Should You Use Iodized Salt?

Thereís a good chance youíll spot a box of iodized salt in any kitchen pantry.

While itís a dietary staple in many households, thereís a lot of confusion about what iodized salt actually is and whether or not itís a necessary part of the diet.

This article explores how iodized salt may affect your health and whether or not you should be using it.

Iodine Is an Important Mineral

Iodine is a trace mineral commonly found in seafood, dairy products, grains and eggs.

In many countries, itís also combined with table salt to help prevent iodine deficiency.

Your thyroid gland uses iodine to produce thyroid hormones, which aid in tissue repair, regulate metabolism and promote proper growth and development (1,†2).

Thyroid hormones also play a direct role in the control of body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate (3).

In addition to its essential role in thyroid health, iodine may play a central role in several other aspects of your health.

For example, test-tube and animal studies suggest that it may directly impact the function of your immune system (4,†5).

Meanwhile, other studies have found that iodine may help treat fibrocystic breast disease, a condition in which non-cancerous lumps form in the breast (6,†7).

Many People Are at Risk of Iodine Deficiency

Unfortunately, many people around the world are at an increased risk of†iodine deficiency.

It’s considered a public health problem in 118 countries, and more than 1.5 billion people are believed to be at risk (8).

Deficiencies†in micronutrients like iodine are increasingly prevalent in certain areas, especially in regions where iodized salt is uncommon or there are low levels of iodine in the soil.

In fact, itís estimated that about a third of the population in the Middle East is at risk of iodine deficiency (9).

This condition is also commonly found in areas such as Africa, Asia, Latin America and parts of Europe (8).

In addition, certain groups of people are more likely to be deficient in iodine. For example, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are at a higher risk of deficiency because they require more iodine.

Vegans and vegetarians are also at a greater risk. One study looked at the diets of 81 adults and found that 25% of vegetarians and 80% of vegans had iodine deficiency, compared to just 9% of those on mixed diets (10).

Thyroid

Iodine Deficiency Can Cause Serious Symptoms

A deficiency in iodine can cause a long list of symptoms that range from mildly uncomfortable to severe to even dangerous.

Among the most common symptoms is a type of swelling in the neck known as a goiter.

Your thyroid gland uses iodine to produce thyroid hormones. However, when your body doesnít have enough of it, your thyroid gland is forced to go into overdrive to try to compensate and make more hormones.

This causes the cells in your thyroid to rapidly multiply and grow, resulting in a goiter (11).

A decrease in thyroid hormones can also lead to other adverse effects, such as hair loss, fatigue, weight gain, dry skin and increased sensitivity to cold (12).

Iodine deficiency may cause serious issues in children and pregnant women as well. Low levels of iodine can cause brain damage and severe problems with mental development in children (8).

Whatís more, it may also be associated with a higher risk of miscarriages and stillbirth (13).

Iodized Salt Can Prevent Iodine Deficiency

In 1917, physician David Marine began conducting experiments demonstrating that taking iodine supplements was effective at reducing the incidence of goiters.

Soon after in 1920, many countries around the globe began fortifying†table salt†with iodine in an effort to prevent iodine deficiency.

The introduction of iodized salt was incredibly effective at eliminating the deficiency in many parts of the world. Prior to the 1920s, up to 70% of children in certain areas of the United States had goiters.

In contrast, today 90% of the US population has access to iodized salt, and the population is considered overall iodine sufficient (14).

Just a half teaspoon (3 grams) of iodized salt per day is enough to meet your daily iodine requirement (15).

This makes using iodized salt one of the easiest ways to prevent iodine deficiency without having to make other major modifications to your diet.

Iodized Salt Is Safe to Consume

Studies show that iodine intake above the daily recommended value is generally well tolerated.

In fact, the upper limit of iodine is 1,100 micrograms, which is the equivalent of nearly 4 teaspoons (23 grams) of iodized salt (15).

However, a high intake of iodine may increase the risk of thyroid dysfunction in certain groups of people, including fetuses, newborn babies, the elderly and those with preexisting thyroid disease.

Excess iodine intake can be a result of dietary sources, iodine-containing vitamins and medications and taking iodine supplements (16).

That said, multiple studies have reported that iodized salt is safe with minimal risk of adverse side effects for the general population, even at doses nearly seven times the daily recommended value (17,†18,†19).

prunes

Iodine Is Found in Other Foods

Although iodized salt is a convenient and easy way to up your intake of iodine, itís not the only source of it.

In fact, itís entirely possible to meet your iodine needs without consuming iodized salt.

Other good sources include seafood, dairy products, grains and eggs.

Here are a few examples of foods that are rich in iodine:

  • Seaweed:†1 sheet dried contains 11Ė1,989% of the RDI
  • Cod:†3 ounces (85 grams) contains 66% of the RDI
  • Yogurt:†1 cup (245 grams) contains 50% of the RDI
  • Milk:†1 cup (237 ml) contains 37% of the RDI
  • Shrimp:†3 ounces (85 grams) contains 23% of the RDI
  • Macaroni:†1 cup (200 grams) boiled contains 18% of the RDI
  • Egg:†1 large egg contains 16% of the RDI
  • Canned tuna:†3 ounces (85 grams) contains 11% of the RDI
  • Dried prunes:†5 prunes contain 9% of the RDI

Itís recommended that adults get at least 150 micrograms of iodine per day. For women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, that number jumps to 220 and 290 micrograms per day, respectively (15).

By consuming just a few servings of†iodine-rich foods†each day, you can easily get enough iodine through your diet, with or without the use of iodized salt.

Should You Use Iodized Salt?

If youíre consuming a balanced diet that includes other sources of iodine, such as seafood or dairy products, youíre probably getting enough iodine in your diet through food sources alone.

However, if you believe you are at a higher risk of iodine deficiency, you may want to consider using iodized salt.

Additionally, if youíre not getting at least a few servings of iodine-rich foods each day, iodized salt can be a simple solution to make sure youíre meeting your daily needs.

Consider using it in combination with a nutritious, varied diet to ensure youíre meeting your needs for iodine and other important nutrients.

This article by†Rachael Link, MS, RD originally appeared at Authority Nutrition. Republished here†with permission.

Related at Care2

Images via Thinkstock.

83 comments

Sarah Hill
Sarah Hill10 days ago

Thanks

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Chad A
Chad Anderson17 days ago

Thank you.

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Jack Y
Jack Y19 days ago

thanks

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Jack Y
Jack Y19 days ago

thanks

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John J
John J19 days ago

thanks for sharing

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John J
John J19 days ago

thanks for sharing

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Veronica Danie
Veronica Danieabout a month ago

Thank you so very much.

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Veronica Danie
Veronica Danieabout a month ago

Thank you so very much.

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Bill E
Bill Eagleabout a month ago

Real Salt does contain naturally-occurring iodine, but not enough to satisfy the recommended daily allowance of 150 micrograms. Real Salt doesn't provide the recommended daily allowance of protein, either. Or fat. Because nature intended salt to provide our bodies with sodium chloride and trace minerals!

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Paulo R
Paulo Rabout a month ago

ty

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