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Blog: Welsh History  
 
The written history of  Wales begins with the arrival  of the Romans,
who
launched their first campaign against the Deceangli in what  is now
North-East
Wales in 48. Two of the  larger tribes, the Silures and the Ordovices,
resisted
Roman rule for some  years, with the Ordovices only being finally
subdued in
79. The area of  Wales we know today became  part of the Roman province
of
Britannia, and remained under Roman rule  until the legions were
withdrawn in
about 400. During the next few centuries  kingdoms such as Gwynedd and
Powys were
formed and the area we now call  Wales became  Christian.
During the early  mediaeval period Wales was divided into a number of 
kingdoms, but the ruler of Gwynedd was usually acknowledged as King of
the  Britons.
Some such rulers were able to combine several kingdoms to extend their
  rule
to much of Wales and  Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in the mid 11th century
controlled
all of  Wales and some areas in  England for a period. These centuries
  were
marked by struggles against English kingdoms such as Mercia, then
against the
united English kingdom  and finally against the Normans, who arrived on
  the
borders of Wales around 1067. Warfare continued  for over two centuries
until
the death of Llywelyn the Last in 1282 led to the  annexation of Wales
to the 
kingdom of  England. Owain Glyndŵr led  a rebellion in the early 15th
century
and kept control of Wales for a few  years before the English crown
reimposed
its authority. In the 16th century  legislation was passed aimed at
fully
incorporating Wales into England.
The eighteenth century  saw the beginnings of two changes which would
greatly
affect Wales, the  Industrial Revolution and the Methodist revival.
During
the 19th century  south-east Wales in particular experienced rapid 
industrialization and a dramatic rise in population. These areas were
  Welsh-speaking
initially but became increasingly anglicized in speech later in  the
century. The
19th century also saw Wales become predominantly  Nonconformist in
religion
Wales was divided into a number of separate kingdoms,  the largest of
these
being Gwynedd in northwest Wales and Powys in east Wales. Gwynedd  was
the most
powerful of these kingdoms in the 6th and 7th centuries, under  rulers
such
as Maelgwn Gwynedd (died 547) and Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634/5)  who
in
alliance with Penda of Mercia was able to lead his armies as far as
  Northumbria
and control it for a  period. Following Cadwallon's death in battle the

following year, his successor  Cadafael ap Cynfeddw also allied himself
with Penda
against Northumbria but  thereafter Gwynedd, like the other Welsh
kingdoms, was
mainly engaged in  defensive warfare against the growing power of
  Mercia.

History of Wales  
Chronological Eras  
Prehistoric Wales  
Roman  Wales  
Early  Middle Ages  
Norman invasion  
Late  Middle Ages  
Early  Modern Era  
Modern Era  
Kingdoms  
Brycheiniog  
Ceredigion  
Deheubarth  
Dyfed  
Ergyng  
Gwent  
Gwynedd  
Morgannwg  
Powys  
Seisyllwg
784: THE KING OF  MERCIA BUILDS OFFA'S DYKE
This may have been the  single most important event in the survival of
the
Welsh nation. Whatever its  initial intention, the dyke became a
permanent
boundary between the Welsh and  the English people. Thus the notion of
Wales as a
separate geographical area from the  rest of Britain came to be
established, 
though many Welsh people continued to reside east of the 240
kilometre-long
bank  and ditch. Even today, at towns such as Owestry, there is a large
Welsh
presence  on the "English" side of the Dyke. English settlements have
taken place
on the  western side since the castle-building programs of Edward I,
beginning with  Flint in  1284.



800: NENNIUS AND THE  "HISTORIA BRITTONUM"
Born around 800,  Nennius was responsible for the work "Historia
Brittonum,"
which purports to  give the history of Britain from the time of Julius
  Caesar
to the end of the seventh century. Nennius is important for the study
of 
early Arthurian materials; he describes Arthur as a "leader of battles,
who 
defeated the Saxons twelve times, the final battle being Mount Badon."



844-877: THE REIGN  OF RHODRI MAWR (RHODRI THE GREAT)
In 844 Rhodri ap  Merfyn became king only of Gwynedd, but by the time
of his
death in 877, he had  united all of Wales under his rule. His reign
  certainly
did much to heighten the Welsh consciousness of being one people. In
  856,
Rhodri killed the Viking leader the "black pagan" Horme, restricting
Danish 
occupation of Wales to a few scattered ports and trading posts (Norse
names 
survive at Llandudno (the Great Orme), Swansea (Sweyn's Ey) and some
small 
islands in the Bristol Channel.



c. 890: WELSH RULERS  ACKNOWLEDGE THE OVERLORDSHIP OF ALFRED OF WESSEX
After Alfred's  successes against the Danes, the Welsh kings asked him
for
his patronage, and  their recognition that the king of England had
claims upon
them became "a  central fact in the subsequent political history of
Wales"
(Davies, p. 85). As  Alfred's court became a center of learning, his
patronage
could only have been  beneficial to the people of Wales, though a sense
of
subservience  to the English Crown was established. 
The "Cyfraith  Hywe" (Law of Hywell) was written, not in Latin, but in
Welsh.
It excelled in  granting a high status to women, curtailing death by
execution, abolishing the  primitive English practices of proving
guilt, pardoning
theft if the sole  intention was to stay alive; and safeguarding the
rights of
illegitimate  children. The far-reaching, far-sighted laws were drawn
up in
Whitland, in  Dyfed. It was Welsh law (and literature) that a French
scholar
called the  product of "the most civilized and intellectual people of
the age."



937: THE BATTLE OF BRUNANBURGH
Athelstan, the  grandson of Alfred the Great of England, called "ruler
of the
whole orb of  Britain," imposed heavy taxes  upon the Celtic peoples of

Britain. A rebellion against his rule  was led by the Scots and the
Northmen that
culminated in their heavy defeat at  Brunanburgh. The Welsh did not
take part,
even though the poem "Armes Prydein",  written a few years before the
momentous battle, had predicted their victory  over the English King.
Had the battle
gone the other way, the people of  Wales would have surely regained
  their
independence.



960: THE "ANNALES OF  CAMBRIAE"
Around 960 a  collection of documents, pedigrees and annals that deal
with
the early history  of the Welsh kingdoms over the past 500 years was
drawn up.
Other stories bound  up with these "chronicles" and which include
mention of
Vortigern and Arthur,  were later called "Historia Brittonum" and
ascribed to
Nennius.



1039-1063: THE REIGN  OF GRUFFUDD AP LLEWELYN
Gruffudd ap Llywelyn deserves praise as the only Welsh ruler to unite
the
ancient kingdoms  of the whole of Wales under his authority. He started
  off a
brilliant reign by utterly defeating an army of Mercians to secure the
  borders
of his nation, recovering many areas in present-day Flintshire and
  Maelor
that would remain part of Wales. His alliances with English  rulers
brought peace
to Wales for a quarter of a century.  
According to  Gwynfor Evans, that Wales did  not suffer the fate of
Strathclyde, where the Welsh language disappeared under  the weight of
the Anglo-Saxons
incursions, was entirely due to the inspiration  that Gruffudd ap
Llywelyn
brought to the people of Wales,  inspiring them with his vigor and
vision.
Finding his country weak and divided,  he left it strong and united.



1066-77: THE NORMANS  COME TO WALES
Following the  defeat of the English King Harold at the Battle of
Hastings in
1066, it wasn't  too long before the victorious William of Normandy set
about
establishing the  Marcher Lordships on the borders of Wales, a country
with
which he did not seem  particularly anxious to get involved. He had
enough on
his plate without getting  involved west of Offa's Dyke; in any case it
was in
Norman interests to develop  close ties with the Welsh rulers in order
to
secure their own frontiers.  
The  semi-independent Marcher Lords were responsible for many of the
magnificent  castles that today dominate the Welsh landscape. Beginning
with Chepstow,
erected by the Earl of Hereford, the castles commanded territories
that
became  known as "Englishries." In them, English settlers practiced a
way of life
and  law totally unknown to the inhabitants of the "Welshries" the less

fertile,  upland and mountain areas. The divisions are apparent even
today, as one
travels  from Clwyd to Gwynedd, or from Glamorgan into Carmarthen, or
better
yet, from  southern Pembroke into Northern Pembroke across  the
linguistic
dividing line known as "landsker." The results of the 1997  Referendum
also show
the results of the original Norman divisions.  
On the  positive side, it is to the Norman-Welsh writers, such as
Geoffrey of
Monmouth  and Gerald of Wales that the glories of Welsh literature
became
known to the  world.



1090: "THE LIFE OF  ST. DAVID"
"The Life of St  David" is the first of the lives of the Welsh saints.
It was
written by  Rhygyfarch of Llanbadarn (near Aberystwyth) around 1190.



1120-1129: "HISTORIA  REGUM BRITANNIAE"
Geoffrey of  Monmouth's major work became the basis for a whole new and

impressive European  literature of Arthurian romance. Giving his source
for his
history as Walter,  Archdeacon of Oxford, Geoffrey gives us the
tradition of
Arthur as a wise, noble  and benevolent king presiding over a chivalric
court in a
kind of Golden Age of  the British Isles, the tradition that is still
  one of
the dominant themes of world literature today. It was Geoffrey's
writings 
that provided the people of Wales with a claim to the sovereignty of
the  whole
island of  Britain, a claim of which  the Tudors were later anxious to
take
advantage. To Geoffrey also we owe the  story of "The Dream of Macsen
Wledig",
interpreted today by such visionaries as  folk singer and nationalist
Dafydd
Iwan. 
1137-1282 AD

1137-1170: THE REIGN  OF OWAIN GWYNEDD
Under Owain Gwynedd  and Madog ap Maredudd, the kingdoms of Gwynedd and
Powys
were gradually freed  from Norman influence and became re-established
as
major political units under  Welsh rulers, enjoying Welsh law, and
where the Welsh
language flourished. Owain  defeated an army led by Henry II at
Coleshill on
the Dee Estuary in 1157. Though  eventually Owain was forced to
recognize
Henry's control over lands to the east  of the River Clwyd (Tegeingl,
part of the
old Earldom of Chester), he refused to  acknowledge the authority of
the
Archbishop of Canterbury in Wales, holding the  consecration service
for the new
Bishop of Bangor, not in that northern Welsh  city, but across the
Celtic sea in
Ireland. After inflicting another humiliating  defeat on the English
forces
in the steep-sided Ceiriog Valley and now in full  control of the whole
of
native Wales, Owain took as his title "the Prince of  Wales" (Princeps
Wallensium).



1169: PRINCE MADOG  REACHES AMERICA
According to a  popular Welsh legend, Prince Madog of Gwynedd,
accompanied by
a group of  followers, made landfall on what is now Mobile Bay, Alabama
some
time in 1169.  The explorers then traveled up the Missouri,  where a
remnant
inter-married with the Mandans and left behind some of their customs
  and their
language.



1146-1243: GIRALDUS  CAMBRENSIS
Gerald of Wales  was born at Manorbier, in Pembrokeshire around 1146
into a
Norman-Welsh family.  His prolific writings include "Itinerarium
Kambriae" and
"Description Kambriae",  both of which contain the only sources for
much early
Welsh history and folk  tales.



1176: THE EISTEDDFOD  AT ABERTEIFI, CARDIGAN
The "Brut y  Tywysigyon" records the following anonymous entry for the
year
1176:  
"At Christmas in that  year the Lord Rhys ap Gruffudd held court in
splendour
at Cardigan (Aberteifi) .  . . And he set two kinds of contests there:
one
between bards and poets, another  between harpists and crowders and
pipers and
various classes of music-craft. And  he had two chairs set for the
victors."
The above entry is the  first known mention of the Eisteddfod, the much

beloved festival that has  become so much a part of Welsh culture and
tradition.
The word itself (one of  the very, very few words of Welsh origin that
are found
in an English  dictionary), can be translated as "a chairing" and
chairs are
still awarded for  the winners of poetry contests. Modern eisteddfodau
[pl.]
include the  National Eisteddfod of Wales, held in a different venue in
Wales
each year  during the first week in August; and the Llangollen
International
Eisteddfod,  held on the banks of the River Dee in Clwyd each July.
Other
well-attended  Esteddfodau take place at various times in towns and
villages all
over Wales as  well as at such far-flung places of Welsh influence as
Edwardsville,  Pennsylvania; Queensland, Australia; and Trelew,
Patagonia.



Late 12th Century:  THE COURT POETS
The general growth  of European court culture in the late 12th century
also
found its counterpart in  Wales where a new flourishing of the court
poets
accompanied military successes  against the Anglo-Normans. The main
poetic form
was the "awdl", the short  monor-hymed piece involving use of one or
more
intricate meters. Dominant poets  were Cyndelw Brydydd Mawr (Cyndelw
the Great
Poet); Llywarch ap Llywelyn;  Gwalchmai; Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd; and
Gruffudd ap yr
Ynad Coch, whose elegy on  the death of Prince Llywelyn must be one of
the
most moving and powerful laments  ever written in the Welsh language.



1200: EDWARD I'S  WELSH CASTLES
Following his wars  against the Welsh under Llywelyn and the Treaty of
Aberconwy, Edward began his  major castle-building campaign, starting
with Flint,
Rhuddlan, Aberystwyth and Builth. After  the death of Llywelyn in late
1282.,
Edward's second phase of castle-building  began, including the mighty
strongholds of Conwy, Caernarfon, Harlech, Cricieth,  and Beaumaris.



1200-1240:  WALES UNIFIES UNDER LLYWELYN AP  IORWERTH
Llywelyn ap  Iorwerth (son of Iorwerth) was the grandson of Owain
Gwynedd.
Under his dynamic  leadership and military prowess, his lands were
again united
as a single  political unit for one of the few times in their long,
checkered
history. In  1204, the Prince married Joan, the daughter of King John
of
England. In the  "Brut", it is stated that Llywelyn "enlarged his
boundaries by his
wars, gave  justice to all according to their deserts, and by the bonds
of
fear or love  bound all men duly to him." He was further recognized as
pre-eminent in  Wales by the new king Henry III.  
Llywelyn's  long reign of 46 years brought an era of relative peace and

economic prosperity  to Wales. Welshmen were appointed to the
  Bishoprics of St.
David's and Bangor. The bards referred to LLywelyn as the  Prince of
Aberffraw
and Lord of Eryri, but to posterity, as Gwynfor Evans  proudly points
out, he
became known as Llywelyn Fawr (Llewelyn the  Great).



1222-1283: LLYWELYN  AP GRUFFUDD
After he death of  Llywelyn the Great, quarrelling between his two sons

Dafydd and Gruffudd undid  most of what their father had accomplished.
In 1254,
Henry II of  England gave the young Prince  Edward control of all the
Crown lands
in Wales.  
The situation  was restored under the brilliant leadership of Llywelyn
ap
Gruffudd whose  success led to the acceptance of his claim to be called
"Prince
of Wales" by  King Henry at the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267. This was
the high
water mark of  Welsh political independence: the people of Wales had
their 
own prince, governed their own lands under their own laws and were able
to 
conduct their own affairs in their own language. Their country was
poised to 
take its place among the developing independent nation states of
Europe. 
Then it all  unraveled. Edward I took the throne in 1272 determined to
crush
all resistance  to his rule in Wales. Not only did Llywelyn have to
  face the
forces of the king of England but he was also faced with  resistance
among the
minor Welsh princes as well as the powerful Marcher  Lords.



1277: THE TREATY OF  ABERCONWY
Llywelyn ap  Gruffudd was forced to give up most of his lands, being
confined
to Gwynedd,  west of the River Conwy. Harsh measures undertaken against
his
people by King  Edward, who began building English castles garrisoned
by
English mercenaries and  settlers, led to a massive revolt led by
Llywelyn.



1282:  CILMERI
At first, things  went well for the Welsh prince, but a chance
encounter with
an English knight  near Cilmeri, near Builth in Powys, ended the Welsh
dreams. Llywelyn was killed,  effective resistance ended, and for all
practical
purposes, Wales was henceforth forced to live under an  alien political
system,
playing only a subordinate role in the affairs of  Britain
1284: THE STATUTE OF  RHUDDLAN
The Statute of  Rhuddlan (The Statute of Wales), confirmed Edward's
ruthless
plans for the  subjugation of Wales "once and for all." New  counties
were
created, and English law was firmly set in place. In 1300, Edward  made
his son
Lord Edward "Prince of Wales and Count of Chester," at Caernarfon
Castle, one
of his magnificent strongholds built  around the perimeter of Wales,
and ever
since that time these  titles have been automatically conferred upon
the
first-born son of the English  monarch. The Welsh people had no say in
the matter. 
The Preamble to the  infamous statute shows fully its intent to bring
Wales
to order.  It reads:
Edward, by the grace  of God, king of England, lord  of Ireland and
duke of 
Aquitaine, to all his subjects of his  land of  Snowdon, greeting in
the 
Lord. The Divine Providence, which is unerring in its own government,
among the 
gifts of its dispensation, wherewith it hath vouchsafed to distinguish
us and 
our realm of England, hath now of its favour, wholly and entirely
transferred 
under our proper dominion, the land of Wales, with its inhabitants,
heretofore  subject unto us, in feudal right, all obstacles whatsoever
ceasing; and
hath  annexed and united the same unto the crown of the aforesaid
realm, as a
member  of the same body. We therefore . . . being desirous that our
aforesaid
land of  Snowdon and our other lands in those parts . . . should be
governed
with due  order . . . and that the people or inhabitants of those lands
who have
submitted  themselves absolutely unto our will . . . have cause to be
rehearsed before us  and the nobles or our realm, the law and customs
of those parts
hitherto in use;  which being diligently heard and fully understood, we
have .
. . abolished  certain of them, some thereof we have allowed, and some
we have
corrected; and  we have likewise commanded certain others to be
ordained and
added thereto . .  ."
Thus it was that many  of the ancient Welsh laws, codified by Hywel Dda
were
now superseded by English  ones. Welsh law had equally divided property
among
male children, the system of  "gavel-kind." The English law honored
"primogeniture" by which property went to  the first-born male. The
Statute of 1284
allowed the Welsh system to continue  (perhaps an English measure to
prevent the
building up of large Welsh-owned  landed estates?). Changes from Welsh
law
included the rule that bastard sons  were not to share in the
inheritance, and
that the inheritance was to pass to  females upon failure of male
heirs. Females
could also have the right to a dowry  in Wales for the first time.



Mid-14th Century:  LITERARY REVIVAL

1. "The  Mabinogion"
In "The White Book  of Rhydderch" and "The Red Book of Hergest,"
composed
sometime in mid-14th  century, are preserved the anonymous texts we now
call "The
Mabinogion",  Wales's greatest contribution to  European literature.
Though
not translated into English until mid-19th century  by Lady Charlotte
Guest,
these masterpieces of dialogue and emotional story  telling may date
back to the
11th century, using material from a much earlier  period involving
figures
from Celtic mythology. 
2. The  Poets of the Gentry
The decline of the  Welsh aristocracy and the growth of the native
Welsh
gentry brought about a new  class of mid-14th century poets. A new form
of poetry
developed, the  Cywydd, a much more flexible form than the awdl. To
this was
added  the ornamentation known as cynghanedd (harmony) that still plays
a major
part in the production of Welsh poetry. 
3. Dafydd  ap Gwilym
At the time of  Chaucer in England, and just  following that of Dante
in
Italy, Wales produced its own world-class  master of the art of poetry,
Dafydd ap
Gwilym. Utilizing his knowledge of many  Anglo-Norman themes and
literary
practices, and much influenced by the poems of  Ovid (which had just
been made
available in Britain), Dafydd  entertained his wealthy patrons with
stories of
love, beautiful if unattainable  women and the wonders of nature. It is
a task
well worth while to master the  Welsh language if only to grasp the
beauty and
delicacy of Dafydd's language and  his imaginative use of metaphor.
Dafydd's
contemporaries were Llywelyn Goch,  whose "Death of Lleucu Llwyd" is
one of the
finest of all Welsh love poems; and  Iolo Goch, whose finest work is
perhaps
"Y Llafurwr" (The Labourer).



1294-1400: THE WELSH  REBELLION AND OWAIN GLYNDWR
It wasn't long  after the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd that other
Welsh
leaders raised the flag  of rebellion. Prominent among these were Madog
ap
Llywelyn (who called himself  Prince of Wales); Llywelyn Bren, Lord of
Senghenydd;
and Owain Lawgoch (Owen of  the Red Hand). Before the latter was
betrayed and
killed, he had raised the  hopes of the Welsh people of fulfilling the
old
prophesies of restoring his  people's rule over Britain, a tradition
that was also 
seen as part of the destiny of the greatest of all the Welsh rebel
leaders, 
Owain Glyndwr. 
Glyndwr's  rebellion began in 1400 and for the first four years
everything
seemed to be  going his way. Even the comet of 1402 was seen as a
herald of
Welsh successes  against the English, whose armies Owain "almost
destroyed by
magic."



1399: RICHARD II  SURRENDERS TO BOLINGBROKE AT FLINT CASTLE



1402: PENAL LAWS  PASSED AGAINST WALES
Due to the  astonishing success of Glyndwr's rebellion, and the
frustration
of the English  authorities in their failures to apprehend the Welsh
leader,
Parliament passed  the infamous Penal Laws. These laws prohibited the
Welsh from
gathering  together, gaining access to office, carrying arms and living
in
the fortified  towns (Englishmen who had the temerity to marry Welsh
women were
also denied the  same privileges).



1404: GLYNDWR'S  PARLIAMENT AT MACHYNLLETH
At Machynlleth,  where he had summoned a Parliament, Owain had himself
declared "Prince of  Wales." Tradition has it that he was crowned by
his followers
in a ceremony  attended by envoys from France, Scotland and Castile,
all of 
which promised to help the Welsh independence movement.



1409: THE CHARTER OF  BRECON
The tide of  victory turned against the Welsh armies when young Prince
Henry
(later Henry V)  retook most of the lands captured by Glyndwr. King
Henry IV
enacted "the usual"  punitive measures against the Welsh, who were
forced to
pay large subsidies,  were prohibited from acquiring land east of
Offas's Dyke
or even within  "English" boroughs in Wales. The harsh conditions are
exemplified in the Charter  of Brecon, which stated "The liberties of
Brecon shall be
restricted to those  whom we deem to be Englishmen and to such of their
heirs
as are English on both  their mother's and their father's side." 
Deheubarth
In 909, Dyfed was merged  with Seisyllwg to become Deheubarth. The
following
is a list of kings of the two  former kingdoms, followed by the kings
of the
combined Deheubarth (beginning  with Hywel Dda).
[
    *   Cloten(dates unknown) married Ceindrech of  Brycheiniog,
uniting the
two kingdoms  
    *   Rhain (to 740) also king of Brycheiniog; on his  death, his
kingdoms
were divided again by his sons  
    *   Maredydd ap Rhain (740-797)  
    *   Rhain ap Maredydd(797-808)  
    *   Owain ap Maredydd (808-811) 
It is  unclear whether kingship passed directly from Owain to Hyfaidd,
although the  span of time involved suggests that it did not.
    *   Hyfaidd ap Bledrig (to 893)  
    *   Llywarch ap Hyfaidd(893-904)  
    *   Rhodri ap Hyfaidd(904-905)  
    *   Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) (905-909) 
    *   Seisyll (7th century,  eponymous ruler) 
    *   Gwgon (to 872)  
    *   Rhodri Mawr (872-878)  
    *   Cadell ap Rhodri (878-909)  
    *   Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) (909) 
    *   Hywel  Dda (Hywel the Good)  (909-950) 
    *   His son, Owain ap Hywel (950-986) the principality  being
divided for
a period between him and his brothers,  
    *   Rhodri ap Hywel (950-953) and  
    *   Edwin ap Hywel (950-954) 
    *   Owain ap Hywel's son, Maredudd ab Owain (986-999)  
    *   Cynan ap Hywel, prince of Gwynedd (999-1005)  
    *   Maredudd ab Owain's son, Edwin ab Einion (1005-1018)  who
co-ruled
with his brother,  
    *   Cadell ab Einion (1005-1018) 
    *   Llywelyn ap Seisyll, prince of Gwynedd (1018-1023)  
    *   Rhydderch ap Iestyn, prince of Gwent (1023-1033)  
    *   Edwin ab Einion's son, Hywel ab Edwin (1033-1044)  
    *   Rhydderch ap Iestyn's son, Gruffydd ap  Rhydderch(1047-1055) 
    *   Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, prince of Gwynedd (1055-1063)  
    *   Edwin ab Einion's grandson, Maredudd ab Owain ab
  Edwin(1063-1072) 
    *   his brother, Rhys ab Owain (1072-1078)  
    *   his second cousin, Rhys ap Tewdwr (1078-1093) 
Deheubarth  was in the possession of the Normans from 1093 to 1155
    *   Gruffydd ap Rhys (1116-1137) ruled a portion of  Deheubarth
with
Norman permission  
    *   his son, Anarawd ap Gruffydd (1136-1143)  
    *   his brother, Cadell ap Gruffydd (1143-1151)  
    *   his brother, Maredudd ap Gruffydd (1151-1155)  
    *   his brother, The Lord Rhys (Rhys ap Gruffydd)  (1155-1197) 
    *   his son, Gruffydd ap Rhys (1197-1201) who for a time  ruled
jointly
with his brother,  
    *   Maelgwn ap Rhys (1199-1230) who disputed the  territory with
his
brother, 
    *   Rhys the Hoarse (Rhys Gryg) (1216-1234) 
From 1234  to 1283, Deheubarth was subject to the princes of Gwynedd
    *   Rhys the Hoarse's son, Rhys Mechyll (1234-1244)  ruled a
portion of
Deheubarth  
    *   his brother, Maredudd ap Rhys (1244-1271) ruled a  portion of
Deheubarth 
    *   his son, Rhys ap Maredudd (1271-1283) ruled a  portion of
Deheubarth

Gwynedd
Cunedda Wledig ap Edern (Cunedda the  Imperator) (c.450-c.460)
    *   Einion Yrth ap Cunedda (Einion the  Impetuous) (c.470-c.480)  
    *   Cadwallon Lawhir ap Einion (Cadwallon Long  Hand) (c.500-c.534)
  
    *   Maelgwn Hir ap Cadwallon (Maelgwn the  Tall) (c.520-c.547)  
    *   Rhun Hir ap Maelgwn (Rhun the Tall)  (c.547-c.580) 
    *   Beli ap Rhun (c.580-c.599)  
    *   Iago ap Beli (c.599-c.613)  
    *   Cadfan ap Iago (c.613-c.625)  
    *   Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c.625-634)  
    *   Cadafael Cadomedd ap Cynfeddw (Cadfael the  Battle-Shirker)
(634-c.655)  
    *   Cadwaladr Fendigaid ap Cadwallon (Cadwallader  the Blessed)
(c.655-c.682)  
    *   Idwal Iwrch ap Cadwaladr (Idwal Roebuck)  (c.682-c.720) 
    *   Rhodri Molwynog ap Idwal (Rhodri the Bald and  Gray)
(c.720-c.754)  
    *   Caradog ap Meirion (c.754-c.798)  
    *   Cynan Dindaethwy ap Rhodri (c.798-816)  
    *   Hywel ap Rhodri Molwynog (814-825)  
    *   Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad (Merfyn the  Freckled) (825-844) 
    *   Rhodri Mawr ap Merfin (Rhodri the Great)  (844-878) 
    *   Anarawd ap Rhodri (878-916) (establishes the Aberffraw
  dynasty, the
senior branch of descendants from Rhodri Mawr)  
    *   Idwal Foel ab Anarawd (Idwal the Bald) (916-942)  
    *   Hywel Dda ap Cadell (Howell the Good)  (94-950) (Dinefwr
dynasty of
Rhodri Mawr's descendants usurp from Aberffraw.)  
    *   Iago ab Idwal (950-979) (returns to the Aberffraw  branch) 
    *   Ieuaf ab Idwal (950-969)  
    *   Hywel ab Ieuaf (974-985)  
    *   Cadwallon ab Ieuaf (985-986)  
    *   Maredudd ab Owain (986-999) Dinefwr dynasty seizes  Gwynedd 
    *   Cynan ap Hywel (999-1005) Returns to the Aberffraw  dynasty
briefly 
    *   Aeddan ap Blegywryd (1005-1018) (usurpes Gwynedd from  the
Aberffraw
dynasty)) 
    *   Llywelyn ap Seisyll (1018-1023) (cadet branch of  Mathrafal
dynasty
from Powys usurps from Aeddan ap Blegywryd)  
    *   Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig (1023-1039) (Aberffraw dynasty
  returns) 
    *   Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (1039-1063) (Llywelyn's son  Gruffydd
usurps
from Aberffraw dynasty)  
    *   Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (1063-1075) (Mathrafal dynasty of  Powys
"receives"
Gwynedd from the English King)  
    *   Trahaearn ap Caradog (1075-1081)  
    *   Gruffydd ap Cynan (1081-1137) (Aberffraw dynasty  returns) 
    *   Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd (1137-1170) (After Owain  rulers of
Gwynedd
are styled Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon) 
Princes of Aberffraw & Lords of Snowdon
    *   Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd (1170-1173)  
    *   Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (1170-1195) (in the  east) 
    *   Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd (1170-1190) (in the  west) 
    *   Llywelyn Fawr ap Iorwerth (Llywelyn the  Great) (1195-1240) 
    *   Dafydd ap Llywelyn (1240-1246) (First acknowledged  Prince of
Wales) 
    *   Owain Goch ap Gruffydd (Owen the Red)  (1246-1255) 
    *   Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (Llywelyn the Last)  (1246-1282) (Second
acknowledged Prince of Wales)  
    *   Dafydd ap Gruffydd (1282-1283) (not crowned but claimed  the
title) 
    *   Madog ap Llywelyn (1294-1295) (not crowned but claimed  the
title) 
    *   Owain ap Tomas ap Rhodri (Owen the Red Hand)  (1372-1378) (in
exile
but claimed the title) 
Morgannwg
    *   Morgan the Old (Morgan Hen or Morgan ab Owain)  (930-974)
united the
former kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing in 942 under  the name of
Morgannwg,
but they were broken up again immediately after his  death, remaining
separate
until about 1055 
Glywysing
    *   Morgan the Old's son, Owain ap Morgan (974-about 983)  
    *   brothers of Owain ap Morgan (dates unknown)  
    *   his son, Rhys ab Owain (about 990-about 1000) who  ruled
Glywysing
jointly with his brothers,  
    *   Hywel ab Owain (about 990-about 1043) and  
    *   Iestyn ab Owain (about 990-about 1015)  
    *   his brother, Rhydderch ap Iestyn (about 1015-1033)  
    *   his son, Gruffydd ap Rhydderch (1033-1055) Gwent
    *   Nowy ap Gwriad ruled Gwent (about 950-about 970)  while
Glywysing was
ruled jointly by brothers of Owain ap Morgan (dates  unknown) 
    *   his son, Arthfael ap Nowy (about 970-983)  
    *   his cousin, Rhodri ap Elisedd(983-about 1015) who  ruled
jointly with
his brother,  
    *   Gruffydd ap Elisedd (983-about 1015)  
    *   his ?cousin, Edwyn ap Gwriad (1015-1045)  
    *   Hywel ab Owain's son, Meurig ap Hywel (1045-1055)  who ruled
jointly
with 
    *   his son, Cadwgan ap Meurig (1045-1074) who for a  time ruled
jointly
with 
    *   Gruffydd ap Rhydderch's son, Caradog ap Gruffydd  (1063-1081) 
    *   Iestyn ap Gwrgan(t) (1081-1091) 
Iestyn was  the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was
thereafter
in the  possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan


Powys
Kings of  Powys
House of  Gwertherion
    *   Gwrtheyrn (High-King Vortigern)  
    *   Cadeyern Fendigaid c.430 - 447 Reputed eldest son of
  Gwrtheyrn,
blessed by Saint Germanus  
    *   Cadell Ddyrnllwg c. 447 - 460  
    *   Rhyddfedd Frych c. 480  
    *   Cyngen Glodrydd c.  500
    *   Pasgen ap Cyngen c. 530  
    *   Morgan ap Pasgen c. 540  
    *   Brochwel Ysgithrog c. 550  
    *   Cynan Garwyn (? – 610)  
    *   Selyf ap Cynan (610 – 613)  
    *   Manwgan ap Selyf (613)  
    *   Eiludd Powys (613 – ?)  
    *   Beli ap Eiludd vers 655  
    *   Gwylog ap Beli (695? – 725)  
    *   Elisedd ap Gwylog (725 – 755?)  
    *   Brochfael ap Elisedd (755? – 773)  
    *   Cadell ap Elisedd (773 – 808)  
    *   Cyngen ap Cadell (808 – 854) Throne usurped by Gwynedd  and
exiled to
Rome where the family endured 
House of  Manaw
    *   Rhodri Mawr (854 – 878) of Gwynedd, inheriting through  his
mother 
    *   Merfyn ap Rhodri (878 – 900)  
    *   Llywelyn ap Merfyn (900 – 942)  
    *   Hywel Dda (942 – 950) Usurped from the Aberffraw line  
    *   Owain ap Hywel (950 – 986) Ruled thereafter by a cadet
  branch of the
House of Dinefwr, establishing the Mathrafal dynasty of rulers  
    *   Maredudd ap Owain (986 – 999)  
    *   Llywelyn ap Seisyll (999 – 1023), son of Anghered by  her
first
husband. Anghered is the daughter of Maredudd ab Owain  
    *   Rhydderch ap Iestyn (1023 – 1033)  
    *   Iago ap Idwal (1033 – 1039)  
    *   Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (1039 – 1063) 
Mathrafal Princes  of Powys
    *   Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (1063 – 1075)  
    *   Iorwerth ap Bleddyn 1075 - 1103 (part)  
    *   Cadwgan ap Bleddyn (1075 - 1111 (part)  
    *   Owain ap Cadwgan (1111 - 1116 (part)  
    *   Maredudd ap Bleddyn (1116 – 1132)  
    *   Madog ap Maredudd (1132 – 1160) 
From 1160 Powys was  split into two parts. The southern part was later
called
Powys Wenwynwn after  Gwenwynwyn ab Owain "Cyfeiliog" ap Madog, while
the
northern part was called  Powys Fadog after Madog ap Gruffydd "Maelor"
ap  Madog


Posted: Dec 12, 2007 7:15am | (0) | (0) |  
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