998 by cognitive and computer scientists at Carnegie Mellon University along with math teachers. But in August, it was acquired by the Apollo Group, the parent company of the 400,000 student for-profit University of Phoenix. Carnegie Learning’s website notes the acquisition with a link to a September 26th article on The Atlantic by Clayton Christensen, Harvard Business School Professor and “world-renowned innovation guru,” and Henry Eyring, Advancement Vice President and educational strategist at BYU‐Idaho.

Christensen and Eyring unquestioningly laud the educational value of Carnegie Learning’s math tutorials which will “prove a boon to the hundreds of thousands of University of Phoenix students who take math courses in almost all of its programs of study.” Such online learning is something that many traditional universities and colleges are not, to their detriment, investing in. Christensen and Eyring claim numerous benefits for a mix of online and face-to-face learning:

…students will spend less time in the classroom, in favor of learning through personalized tutorials such as those produced by Carnegie Learning. They will also learn more from one another, through the application of social media technologies to defined learning objectives. Students who prepare for class via these technologies have much better learning experiences when they get to the classroom.

Not mentioned are teachers; students instead receive instruction through the software tutorials and, using more technology (social media), each other.

Christensen and Eyring do not spell out the evidence or research on what they are basing these statements. The two educators are talking not about school-age students using software in the classroom, but older individuals using educational software in an online course. Their short article does not indicate what they think about the federal review of some of Carnegie Learning’s software and its ineffectiveness as far as student achievement: Again, there’s a tendency to equate using computer technology with innovation and improved educational outcomes.

A $2.2 Billion Business

Classroom-based software is a $2.2 billion a year business though the jury is still out about how, and if, it really makes a difference in student learning. There’s no question that computers and online courses will be part of the educational future for many students. But the less than stellar results (as measured in students’ standardized test scores) of Carnegie Learning’s software should remind us that “educational innovations” do not go hand-in-hand with students learning.

My own college classroom is outfitted with a computer with internet access and an LED projector. I often show students maps of the ancient Mediterranean world, photos of Greek and Roman art and the ruins of buildings and much more that is readily available on the web; gone are the days of dragging in slides and a slide projector. But students look at webpages all the time and computers (or at least the one in my classroom) can freeze and crash. The best teaching innovation of this school year for me so far has been two 99 cent boxes of colored chalk I got at Target (the college of course provides white chalk but not chalk in rainbow hues). Writing and circling and underlining ancient Greek and Latin words in different colors can catch student’s attention more effectively than showing the yet another webpage on a screen.

Some research about “traditional” teaching technologies versus the latest new software products might be revealing.

Plural declension of the definite article in ancient Greek (all 3 genders)

Photo of the plural declension (in masculine, feminine, neuter genders) of the definite article in ancient Greek by the author


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Photo by shersh


Francoise Souverville

I say no, no, NO!! Unless you want to raise robots....we are evolving towards "star wars"!!!! except for the few of us that will remain with the earth and in our own communities....then our children don't need to succumb to that world.....and have a chance to live many more years!!!!!

Lynn C.
Lynn C6 years ago

This article asks good questions. It's worth looking for some answers.

Emanuel v.
Emanuel v.6 years ago

It is pointless if what you learn is indoctrination. Right now we are being indoctrinated and that amounts to being dumbed down. The only worthwhile lessons are those that reflect the analytical truth and allows the student to think for themselves. Exams are for slaves and serfs. The Mortar boards on students heads are just symbols of an education system that is dominated by the Elite Illuminati who intend to kill us all anyway when and how it suits them.

Marilyn L.
Marilyn L6 years ago

Thanks for the article.

Roger S.
Roger S6 years ago

A similar debate is going on in the UK but the issue here is that "computer science" has been dumbed down. You now learn how to use Excel and Powerpoint instead of machine code and BASIC coding. In the 80's you had a generation of people who could code and use the same logic in other forms of problem solving. Heck, it even helped me in orbital mechanics in my Aerospace degree.

Teaching kids how to use software my gran could use isn't benefiting them at all, as the software will have changed by the time they get a job anyway. School is about developing social skills and learning the fundamental basics of English and Math(s). If the 10 yo child wants to sit in front of a computer let him/her do it at home!

Oh BTW, a person's intelligence cannot be measured on how quickly they can recite something off Google, but on how they retain that knowledge and the ability of adapting and using that knowledge in their own lives. People seem to be less able to make common sense judgements these days and are more likely to go along with "what the computer says" which I personally find disturbing.

Robert Vincelette

Have you ever seen the textbooks for high school math? They have paid advertizements, sports, and junk culture to sell soft drinks, rap music, and McDonald's. They are more corporate indoctrination than mathematics and they replace the textbooks in college elmost every year at great expense to students.

Pandute A P
Pandute AP6 years ago

It probably adds fun but also wastes time and I'm not very positive that it helps to improve learning/teaching.

Nance N.
Nance N6 years ago

Thanks for the article.

Luvenia V.
Luvenia V6 years ago

I wrote a letter to my grandson recently and he called me to let me know he had trouble reading it because I wrote in cursive. He is a very smart young man often making the Principles list but had a problem reading cursive and he said they never write in cursive in school anymore.

I also find fault with what they teach in the first couple of years in school because they try to teach too much too fast. The foundation of all learning is still and will always be reading, writing and math, without these things nothing else is possible. Finland has one of the TOP school systems in the world and we should be emulating it.

Technology is great and has its place but we should never turn our children over to a computer, they deserve better from us.

Bruce Van Tassell

When I see all these computers in the classroom, even though I am on one now, I think of Orwell and the 1984 we thought we escaped.