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anonymous ....and the Hungarians arrived.... August 23, 2007 5:55 AM

This thread is for history. Post anything you know about us, lol, or if you have questions, feel free to ask!
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anonymous  August 23, 2007 6:02 AM

The mother country is somewhere here in Europe..
   
132770433_a6569daf.gif picture by anitabenko
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anonymous  August 23, 2007 6:03 AM

osmagyarok.gif picture by anitabenko
For half a century beginning in 899, the Magyars — the name Hungarians call themselves — ravaged Europe. Fierce horsemen from the East, they penetrated German lands, northern Italy and France. An ardent prayer of the time implores, "From the arrows of the Hungarians, O Lord, deliver us." "La Chanson de Roland" calls them "breeds of Satan."

Then in 955 the Holy Roman Emperor Otto the Great won a resounding victory over them at Lechfeld near Augsburg and the Magyars did what no other band of horsemen who had scourged Europe did — they settled down and created their own nation.
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anonymous origin August 27, 2007 9:06 AM

The commonly accepted view of the origin of the Magyars (known as Hungarians in English) is that they were nomadic people, with indeterminate and disputed origin from the Eurasian plains until the end of the 9th century AD. They were organized as a confederation of seven Magyar and three allied Khazar tribes; the name Hungary / Hungarian is most probably derived from the Turkish term Onogur meaning 'Ten Arrows', signifying united military strength in nomadic symbolism. In 896 they settled in Transylvania ("Exinde montes descenderunt per tres menses et deveniunt in confinium regni Hungariae, scilicet in Erdelw") from where they took possession of Pannonia.

800px-Carpathianbasin_9th_cent.jpg picture by anitabenko

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anonymous 7 Tribes August 27, 2007 9:15 AM

The Hungarians - seven tribes made up of some eighty-odd clans of nomadic and pastoral people, numbering perhaps 100 to 200 thousand in all - had by AD 900 occupied all of the sparsely populated Carpathian Basin, where they had arrived in 895 led by Árpád, son of Álmos (and great-grandfather of Géza), whom they had elected supreme chief before setting out to cross the Carpathians from the east by the Verecke Pass.
HetVezer-ChroniconPictum.jpg picture by anitabenko
(Árpád and the six other chieftains of the Magyars. From the Chronicon Pictum, 1360.)

So Árpád was the son of Álmos leader of the Hungarian tribal federation. According to medieval chronicles, seven proto-Magyar tribes elected him – as the leader of one of those tribes – their common leader in Etelköz around 890. He is said to have been the leader ("prince" – fejedelem) of the proto-Magyars for 20 years and to have died in 907. The Byzantine De administrando imperio says around 950: Prior to this Árpád, the Magyars did never have another ruling prince ('archont') and since then up to today the ruling prince of Hungary has been from that family. Other sources however imply that there was a second ruling prince called Kurszán, who was either at the same "level" with Árp'ád, or a kind of "vice-prince". Based on Arabic sources, Árp'ád's title seems to have been kende – although some scholars consider Kende to be the name of a person – or gyula.

After several looting raids in Europe (from the 860s onwards), the proto-Magyars in Etelköz under Árpád, pushed by the Pechenegs from the East, decided to definitively pass the Carpathian Mountains. In 896 they occupied the Upper Tisza river, from there they undertook numerous looting raids in central and western Europe, and in 900/901 they moved to Pannonia. The proto-Magyars entering the Pannonian fields in 896 represented about 200,000–250,000 people.

322px-Nte-kir-arpad.jpg picture by anitabenko

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anonymous  August 27, 2007 9:28 AM

Hungary was established as a Christian kingdom under Stephen I of Hungary, who was crowned in December 1000 AD in the capital, Esztergom. He was the son of Géza and thus a descendant of Árpád. By 1006, Stephen had solidified his power, eliminating all rivals who either wanted to follow the old pagan traditions or wanted an alliance with the orthodox Christian Byzantine Empire. Then he started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a feudal state, complete with forced Christianisation.

380px-Aftnn_King_Stephen2C_who_we_r.jpg picture by anitabenko

Shortly after Stephen's death, healing miracles were said to have occurred at his tomb. Stephen was canonized by Pope Gregory VII as Saint Stephen of Hungary in 1083, along with his son, Saint Imre and Bishop Gerhard (Hungarian: Szent Gellért). Thus Saint Stephen became the first of the canonized confessor kings, a new prototype of saints.

Catholics venerate him as the patron saint of "Hungary, kings, the death of children, masons, stonecutters, and bricklayers." His feast day is generally observed on August 16, except in Hungary where it is observed on August 20, the day on which his sacred relics were transferred to the city of Buda. This day is a public holiday in Hungary.

The king's right hand, known as "The Holy Right", is kept as a relic. His body was mummified after his death[citation needed], but the tomb was opened and his hand was separated some years later. Except for this, only some bone fragments remained (which are kept in churches throughout Hungary). Catholics honour the first king of their country on annual processions, where the Holy Right is exhibited.

Stephen was also canonised by the Eastern Orthodox Church in 2000, thus became the first saint recognised both by Orthodoxy and Catholicism since the Great Schism.

The Holy Crown, popularly attributed to St. Stephen, was removed from the country in 1945 for safekeeping, and entrusted to the United States government. It was kept in a vault at Fort Knox until 1978, when it was returned to the nation by order of President Jimmy Carter. It has been enshrined in the Hungarian Parliament building in Budapest since 2000.

Sztjobb.jpg picture by anitabenko

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anonymous  August 27, 2007 9:30 AM

Mileposts of Hungarian History

AD 895-900

Seven Magyar tribes from the East occupy the Carpathian basin.

1000
Foundation of the Hungarian state; St. Stephen, the first Hungarian king converts the country to western Christianity. Western orientation.

1222
Andrew II (1175-1235) issues the Golden Bull stating the basic rights and privileges of the nobility; it plays a role similar to that of the Magna Carta of 1215.

1241-1242
Mongolian invasion.

1300-1500
Hungary is a wealthy and flourishing kingdom again. In the 14th century it extends its borders to the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Adriatic Sea.

1458-1490
The court of king Matthias Hunyadi Corvinus is a center of Renaissance culture, visited by
numerous great humanist thinkers and artists of the period. A core mercenary army was
constructed, and modern managerial practices were established to control the Hungarian economy. Matthias Corvinus appoints Magyars to the most important offices and authorities, though the German population (approx. 50%) retains its own rights; struggle against the Turks.

1514
Peasant's uprising weakens the country

1526
Crushing defeat of the Hungarian army at the hands of the Turks in the Battle of Mohács. Country split into three parts: the west ceded to the Habsburgs, the principality of Transylvania established in the east, the central regions under Turkish occupation

1541-1686
Under Turkish rule (lasting 145 years) Buda becomes the western outpost of the Ottoman Empire.

1686
Recapture of Buda and Pest by the Imperial troops under Prince Eugene of Savoy.
The entire Hungary goes under Habsburg rule, in a semi-colonial situation.

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anonymous  August 27, 2007 9:31 AM

1703-1711
Independence struggle against the Habsburg claim to power in Transylvania led by Prince Ferenc II Rákóczi -defeated.

1836
Hungarian becomes the official language.

1848-1949
March 15, 1848: the national independence struggle leads to revolution (proclamation of
independence on 14 April 1849). August 1849: Russian troops coming to help Austria suppress
Hungarians' fight for independence.

1867-1914
Pest becomes seat of the Imperial Diet and of all Hungarian offices of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph the 1st crowned King of Hungary. Economic, social and political development.

1914-1918
The Monarchy, allied with the German empire, is defeated in the First World War.

1918
Bourgeois democratic revolution, republic proclaimed

1919
Bolshevik, soviet republic lasting 133 days

1920
In the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary loses two-thirds of its territory and one-third of its population; 3 million Hungarians are left outside the country's borders.

1919-1944
The regency of Miklós Horthy. Hungary is a kingdom without a king, governed by a conservative
elite, which obstructs social and political development.  From the start, Horthy endeavours to have Hungary's original borders restored and sets up a conservative parliamentary regime with
dictatorial elements.

1941
During the Second World War, Hungary allows German troops to cross its territory on their way to Yugoslavia. Prime minister Count Teleki commits suicide. Hungary declares war on the Soviet Union; following devastating defeat of 2nd Hungarian army.

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anonymous  August 27, 2007 9:31 AM

1944
After six-week siege, Budapest occupied by German troops. Persecution of Jews begins under
direction of Eichmann. Provisional government declares war on Germany.

1945
After a year of devastating war, Hungary is "liberated" from the German troops and conquered by the Soviet Red Army. The capital and most of its industry is lying in ruins.

1945-1947
The country is governed by a coalition of political parties; parliamentary democracy is disturbed by strong Soviet pressure and interference. At the elections of 1945, the Communist party receives only 17 % of votes. At the 1947 elections, in spite of large scale electoral cheating, it receives only 22 %.

1948
Turning point; the Hungarian Workers’ Party (which is a forced alliance of the Communists and the Social Democrats) seizes power and establishes a totalitarian one-party rule.

1953
The first attempt at loosening the totalitarian rule; the first government of
Imre Nagy.

1955
Come-back of the Stalinists

1956-1957
National uprising against Soviet domination and the beginning of a democratic revolution against communist rule. October 23: beginning of the Hungarian Revolution against Soviet rule which is brutally crushed by
the invasion of Soviet troops on 4 November 1956. Re-establishment of communist rule.

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anonymous  August 27, 2007 9:32 AM

1957-1988
The Kádár regime - Socialist People's Republic with one-party system. After bloody reprisals in
1957-58, and the execution of former prime minister Imre Nagy and about 400 freedom fighters and politicians, a slow liberalisation begins in the mid 1960s. The 1970s are the “goulash-communism” of  Kádár: relative affluence, gradual relaxation of political control, enlightened and paternalistic absolutism. In 1968, the so-called New Economic System is launched, which is the first important step on the road of transforming the centralised and planned state socialist economy into a market or mixed economy. In 1970, the reform process is obstructed by the conservative forces and slowed down by the resistance of Brezhnev and the Soviet leadership. Economic and social crisis followed.

1989
Hungary opens its borders to Austria and lets Germans from East-Germany go to the "West".
October 23 - Proclamation of the Republic of Hungary  – end of the Socialist People's Republic.

1990
The first free parliamentary election in forty-two years
(- adopted from Hankiss, E.(1990) East European Alternatives, Clarendon Press, Oxford. 275-277) Victory of the conservative Hungarian Democratic Forum under Prime Minister József Antall.

The first President of the Republic of Hungary, which was proclaimed in 1989, was Árpád Göncz, elected by the National Assembly on 3 August 1990 for five years. On 19 June 1995 he was re-elected as head of state as the candidate of the parliamentary majority at the time

Hungary joins the Council of Europe (6 November 1990). New things introduced: multi-party system, private ownership,increasing unemployment, adjusting from backward technology to top technology. Major reduction in social welfare and security, no job security, increasing gap between the rich and the poor. The abolishment of free health-care and free higher education.

1991 February
Visegrád Group formed (together with Poland and the then Czechoslovakia)

1991 June
Red Army withdraws from Hungary.

1991 July
Warsaw Pact dissolved

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anonymous  August 27, 2007 9:32 AM

1991 December
Association Agreement signed with the EC (in force since 1 February 1994)
Admission to NATO's North Atlantic Cooperation Council

1994
Second free elections: victory of the moderat left wing Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP) under Prime Minister Gyula Horn; coalition formed with the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats (SzDSz). Hungary applies to join the EU.

1997
Hungary invited to begin accession negotiations with the European Union at the European Council meeting in Luxembourg, NATO Protocol of Accession signed

1998
First (screening) phase of EU accession negotiations begins.
Parliamentary elections: victory of moderate right-wing FIDESZ, which forms a coalition with the FKGP and MDF under Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. Accession negotiations with EU begin.

1999
Hungary joins NATO.

2000
When the second presidential mandate of Árpád Göncz expired, the National Assembly elected professor Ferenc Mádl, candidate of FIDESz-FKGP-MDF, as the new President of the Republic.

2002
Parliamentary elections won by the moderate-left wing  MSzP (social democrats), which forms a coalition government with the liberal SzDSz (soc-lib) again, headed by prime minister Péter Medgyessy. A cabinet of 15 ministers make up the government. Successful conclusion to negotiations for the EU accession treaty

2004 May 1
Hungary joins the European Union

2004 fall
After resign Péter Medgyessy (2004 September) the new Prime Minister became Ferenc Gyurcsány, former businessman and party member of MSZP. The new government was formed on October 4, 2004.

2005 June

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anonymous  August 27, 2007 9:33 AM

2005 June

On 7th June 2005 the National Assembly of Hungary elected László Sólyom President of the Republic. The former president of the Constitutional Court (1990-1998) took office on 5th August 2005. 

2006 April 9

Day of the next parliamentary elections. 


Main source: The Shadow of Hungarian History, Dr. Katalin Illés & Dr. Bronwen Rees, 2000, Anglia Business

School, Cambridge, UK

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