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Exposing Marijuana Myths - A Review of the Scientific Evidence


Science & Tech  (tags: marjuania myths, exposing, medicine )

Carol
- 4446 days ago - marijuanalibrary.org
Since the 1920s, supporters of marijuana prohibition have exaggerated the drug's dangers.



   

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Comments

Kathleen R (983)
Monday February 12, 2007, 1:11 am
Thank you for this most extensive and accurate scientific report on a topic for which our society needs much more true enlightenment!!!
 

Kathleen R (983)
Monday February 12, 2007, 1:12 am
Thank you for this most extensive and accurate scientific report on a topic for which our society needs much more true enlightenment!!!
 

Linda D (41)
Wednesday February 14, 2007, 8:59 am
I found the article very weak in science relying upon a group of users in Greece. The doctor was not mentioned. I believe his name was Dr. ProPot. I am posting actual research on marijuana, because while I believe that people should be able to do as they wish and law enforcement should not be involved, people should be fully informed of the side effects. All drugs have side effects, especially mind altering drugs. http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/marijuana.html

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NIDA InfoFacts: Marijuana
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Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States. A dry, shredded green/brown mix of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, it usually is smoked as a cigarette (joint, nail), or in a pipe (bong). It also is smoked in blunts, which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana, often in combination with another drug. It might also be mixed in food or brewed as a tea. As a more concentrated, resinous form it is called hashish and, as a sticky black liquid, hash oil. Marijuana smoke has a pungent and distinctive, usually sweet-and-sour odor. There are countless street terms for marijuana including pot, herb, weed, grass, widow, ganja, and hash, as well as terms derived from trademarked varieties of cannabis, such as Bubble Gum, Northern Lights, Fruity Juice, Afghani #1, and a number of Skunk varieties.

The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The membranes of certain nerve cells in the brain contain protein receptors that bind to THC. Once securely in place, THC kicks off a series of cellular reactions that ultimately lead to the high that users experience when they smoke marijuana.
Extent of Use

In 2004, 14.6 million Americans age 12 and older used marijuana at least once in the month prior to being surveyed. About 6,000 people a day in 2004 used marijuana for the first time—2.1 million Americans. Of these, 63.8 percent were under age 181. In the last half of 2003, marijuana was the third most commonly abused drug mentioned in drug-related hospital emergency department (ED) visits in the continental United States, at 12.6 percent, following cocaine (20 percent) and alcohol (48.7 percent)2.

Prevalence of lifetime,* annual, and use within the last 30 days for marijuana remained stable among 10th- and 12th-graders surveyed between 2003 and 2004. However, 8th-graders reported a significant decline in 30-day use and a significant increase in perceived harmfulness of smoking marijuana once or twice and regularly3. Trends in disapproval of using marijuana once or twice and occasionally rose among 8th-graders as well, and 10th-graders reported an increase in disapproval of occasional and regular use for the same period3.

Percentage of 8th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana:
Monitoring the Future Study, 2005
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Lifetime 16.7% 19.9% 23.1% 22.6% 22.2% 22.0%
Annual 13.0 15.8 18.3 17.7 16.9 16.5
30-day 7.8 9.1 11.3 10.2 9.7 9.7
Daily 0.7 0.8 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.4

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Lifetime 20.3% 20.4% 19.2% 17.5% 16.3% 16.5%
Annual 15.6 15.4 14.6 12.8 11.8 12.2
30-day 9.1 9.2 8.3 7.5 6.4 6.6
Daily 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.0


Percentage of 10th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana:
Monitoring the Future Study, 2005
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Lifetime 30.4% 34.1% 39.8% 42.3% 39.6% 40.9%
Annual 25.2 28.7 33.6 34.8 31.1 32.1
30-day 15.8 17.2 20.4 20.5 18.7 19.4
Daily 2.2 2.8 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.8

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Lifetime 40.3% 40.1% 38.7% 36.4% 35.1% 34.1%
Annual 32.2 32.7 30.3 28.2 27.5 26.6
30-day 19.7 19.8 17.8 17.0 15.9 15.2
Daily 3.8 4.5 3.9 3.6 3.2 3.1


Percentage of 12th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana
Monitoring the Future Study, 2005
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Lifetime 38.2% 41.7% 44.9% 49.6% 49.1% 49.7%
Annual 30.7 34.7 35.8 38.5 37.5 37.8
30-day 19.0 21.2 21.9 23.7 22.8 23.1
Daily 3.6 4.6 4.9 5.8 5.6 6.0

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Lifetime 48.8% 49.0% 47.8% 46.1% 45.7% 44.8%
Annual 36.5 37.0 36.2 34.9 34.3 33.6
30-day 21.6 22.4 21.5 21.2 19.9 19.8
Daily 6.0 5.8 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.0

* "Lifetime" refers to use at least once during a respondent’s lifetime. "Annual" refers to use at least once during the year preceding an individual's response to the survey. "30-day" refers to use at least once during the 30 days preceding an individual’s response to the survey.

Effects on the Brain

Scientists have learned a great deal about how THC acts in the brain to produce its many effects. When someone smokes marijuana, THC rapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream, which carries the chemical to organs throughout the body, including the brain.

In the brain, THC connects to specific sites called cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells and influences the activity of those cells. Some brain areas have many cannabinoid receptors; others have few or none. Many cannabinoid receptors are found in the parts of the brain that influence pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement4.

The short-term effects of marijuana can include problems with memory and learning; distorted perception; difficulty in thinking and problem solving; loss of coordination; and increased heart rate. Research findings for long-term marijuana abuse indicate some changes in the brain similar to those seen after long-term abuse of other major drugs. For example, cannabinoid (THC or synthetic forms of THC) withdrawal in chronically exposed animals leads to an increase in the activation of the stress-response system5 and changes in the activity of nerve cells containing dopamine6. Dopamine neurons are involved in the regulation of motivation and reward, and are directly or indirectly affected by all drugs of abuse.
Effects on the Heart

One study has indicated that an abuser's risk of heart attack more than quadruples in the first hour after smoking marijuana7. The researchers suggest that such an effect might occur from marijuana's effects on blood pressure and heart rate and reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
Effects on the Lungs

A study of 450 individuals found that people who smoke marijuana frequently but do not smoke tobacco have more health problems and miss more days of work than nonsmokers8. Many of the extra sick days among the marijuana smokers in the study were for respiratory illnesses.

Even infrequent abuse can cause burning and stinging of the mouth and throat, often accompanied by a heavy cough. Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers do, such as daily cough and phlegm production, more frequent acute chest illness, a heightened risk of lung infections, and a greater tendency to obstructed airways9. Smoking marijuana possibly increases the likelihood of developing cancer of the head or neck. A study comparing 173 cancer patients and 176 healthy individuals produced evidence that marijuana smoking doubled or tripled the risk of these cancers10.

Marijuana abuse also has the potential to promote cancer of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory tract because it contains irritants and carcinogens9,11. In fact, marijuana smoke contains 50 to 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke12. It also induces high levels of an enzyme that converts certain hydrocarbons into their carcinogenic form—levels that may accelerate the changes that ultimately produce malignant cells13. Marijuana users usually inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers do, which increases the lungs' exposure to carcinogenic smoke. These facts suggest that, puff for puff, smoking marijuana may be more harmful to the lungs than smoking tobacco.
Other Health Effects

Some of marijuana's adverse health effects may occur because THC impairs the immune system's ability to fight disease. In laboratory experiments that exposed animal and human cells to THC or other marijuana ingredients, the normal disease-preventing reactions of many of the key types of immune cells were inhibited14. In other studies, mice exposed to THC or related substances were more likely than unexposed mice to develop bacterial infections and tumors15,16.
Effects of Heavy Marijuana Use on Learning and Social Behavior

Research clearly demonstrates that marijuana has the potential to cause problems in daily life or make a person's existing problems worse. Depression17, anxiety17, and personality disturbances18 have been associated with chronic marijuana use. Because marijuana compromises the ability to learn and remember information, the more a person uses marijuana the more he or she is likely to fall behind in accumulating intellectual, job, or social skills. Moreover, research has shown that marijuana’s adverse impact on memory and learning can last for days or weeks after the acute effects of the drug wear off19,20,25.

Students who smoke marijuana get lower grades and are less likely to graduate from high school, compared with their nonsmoking peers21,22,23,24. A study of 129 college students found that, among those who smoked the drug at least 27 of the 30 days prior to being surveyed, critical skills related to attention, memory, and learning were significantly impaired, even after the students had not taken the drug for at least 24 hours20. These "heavy" marijuana abusers had more trouble sustaining and shifting their attention and in registering, organizing, and using information than did the study participants who had abused marijuana no more than 3 of the previous 30 days. As a result, someone who smokes marijuana every day may be functioning at a reduced intellectual level all of the time.

More recently, the same researchers showed that the ability of a group of long-term heavy marijuana abusers to recall words from a list remained impaired for a week after quitting, but returned to normal within 4 weeks25. Thus, some cognitive abilities may be restored in individuals who quit smoking marijuana, even after long-term heavy use.

Workers who smoke marijuana are more likely than their coworkers to have problems on the job. Several studies associate workers' marijuana smoking with increased absences, tardiness, accidents, workers' compensation claims, and job turnover. A study among postal workers found that employees who tested positive for marijuana on a pre-employment urine drug test had 55 percent more industrial accidents, 85 percent more injuries, and a 75-percent increase in absenteeism compared with those who tested negative for marijuana use26. In another study, heavy marijuana abusers reported that the drug impaired several important measures of life achievement including cognitive abilities, career status, social life, and physical and mental health27.
Effects of Exposure During Pregnancy

Research has shown that some babies born to women who abused marijuana during their pregnancies display altered responses to visual stimuli28, increased tremulousness, and a high-pitched cry, which may indicate neurological problems in development29. During the preschool years, marijuana-exposed children have been observed to perform tasks involving sustained attention and memory more poorly than nonexposed children do30,31. In the school years, these children are more likely to exhibit deficits in problem-solving skills, memory, and the ability to remain attentive30.
Addictive Potential

Long-term marijuana abuse can lead to addiction for some people; that is, they abuse the drug compulsively even though it interferes with family, school, work, and recreational activities. Drug craving and withdrawal symptoms can make it hard for long-term marijuana smokers to stop abusing the drug. People trying to quit report irritability, sleeplessness, and anxiety32. They also display increased aggression on psychological tests, peaking approximately one week after the last use of the drug33.
Genetic Vulnerability

Scientists have found that whether an individual has positive or negative sensations after smoking marijuana can be influenced by heredity. A 1997 study demonstrated that identical male twins were more likely than nonidentical male twins to report similar responses to marijuana abuse, indicating a genetic basis for their response to the drug34. (Identical twins share all of their genes.)

It also was discovered that the twins' shared or family environment before age 18 had no detectable influence on their response to marijuana. Certain environmental factors, however, such as the availability of marijuana, expectations about how the drug would affect them, the influence of friends and social contacts, and other factors that differentiate experiences of identical twins were found to have an important effect.34
Treating Marijuana Problems
The latest treatment data indicate that, in 2002, marijuana was the primary drug of abuse in about 15 percent (289,532) of all admissions to treatment facilities in the United States. Marijuana admissions were primarily male (75 percent), White (55 percent), and young (40 percent were in the 15-–19 age range). Those in treatment for primary marijuana abuse had begun use at an early age; 56 percent had abused it by age 14 and 92 percent had abused it by 1835.

One study of adult marijuana abusers found comparable benefits from a 14-session cognitive-behavioral group treatment and a 2-session individual treatment that included motivational interviewing and advice on ways to reduce marijuana use. Participants were mostly men in their early thirties who had smoked marijuana daily for more than 10 years. By increasing patients' awareness of what triggers their marijuana abuse, both treatments sought to help patients devise avoidance strategies. Abuse, dependence symptoms, and psychosocial problems decreased for at least 1 year following both treatments; about 30 percent of the patients were abstinent during the last 3-month followup period36.

Another study suggests that giving patients vouchers that they can redeem for goods—such as movie passes, sporting equipment, or vocational training—may further improve outcomes37.

Although no medications are currently available for treating marijuana abuse, recent discoveries about the workings of the THC receptors have raised the possibility of eventually developing a medication that will block the intoxicating effects of THC. Such a medication might be used to prevent relapse to marijuana abuse by lessening or eliminating its appeal.


1 Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H–27, DHHS Publication No. SMA 05–4061). Rockville, MD, 2004. NSDUH is an annual survey conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Copies of the latest survey are available from the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information at 800-729-6686.

2 These data are from the annual Drug Abuse Warning Network, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DHHS. The survey provides information about emergency department visits that are induced by or related to the use of an illicit drug or the nonmedical use of a legal drug. The latest data are available at 800-729-6686 or online at www.samhsa.gov.

3 These data are from the 2005 Monitoring the Future Survey, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, and conducted annually by the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. The survey has tracked 12th-graders’ illicit drug use and related attitudes since 1975; in 1991, 8th- and 10th-graders were added to the study. The latest data are online at www.drugabuse.gov.

4 Herkenham M, Lynn A, Little MD, Johnson MR, et al. Cannabinoid receptor localization in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA 87(5):1932–1936, 1990.

5 Rodriguez de Fonseca F, et al. Activation of cortocotropin-releasing factor in the limbic system during cannabinoid withdrawal. Science 276(5321):2050–2054, 1997.

6 Diana M, Melis M, Muntoni AL, et al. Mesolimbic dopaminergic decline after cannabinoid withdrawal. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95(17):10269–10273, 1998.

7 Mittleman MA, Lewis RA, Maclure M, et al. Triggering myocardial infarction by marijuana. Circulation 103(23):2805–2809, 2001.

8 Polen MR, Sidney S, Tekawa IS, et al. Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. West J Med 158(6):596–601, 1993.

9 Tashkin DP. Pulmonary complications of smoked substance abuse. West J Med 152(5):525–530, 1990.

10 Zhang ZF, Morgenstern H, Spitz MR, et al. Marijuana use and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 8(12):1071–1078, 1999.

11 Sridhar KS, Raub WA, Weatherby, NL Jr., et al. Possible role of marijuana smoking as a carcinogen in the development of lung cancer at a young age. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 26(3):285–288, 1994.

12 Hoffman D, Brunnemann KD, Gori GB, et al. On the carcinogenicity of marijuana smoke. In: VC Runeckles, ed, Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. New York. Plenum, 1975.

13 Cohen S. Adverse effects of marijuana: Selected issues. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 362:119–124, 1981.

14 Adams IB, Martin BR: Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction 91(11):1585–1614, 1996.

15 Friedman H, Newton C, Klein TW. Microbial infections, immunomodulation, and drugs of abuse. Clin Microbiol Rev 16(2):209–219, 2003.

16 Zhu LX, Sharma M, Stolina S, et al. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits antitumor immunity by a CB2 receptor-mediated, cytokine-dependent pathway. J Immunology 165(1):373–380, 2000.

17 Brook JS, Rosen Z, Brook DW. The effect of early marijuana use on later anxiety and depressive symptoms. NYS Psychologist 35–39, January 2001.

18 Brook JS, Cohen P, Brook DW. Longitudinal study of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and substance use. J Acad Child and Adolescent Psych 37(3):322–330, 1998.

19 Pope HG, Yurgelun-Todd D. The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students. JAMA 275(7):521–527, 1996.

20 Block RI, Ghoneim MM. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1–2):219–228, 1993.

21 Lynskey M, Hall W. The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: A review. Addiction 95(11):1621–1630, 2000.

22 Kandel DB, Davies M. High school students who use crack and other drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53(1):71–80, 1996.

23 Rob M, Reynolds I, Finlayson PF. Adolescent marijuana use: Risk factors and implications. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 24(1):45–56, 1990.

24 Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J Public Health 89(10):1549–1554, 1999.

25 Pope HG, Gruber AJ, Hudson JI, et al. Neuropsychological performance in long-term cannabis users. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58(10):909–915, 2001.

26 Zwerling C, Ryan J, Orav EJ. The efficacy of pre-employment drug screening for marijuana and cocaine in predicting employment outcome. JAMA 264(20):2639–2643, 1990.

27 Gruber AJ, Pope HG, Hudson JI, et al. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33(8):1415–1422, 2003.

28 Fried PA, Makin JE. Neonatal behavioural correlates of prenatal exposure to marihuana, cigarettes and alcohol in a low risk population. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 9(1):1–7, 1987.

29 Lester BM, Dreher M. Effects of marijuana use during pregnancy on newborn crying. Child Development 60(23/24):764–771, 1989.

30 Fried PA. The Ottawa prenatal prospective study (OPPS): Methodological issues and findings. It’s easy to throw the baby out with the bath water. Life Sciences 56(23–24):2159–2168, 1995.

31 Fried PA, Smith AM. A literature review of the consequences of prenatal marihuana exposure: An emerging theme of a deficiency in aspects of executive function. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 23(1):1–11, 2001.

32 Kouri EM, Pope HG, Lukas SE. Changes in aggressive behavior during withdrawal from long-term marijuana use. Psychopharmacology 143(3):302–308, 1999.

33 Haney M, Ward AS, Comer SD, et al. Abstinence symptoms following smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology 141(4):395–404, 1999.

34 Lyons MJ, Toomey R, Meyer JM, et al. How do genes influence marijuana use? The role of subjective effects. Addiction 92(4):409–417, 1997.

35 These data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) 2003: Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions by Primary Substance of Abuse, According to Sex, Age Group, Race, and Ethnicity, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DHHS. The latest data are available at 800-729-6686 or online at www.samhsa.gov.

36 Stephens RS, Roffman RA, Curtin L. Comparison of extended versus brief treatments for marijuana use. J Consult Clin Psychol 68(5):898–908, 2000.

37 Budney AJ, Higgins ST, Radonovich KJ, et al. Adding voucher-based incentives to coping skills and motivational enhancement improves outcomes during treatment for marijuana dependence. J Consult Clin Psychol 68(6):1051–1061, 2000.


Revised 4/06 This page has been accessed 5230420 times since 11/5/99.

[InfoFacts Index]



Recommended Reading

* NIDA Research Report: Marijuana Abuse
* Marijuana: Facts for Teens
* Marijuana: Facts Parents Should Know
* NIDA Notes: Articles on Marijuana Research

Other NIDA Web Sites

* Marijuana-info.org
* NIDA for Teens: Marijuana


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http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/marijuana.html
 

Emily Williams (0)
Wednesday February 14, 2007, 12:55 pm
Well I thought the article's facts were weak. Last night I had a dream that I rolled up a cigar of mary j. and got high but I quit over 3 months ago. So, yea i wasn't addicted but that dream says something abut my dependence.
 

Orlin Larsen (80)
Wednesday February 14, 2007, 1:34 pm
Linda you appear to be a very nice person peace loving and harmless to the world in any asspect. I know you mean well. This articals content is to reveal the myths of cannibas and all the untruths that seem to weight down all of its valuable purposes. The biggest part of these myths and untruths were deliberitly started by the US Government its self with its anti drug campaigns and slogans through out time. What makes you think that a Nation of free thinking individuals who have been supressed and misguided on this subject,CANNIBAS for so many years is going to stand in line for the newest addition of the NIDA Research Report. Linda while you are shopping around for information on the topic of Cannibas pro or con, stay on track with up to date medical and scientific forums. In these areas of research you might start to view the thousands of benificial uses, from saving lives to saving trees. You wont find this valuable info from a Politacal standpoint of interference.
 

Orlin Larsen (80)
Wednesday February 14, 2007, 1:51 pm
I personally dont think the facts were weak at all. A few years behind todays national headlines, but none the less truthful and educating for some who might have missed something down the road. Emily It is a good idea that you did quit. When you start to dream of cigar sized joints it could be a wake up call of misuse. That is also the case of some people who drink alcohol, and smoke cigarettes. Actually the more articales on this subject the better. It needs a Grand airing out. Thank You Carol Ann for your interesting article.
 

Linda D (41)
Wednesday February 14, 2007, 2:46 pm
Orlin, what makes you think the U. S. Government is promoting myths about marijuana? Why would they single it out and make it an illegal drug? I don't think anyone should go to jail for possessing it. I am guessing they think it is so harmful that they need to protect people from using it. Much research is done at universities independently. The results are not predetermined. If marijuana was shown to have no harmful effects, there would be no restrictions on its use except in limited medical situations. I fail to see how marijuana is saving lives and saving trees. Do you have research you can cite? If you do smoke marijuana or ingest it, no one is telling you to stop, only to be aware of the cost to your health. I will say that the purple flower is beautiful and I did not know marijuana had flowers such as this. I would consider growing it since I am a gardener, but would have a difficult time explaining to authorities that it was for its botanical qualities.
 

Kathleen R (983)
Wednesday February 14, 2007, 6:44 pm
Hi Linda, I appreciate all the information you shared with the intention of giving us "more" credible information!!! However, the fact is the government HAS deliberately lied to the public about marijuana and it really has nothing to do with drugs. I know this from all my history studies. A LONG time ago, Duponts were into cotton, yet some others were beginning to promote the hemp industry, because hemp is so much more sturdy and sustainable. But, Duponts weren't having that, so they "backed" the governemnt in making marijuana appear to be a dangerous drugs, so that they could continue to rule the industry with cotton. And that is the true facts -- look it up in credible American history texts. I personally have a LOT of experience watching users' lives, teaching their children, and, more. I felt this article of myths was well done and provided leads for further investigation (IF you cared to seek it out). Here is a very good site to begin your search for more truths: http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/180/pot.html
PEACE~
 

Orlin Larsen (80)
Wednesday February 14, 2007, 8:01 pm
Linda I am not here to defend anything I am commenting on a articale I agree with,and with other comments whether their agreeable with mine or not.. Where have you been all your years, during this seventy years and still growing prohibition of the cannibas plant. Do you think all people do is smoke or injest it. Youve never heard of the high quality paper, or cloth material it produces far superior to those from trees or cotton, to name two. Or that recearchers are just starting to recognize the capacity to moderate autoimmune disorders, such as MS, and rheumatoid arthritis. Or treatment for neorological disorders, Alzeimers, and Lou Gerrigs disease. for two. What leads to a lot of success is the increased attention from Medicinal Cannabis Patients and their Physicians. And clinical research into the theraputical values of cannabinoids. These studies have been ongoing for a number of months. There is jnew discoverys every day. You dont have to subscribe to any Scientific Journals for information. Its no big secret. We read it every day. Most of the discoverys come from abroad, where professionals have a more relaxed atmosphere without government interference. I hope you dont believe that just because our Government says so its right, or wrong it is, according to their opinion. You havent read about Government hampering Scientific studies on Global Warming, for instance. I agree the Female Flower is very Beautiful. But their not all purple. Just like the Rose or many other flowers has many variances of color. Thats the whole concept, why do we have to explain to authorities the reason we grow it, if not for the beauty only. The Female flower will definately contain seed you know unless the male plant with its pollinators is absent. Without the seed the flowers are much more radiant.
 

Carol W (119)
Thursday February 15, 2007, 7:26 am

.....Trust the Govt. to protect our health ???

The future of food is no longer available on google, but I found it on You
tube.....Watch it quick it will probably disappear from there before long
too...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YvLBMXC_D0Q

 

Kimberley M (2)
Thursday February 15, 2007, 8:44 am
Carol,

You give the impression that any reference to future of food has been wiped off of google. I put in a search and found the website for future of food at the top of the list - plus many additional websites with trailers and extensive information about the film. Don't start rumors about google that are not true - for those of us that are in the fight for food safety it does not bode well for anyone to point at comments such as yours to discredit anything we say.
 

Carol W (119)
Thursday February 15, 2007, 5:03 pm

Wow, Kimberely where did you come from?

Ya can never tell with google when or if their crawlers witll pick up the story again.

.....Monsanto was my only point to the video mentioned.
Whoever owns the seed is the final word.
 

Carol W (119)
Thursday February 15, 2007, 6:13 pm

BETWEEN 1840 and 1900, European and American medical journals published more than 100 articles on the therapeutic use of the drug known then as Cannabis indica (or Indian hemp) and now as marihuana. It was recommended as an appetite stimulant, muscle relaxant, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant. As late as 1913 Sir William Osler recommended it as the most satisfactory remedy for migraine.

Today the 5000-year medical history of cannabis has been almost forgotten.
And yet physicians and patients in increasing numbers continue to relearn through personal experience the lessons of the 19th century. Many people know that marihuana is now being used illegally for the nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy. Some know that it lowers intraocular pressure in glaucoma. Patients have found it useful as an anticonvulsant, as a muscle relaxant in spastic disorders, and as an appetite stimulant in the wasting syndrome of human immunodeficiency virus infection. It is also being used to relieve phantom limb pain, menstrual cramps, and other types of chronic pain, including (as Osler might have predicted) migraine. 2 Polls and voter referenda have repeatedly indicated that the vast majority of Americans think marihuana should be medically available.

One of marihuana's greatest advantages as a medicine is its remarkable safety. It has little effect on major physiological functions. There is no known case of a lethal overdose

The American Medical Association was one of the few organizations that raised a voice in opposition to the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, yet today most physicians seem to take little active interest in the subject, and their silence is often cited by those who are determined that marihuana shall remain a forbidden medicine. Meanwhile, many physicians pretend to ignore the fact that their patients with cancer, AIDS, or multiple sclerosis are smoking marihuana for relief; some quietly encourage them. In a 1990 survey, 44% of oncologists said they had suggested that a patient smoke marihuana for relief of the nausea induced by chemotherapy. 4 If marihuana were actually unsafe for use even under medical supervision, as its Schedule I status explicitly affirms, this recommendation would be unthinkable.

We are not asking readers for immediate agreement with our affirmation that marihuana is medically useful, but we hope they will do more to encourage open and legal exploration of its potential. The ostensible indifference of physicians should no longer be used as a justification for keeping this medicine in the shadows.
Lester Grinspoon, MD
 

Sean C (7)
Thursday February 15, 2007, 9:47 pm
Linda-just so you know, that is not a picture of a marijuana plant! Don't know what is but it's not that. Just one more reason to not believe everything you see or read. You obviously don't know two cents about it, so how would you know if anything you have read in this huge misinformation campaign is correct at all. Perhaps you should study a broader spectrum of info on the subject before you regurgitate such one-sided studies that you know nothing about. oh, as far as saving lives, sorry but there are numerous cases occurring as we speak, of people with auto-immune disorders, wasting diseases and hiv/aids who have regained a normal life because of marijuana and it's many viable medicinal qualities. get the facts
 

Kathleen R (983)
Thursday February 15, 2007, 11:53 pm
Orlin, THANKS for your additional information concerning just what a great sustainable things marijuana is!!!
Peace~
 

Malachi S (6)
Friday February 16, 2007, 7:30 pm
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Malachi S (6)
Friday February 16, 2007, 9:06 pm
Seems to be a bug, care2 should work on that.
 

Rochelle T (42)
Friday February 16, 2007, 9:25 pm
I would like to say that first of all, everyone has a right to thier opinion. I hate polotics.. so I won't go there. But.. I would like to say that I personally use marijuana for medical reasons. I have smoked it for 30 years. It helps my appetite when my anxiety or panic disorder is high, and it helps me to calm down as well. It also helps me to sleep at night, since I have fibromyalgia. I'm not here to judge.. to each thier own. My opinion on the arcticle is that it was very informative, and just confirmed allot of the things I have thought about marijuana. That it is a good treatment for SOME people. Not all people can handle all medications, and marijuana is in that category. Works for me!!!
Peace and Love to you all~
 

Mila Bergschneider (0)
Saturday February 17, 2007, 5:17 am
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Mila Bergschneider (0)
Saturday February 17, 2007, 5:18 am
what jsut happened ??
 

Kathleen R (983)
Saturday February 17, 2007, 5:01 pm
Hi Rochelle! I am with you, as I have had fibromyalgia for 40 years, and, have been put through ALL types of medications and therapies -- none of which had any lasting, even temporary, success. Each person's body has its own unique chemical make up and, therefore, ANY medication can affect someone else differently. This network goes all out over animal abuse cases, which is commendable, yet I do pray that folks would be less blindly judgemental about things they only think they know about which HELP human beings!!!!!
Peace~
 

Mara G (411)
Saturday February 17, 2007, 11:55 pm
Well, I see Linda has vanished and rightfully so. You do not argue such a well researched and studied plant as Marijuana with such flimsy government evidence as the NIDA who just couldn't be bias.....right? This conspiracy has been going sense the 30s and grown into something totally crazy. Bureaucracy or hypocrisy would never admit to such a huge blunder as putting millions of innocent people in prison and millions of families into poverty for life. I thank all of the above comments for discussing something that so desperately needs discussion and one should not inter this topic unless first educated to the real "facts". Sense when have we ever or could we trust the government for "that"? This page is not big enough to list all of the benefits of medical Marijuana. It should be "allowed" to be properly studied but the government wont let that happen because then the "real" facts will be revealed.
 

Linda D (41)
Sunday February 18, 2007, 10:26 am
Ron, do you smoke marijuana? Maybe you were wishing I had disappeared, but when the smoke cleared, my anti-marijuana message remained repeating itself in your brain, so maybe you'll change and end your relationship with Maryjane. Government studies are reliable in a court of law. Anecdotal accounts by users tend to be biased in favor of marijuana use and are not reliable legally or scientifically. Researchers who do studies finding marijuana to be harmless should be tested for drug use to make sure they are unbiased in their findings. Presently, it is considered a controlled substance for certain medical conditions temporarily while further studies are pending. The question always is does any benefit from marijuana for a medical problem outweigh its adverse effects? Kathleen, I saw an article posted about non psychoactive hemp making a comeback. I guess there are different kinds of hemp. Cotton has never been used as a drug to my knowledge. Sorry about the fibromyalgia. At one time I had so much pain I was diagnosed with it, but the symptoms improved over time. I would be afraid to take anything that would suppress my immune system, although I would take a low dose anti-inflammatory. Rochelle, I am glad that it helps you for a medical problem. Olin, you know a lot about marijuana, and make a good argument for its use for medical conditions. Carol Ann, going back 5000 years or even to the 1900's does not make a basis for its use. Medicine knows a lot more about its effects with improved technology. I could not find where it had killed any one directly, but had contributed to death from secondary causes. It is a drug that affects the mind and body. Alcohol and cigarettes are drugs that affect the mind and body, too, but their lobby is very powerful. What may happen is that people will get a prescription and have it filled at their local pharmacy at a high price to be free of the reach of the law. I did find a link that is impartial and gives the pros and cons of marijuana with sources cited. http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/top10.htm
 

Kathleen R (983)
Sunday February 18, 2007, 10:21 pm
Linda, I think I speak for the rest of us when I ask, Have you ever used it, been very close with people who have, or read scientific research, as opposed to governmental propaganda? Have you ever drank alcohol, or taken any prescription medications? First, I am in no way being "smart" with you as I share more comments. It is sweet of you to acknowledge each of us! Nearly everyone does have a touch of fibromyalgia, but it is VERY different for chronic sufferers!! Yes, indeed, and most folks have always known there is more than one "hemp" type. Why would anyone think of cotton as a drug? Are you actually reading carefully or simply scanning through articles and comment posts? You do seem to insist on your view being the correct one and in spite of scientific research that DOES prove otherwise!! Have you ever had such horrid pain and or nausea that anti-inflamatories were not enough for? If not, lucky you, really!! I am just trying to understand why you are so convinced with your opinion even though true research does NOT back up the flimsy claims so often made by anti-marijuana folks and greedy politcians. Thank you!
PEACE~
 

Carol W (119)
Sunday February 18, 2007, 11:32 pm
OlK. Confessions among open minds. I have Rheumatoid Artihritist, Hep C, and 2 ruptured disk.
For t5 years I stopped all marijanan, and could tolerate most days of pain. Up until now I have met some fab docors wo work with. They too say I may need marijuana at some point to get me through. Doctors are getteg very wise, when they see they real physical conditions the humanintly seems to come badk our from theml. amazing! (just a little blood clogomerate

I 've also had more doctors tune in and listen to explanantions of other alternative cares, and then go along with it, seeing the benefits and pleasantly surprised.
 

Linda D (41)
Monday February 19, 2007, 12:01 am
Well, I don't consider scientific studies listed by the government as flimsy propaganda. The law of the land is based on these studies. The researchers only recorded the results of their studies. There are some studies that conflict with one another in certain areas, but most support the negative findings about marijuana. You referred before to DuPont promoting cotton over hemp for business reasons and supporting the government in making marijuana appear to be a dangerous drug so they could continue to rule the industry with cotton. One of their arguments would be that cotton was safe and could not be used as a drug to alter a person's mind as hemp could. I don't insist anything. I just state my opinion as you do, and I have read through some studies and consider it a toxic and harmful drug that should only be used for certain medical conditions when nothing else has worked. Sorry if that upsets you. Yes, I have had such horrible pain that I was basically immobile and movement made me cry out in pain and I feared having to go into a nursing home and take narcotics to cope. I would never consider taking marijuana because of what I believe to be its potential for harm as well as many medications. I want to be mentally alert at all times. I don't think I would have posted, but I took exception to Ron's comment. My other reason for posting is I think there should be a balance instead of all comments promoting marijuana for the sake of the young people who might read this thread. No, I have never used it and have been allergic to cigarette smoke all my life and sensitive to chemicals. I would never associate with anyone who used marijuana. I'm through posting here and have said what I felt had to be stated.
 

Orlin Larsen (80)
Monday February 19, 2007, 1:22 am
I am truly glad that is final. Because it makes no sense arguing with those who still think the American Continents are in the east Indies, or the universe revolves the earth, the Earth its self was created in seven days and seven nights, how many witches were burned in Salem. All these toughts today seem horrendeous. And they truly are.. Every one in its time meant the death penalty. For all the goodness left in this earth dont ever let us go back there.
 

Donn M (56)
Monday February 19, 2007, 6:40 pm
Sounds like you've been smoking pot, Orlin.
 

Sean C (7)
Tuesday February 20, 2007, 4:28 pm
just one more thing... you can't get high on hemp. simple fact. That's just another part of the misinformation campaign. And to say that you would never associate with anyone who's smoked marijuana is quite pathetic. I guess you have to watch out. They could go crazy on you from "reefer madness". BOO!
 

Orlin Larsen (80)
Tuesday February 20, 2007, 8:56 pm
Wow Donni you have turned out to be such a cutie. Going from cannibas articaels one affter the other with your sweet little remarks. Are you a groupie? You surly deserve a little pat on the ass for being so cute. and bless you once again.
 

Dorian S (10)
Wednesday February 21, 2007, 10:24 am
I think that there are enough smokers that it is very likely that linda has or does associate with them. And probably even likes some of them. not everyone is going to share this aspect of their lives with others...Doctors smoke, cops smoke, junkies smoke etc. I'm surprised that marijuana gets the amount of attention it does considering that, if it is not being abused, people function quite normally even if they are users. Not unlike alcohol. in fact, it is probably better to perform your daily activities stoned instead of drunk....
 

Donn M (56)
Wednesday February 21, 2007, 8:27 pm
Thank you Orlin.
 

Kathleen R (983)
Wednesday February 21, 2007, 9:10 pm
Here is a THANK YOU and an AMEN for Dorian!
 

Orlin Larsen (80)
Thursday February 22, 2007, 1:53 am
Donni you are welcome, but I mean that from a term of an appoligy. I really mean that. I said what I did out of frustration and disregard to what ever remarks you had as being your own. And I am sorry. Sorry also for being so stupid by not paying closre attention to the spelling of your name which would have told me you are a woman and not a man who I have no problem trying to put in their place even through embaressment at times, which was the case. If I had known other I would have made my remarks a little more gentler. If that remark doesnt even make me seem more incidious. So before I sound more like a fool then I am. I am sorry.
 

Carol W (119)
Monday February 26, 2007, 7:19 pm

Linda thanks for the link. I have come to distrust pharmacological drugs a long time ago. (Talk about risk, side effects, and proven perm. damages.)
You make me think of the lyrics to a Stand Up Comedians infamous hit;

Why is marijuana not legal?
Why is marijuana not legal?
It’s a natural plant that grows in the dirt.

You know what’s not natural?
80 year old dudes with hard on’s
That’s not natural … But we got pills for that.

Were dedicating all of our medical resources
To keeping the old guys erect
But were putting people in jail for smoking something that grows in the dirt

You know we have more prescription drugs now
Every commercial on T.V. is a prescription drug ad
I can’t watch T.V. for four (4) minutes without thinking I have 5 serious diseases

Like … Do you ever wake up tired in the mornings?
..Oh my God, I have this, write this down I have this.
Half the time you don’t even know what it is.
There’s people running through the fields, flying kites, or swimming in the oceans,
Like that is the greatest disease ever.
How do you get that?
That disease comes with a hot chick and a puppy.
truncated..
 

Past Member (0)
Thursday September 11, 2014, 9:58 am
Everyone should have access to pot especially those with failing health.
 
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