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HELP SICK GOAT - Veterinarian Unsure of Diagnosis
9 years ago


My Saanen goat, "Goatee", has become ill and I would be greatly appreciative of any ideas anyone might have.

He is currently on a sulfa based antibiotic, after having been seen by my veterinarian. My concearn is that, the majority of veterinarians in this area do not see many goats.

Goatee had an on and off cough over the winter. My boyfriend that lives with my cared for him most of the winter, as I had bronchitis and pneumonia on and off for about 5 months. It sounded more like when a horse clears his throat at the beginning of the ride. I would just hear it once or so when I fed and didn't think much of it. He was eating and drinking fine and still beating his friend with his horns, etc. His former best friend horse moved back here (he has always had one other goat and one other horse for company). I noticed he wasn't picking on Trooper (the other goat as much). AT that point I thought it was just a change in the herd dynamics. Goatee and that horse that had returned were inseperable. She used to eat, while on her stomach with her legs to her side like a goat, with him in the paddock. That is just one of the MANY things horses just don't do that she learned from him. We had a good spell of rain, during which he didn't come out of his goat "stall". A large area for he and Trooper that is big enough for 2 horses to fit in. It has a door they can go in and out of as they please and 2 windows. It is cut into the garage, that is NOT used for cars. The walls are not to the ceiling so it gets ventilation all around. No fumes of any sort though. The rain left and he did not spend as much time outside. I somewhat subconsciously began putting hay inside for him. I'd often do that if Trooper would stand in their, wanting to get his away from Goatee. Usually if it is not raining all of the hay is put outside in the paddock in little piles all over so that all of them can eat in peace, even if one pushes one away from a pile. For 3 or 4 animals I put out hay in about 18 piles all around so no one feels stressed eating. Goatee then got a true cough. Deep sounding in his lungs. His breathing became labored. His temp at the highest was just 104.5 He didn't go off his feed, though plump little boy is not plump any longer. His fluffy fur is a disguise for the fat that used to cover his ribs. Sadly I must admit, I should have noticed that earlier. Well he was always chubby and we had been concentrating on decreasing him and putting weight on Trooper. AH! He had a bit of discharge in his eyes. The tissue around the eyes appeared to be swollen. The veterinarian said his eye's appeared sunken because he was dehydrated. I asked if he needed subcutaneous or intravenous fluids and he said no. Is it different in goats, than in cats or dogs or horses......when his skin was pulled up (by me - I worked in a veterinary hospital for 15 years) it immediately went back down. No "tenting", showing dehydration. He has been drinking. The appearance of the eye's, was better after 2 doses of antibiotics. It wasn't a great amount of discharge as in an awful infection, just discharge the first day and more so it appeared as if his eyelids and the skin just below his eyes was swollen. He had "crackling" in his lungs, even when the coughing was gone. He isn't beating up Trooper for food as much as he used to some time ago. I have been giving him all he wants to eat grain wise (and it is not something that would give him acidosis) in attempts to put weight back on him. He gets very good grass hay. I am also taking him out to munch on an "organic" section of my lawn that I have left for him. Well so I don't sound so wonderful, it is this hill I hate to mow that is grass and weeds. He is enjoying that.

He came from an animal shelter, originally from a highschool prank where he had been taken from a breeding farm. He was in terrible condition as were the goats at that farm. The weight loss, him not wanting to be out running around and the lung problems. CAE?

He just turned 4. I spoke with the shelter. They are going to try to see if the law enforcement part of the mspca has records on the farm, but it is some time ago.

He also was scratching the back of his neck with his horn. There is a 3x4 section that is bald, raised and hardened there now. This has never happened before. He is never out in the rain. He has clean bedding. He does not have lice. A skin scraping was done and negative. Do mites easily show (from goats) on skin scrapings?

What antibiotics have other's used on their goats at what dosages? I am just curious as someone told me due to their digestive system the dosages are often 3x that of other animals. I just want to be sure he is getting enough. My veterinarian is very open to information regarding Goatee and goats.

I am having so much trouble deciding if he seems more painful walking or just doesn't have the energy anymore. He does chipper up to go get the grass, but the jumping and racing around the paddock isn't there. He makes Trooper look like the younger goat and Trooper has to be 6 years older than him, a 10 year old - a least - Toggenberg.

Sorry I went on so long!

Well I spared everyone my stories of giving him his pills everyday!


9 years ago

Sorry it took me so long to answer, but i was not on the computer at all yesterday since we had the vet out to vaccinate the herd and doing other various farm chores.

Besides the sulpha drugs what other antibiotics has he had? What is his temp now....104.5 is high. Normal goat temp is from 101.5-104, and depending on the 'normal' temp for Goatee, 104.5 could very well be a fever. He is eating ok? How is his poo? normal pellets or clumpy?

Sounds like he has pneumonia to me since you say he has had discharge form the eyes and a cough/congestion in the lungs. I'd try Oxytetracycline (like LA-200) or penicillin treatment.

You will need to treat the FULL course. 5 day minimum if you use penicillin.

What beside hay do the goats eat? do they get any grain? is Goatee walking 'painful' or does he just lack energy? if he has had a lot of grain over the winter or has had new lush browse/pasture lately, and if his walk is painful he may have laminitis. If you suspect he walks painfully, cut back on the grain and give him grass hay only for now. Also limit lush new pasture, allowing him to eat a little after he has had his hay, but increase the time he is allowed to eat grass/pasture everyday. Let him have free choice baking soda. Do the goats get a free choice goat mineral? Zinc can cause hair loss, give him black oil sunflower seeds (striped ones are OK if you can't get the black ones) Iodine deficiency can cause hair can give him a little kelp everyday. Is that the only area where he has a bald spot? Has his hair changed in texture (from silky to course?) Vitamin A deficiency can create a rough, dry coat (as well as a copper deficiency) with a shaggy appearance and dandruff.....are you SURE the bald spot is not just from his rubbing the area?

 I am thinking from the way it sounds he is just worn out from being sick. You asked about CAE....the vet can test for that by sending a blood sample to the lab.

Be SURE he is getting electrolytes. Even if he is drinking plenty of fluids he will benefit from electrolytes. I use an equine electrolyte supplement which also contains magnesium (which will help with muscle stiffness in his walk)

Try a different antibiotic and see if it helps. I will post more if i find out anything or if i remember something i 'forgot'. Keep us posted.

9 years ago

This is quick! His skin scraping didn't show anything and I can not find a reason for him to be scratching so much to cause that lesion. He does scratch it, but no mites........and I have checked and checked him for lice and he also has not come in contact with other goats except the one he has been with for years that show no signs.

His breathing is improved, though I do not feel 100%. When he has completed and been off his antibiotics for a few days I will have that rechecked (unless it gets worse before then).

I am sending out a test for CAE. Has anyone used the lab at Washington State University before?

I have been feeing him Purina Show Goat. Now someone told me goat feed will cause urinary blockage, which I knew happens in male goats. He needs something besides just his hay. The meat (oh no he will never be meat) goat formula from Purina has an additive to help prevent urinary obstruction in goats. Does anyone feed that? Does anyone believe in feeding lamb finisher? I was told by the SPCA where I got him to feed him that. It just seems odd that you need to feed a food designed (supposedly) for another species.

I had been told in the past only to use the white salt blocks for the male goats. Now is this wrong? Should they be getting the dark ones that contain minerals?


He no longer likes the taste of his medication. This led me to the thought of how sharp his grinding teeth are in the back. Horses teeth are floated (filed) when they get pointed edges to prevent sores in their mouths and to make chewing easier for them. Does this ever occur in goats?


9 years ago

I am sending out a test for CAE. Has anyone used the lab at Washington State University before?

I have heard WSU is one of the better ones for lab testing and is also one university a good majority of vets send samples for blood analysis/testing etc, so one less thing to worry about

I have been feeing him Purina Show Goat. Now someone told me goat feed will cause urinary blockage, which I knew happens in male goats. He needs something besides just his hay.

What kind of hay? If it is alfalfa, he's OK getting grain, but I wouldn't feed more than 1 1/2 cup of grain TOTAL a day. I would also get some alfalfa pellets and mix a handful in with his grain. If he gets grass hay, definitely get some alfalfa pellets and mix at least 50/50 grain/alfalfa pellets. UC is *usually* cased by overgraining because grain is high in phosphorus. This causes an imbalance in the calcium to phosphorus ratio, which should ideally be 2:1 (higher number calcium) Goats can tolerate higher levels of calcium, but not phosphorus. Alfalfa hay and pellets are high in calcium and when they are added to his grain ration will help balance out the Ca/P ratio and keep it in normal range.

The meat (oh no he will never be meat) goat formula from Purina has an additive to help prevent urinary obstruction in goats. Does anyone feed that?

I don't but often those types of feed with ammonium chloride do not add enough ammonium chloride to truly prevent UC if a goat is on a high grain diet.

Does anyone believe in feeding lamb finisher? I was told by the SPCA where I got him to feed him that. It just seems odd that you need to feed a food designed (supposedly) for another species.

well, you need to tell those people goats are NOT sheep!!! I would NEVER feed a sheep/lamb supplement to goats because goats have a much higher requirement for copper, while sheep are copper sensitive, so any sheep feed/minerals/supplements will have very little copper if any. Goats need as much copper as cows and horses! 

I had been told in the past only to use the white salt blocks for the male goats. Now is this wrong? IMO yes.

Should they be getting the dark ones that contain minerals?

Yes. Actually he should be getting a mineral that is formulated FOR goats....and NOT the one labeled for Sheep & Goats....because of the sheep/copper issue there won't be any copper in it. they can eat the same one you feed horses and cattle if you can't find one made for goats. Look at the label...should contain from 1000-1810 ppm copper. Loose mineral is better then block, but block is better then none or one for sheep. BTW, the mineral livestock blocks a much bigger (50 pounds) then the small hard salt/brown blocks and most feed stores carry some kind of livestock mineral block. If you have a TS near you, you might be able to find a loose mineral. I feed my goats Sweetlix 16:8 Meatmaker loose minerals (and mine are NO WAY ever going to be meat either) If your feed store carries Sweetlix products they might be able to get you this mineral. IMO it is one of the best you can find for goats.

This led me to the thought of how sharp his grinding teeth are in the back. Horses teeth are floated (filed) when they get pointed edges to prevent sores in their mouths and to make chewing easier for them. Does this ever occur in goats?

A goats back teeth are rather blunt, and I have never heard of them needing their teeth floated. They sometimes can crack a molar (have the vet check his back teeth), but grinding is often associated with the goat being in pain. (although some goats just grind their teeth) If this is something he has always done, I wouldn't worry. If he started it since he's been sick, as he gets well, the grinding should stop.       Also, once you are done with the round of antibiotics and he does not improve, switch antibiotics.

I would also take a fecal sample to the vet and check for lungworm. Ask for the Baerman test (sedimentation methods) be done because lungworm eggs are different and heavier then other species of eggs and will sink below the field of vision in a regular fecal flotation test. 

If he has lungworm, treat him with levamisole. (brand names are Levasol, Tramisol) It is OTC, you may find it at feed stores or a Tractor Supply, or online from Jeffers or PBS animal.

EXACT dose is 2cc per 100 lbs, Injected SQ...three seperate times...spaced 10 days apart to kill all eggs/larvae as they hatch and before they reach adulthood and begin to lay more eggs. (do NOT overdose)         There is also a powdered Levasole Sheep Drench. The goat dose would be 1 1/2 times the sheep dose.

9 years ago

"A goats back teeth are rather blunt, and I have never heard of them needing their teeth floated."

Ok, i take this back. I just heard of someone's goat that had its teeth floated because it was having problems eating. So....I guess it can be done, although rarely it seems since this is the first time I have ever heard of it being done. Most often the cause is a bad, cracked or infected tooth. I guess you should have your vet check the teeth and determine if they need to be floated.

Anyway, how is your goat doing?? Hope his health has improved! Let us know when you get the chance.

Update Diagnosis CAE
9 years ago

Hello, Sorry for such a late update. After much reading, I thought my boy might have CAE. I took a blood sample and sent it off to Washington State University. They have a lab that accepts samples from owners and they were one of the Universities that did a lot of the original work with this disease.

I am having trouble deciding if it is the right time to have him euthanized. He has lost an extreme amount of weight, though his cough is sooooo much better. His appetite is good. He is less active, though has his days when he smashes the other goats around.

Does anyone have experience with this disease, in older goats?


9 years ago


There seems to be a link between blood copper levels and CAE. This is an excerpt from Pat Coleby's book

CAE and Copper

There is a strong link between CAE and lack of copper in the diet. Before anyone knew what it was, the disease had been documented in the United States as a condition where the goat either had not received, or had been unable to assimilate, the correct amount of copper. It seems that a diet deficient in that mineral would predispose an animal to lateral infection.

My goats have always had supplementary copper since before the start of the CAE era (or what we considered to be the start). This was due to Dr. Alan Clark, B.V.Sc. who tested copper levels in my herd so we could establish the dietary amounts needed. Seeing the copper levels are correct would be a small price to pay in the control of this illness. In 1990, in the United States, St. Johnswort, a plant high in copper, was first used to help combat AIDS. Also in the United States, the very rapid spread of AIDS had been linked to inadequate copper in the food chain — perhaps due to the advent of plastic plumbing — caught the FDA on the hop. They had always assumed that most people got more than enough copper in their diets and found that when they tested AIDS sufferers in particular, they had only one twentieth of what they should have had (Acres U.S.A). Johnes disease, a simple bacterial condition also needs a copper-deficient host.

I realized that my management of CAE was working and about as bloodless as it could be, but still a nightmare. Others were not so lucky. A certain breeder who was obeying all the rules about separate herds, sheds, etc., rang me to say that yet again her goatlings had come up positive. I asked how much copper she was feeding: "None, everyone told me not to listen to you." I suggested that she take some copper and see if the goats were interested. She took out an enamel pudding dish full of it and 11 goats stood and ate the lot — after that she believed me.

When the copper level tests were done on my herd, I had about one third showing "big knees." Alan Clark and I confidently expected them to show low calcium/magnesium levels as it appeared to be an arthritic condition. To our surprise, they only showed low copper levels, even though I was supplementing with a small amount of the mineral. From these tests, we established the lower level of copper supplementation. I later raised the levels slightly in the diet after reading information from Japan that dark haired people needed six times more copper than those with fair hair (I ran predominantly black British Alpines). Over the ensuing ten years, while fighting to eradicate CAE from a fairly large herd of dairy goats, I had no lateral spread at all. The only transmission of the disease was by milk and/or colostrum. My goats have a minimum of one teaspoon of copper sulfate a head per week, this is run through the feed on a daily basis as suggested in this book.

In my own experience, my goats get a sprinkle (approx <1/8 teaspoon) a day of copper sulphate in their feed because they had a copper deficiency a few years ago. 4 months after the added copper in their diets, all signs of a deficiency were gone. Do your goats get a good mineral with at least 1000-1810 ppm copper??

I also give my one wether who has arthritis, herbs with pain killing and anti-inflammatory properties. They help his mobility tremendously and make a noticable difference. The herbs I use are White Willow Bark, Yucca Root, Feverfew and Devils Claw. I mix them in equal portions and give my wether 2 teaspoons 1-2 times a day as needed. I buy them in powder form, dissolve in water and drench. Your goat 'may' eat them right off the spoon without having to mix & drench.

Fiasco Farm has an article on CAE and the herbal treatment they use.

If you don't use herbs, you can give him 1 adult aspirin 2-3X a day. I like the herbs because I can give them without worrying about possible ulcers or kidney problems that could develop with long-term use of aspirin. HErbs are safer IMO and my goat can have them whenever he needs them.

If he were mine?? I certainly wouldn't euthanize if his pain is under control, he is eating ok and seems fine otherwise. Try adding a probiotic and yeast (brewer's yeast) supplement to his feed like Right Track.

Beneficial yeast (NOT raw bakers yeast!!) and live micro-organisms in probiotics have been shown to help with weight gain. They certainly won't hurt Goatee in anyway!!

To put weight on horses, some people feed beet pulp for added carbohydrates, and add a little vegetable oil for fat calories. Try giving him some extra hay and grain (always feed hay first) to help him gain weight. Feed him seperately if you have to to make sure he is getting all he wants and doesn't have to compete with the other goats. You can add an equine vitamin supplement like Manna Pro to give him a nutritional boost.

9 years ago

Was he ever tested for Johnnes disease? Oh, if he doesn't like vegetable oil added to his feed, feed him black oil sunflower seeds. They are loaded with 'good' fat and many other nutrients! Should help with weight gain.

If you are interested in herbal pain/inflammation therapy, let me know and i'll post where i buy the herbs in bulk powder form.

9 years ago

I have been letting Goatee eat free choice of what ever he wishes in attempts to gain weight. To better put it, to keep from losing more weight. He first showed symptoms early spring and his weight has declined since then.

ughhhhhhhhh I am feeling sick to my stomach even writing this!

If this were the situation of a cat or dog, I'd have an easier time of making this decision. I worked at a small animal hospital for 14 years. I also put my own dog of 14 years (she was 18 years old) to sleep, myself, days before the scheduled appointment. There was a moment for the first time in months that I knew it was time for her.

Goatee is my first goat. I have had horses a long time, but still Goatee is different. Well you all know they are such different animals.

I knew what to look for in my dog, to see if her positive parts of life out weighed the negative. .........

ON a scale of 1 - 10 his body condition is at best a 2. He still walks and even last night butted the other 3. He was always #1.

HE is still eating, though his appetite has decreased. Though I wonder if it is just painful for him to eat. I installed a bucket and a hay rack (safe for the horns), so he doesn't have to bend if he doesn't wish to.

These are the changes in his activity.

1. He used to bolt to try and get out the gate to the grassy area ti eat. Now when I leave the gate open he almost never does. He does seem to enjoy it more in the evening. I thought this was totally due to the heat, but it is not that hot now (67 degrees today) and he didn't come to the gate, or even come to the food.

2. He used to be the first one at the buckets, trying to stick his head in as I brought them in. Getting a bite of horse grain was his favorite. I put the 2 young goats out in one grassy area (so much for my non-animal lawn) lol Some times the older Toggenburg "Trooper" wants to go with them. Other days he waits for me to bring his grain into the goat/horse area. (My do I sound trained! - He had been so badly abused before, I am such a sucker!)

Now instead of feed me first Goatee, he is often last to the food. Today, he wasn't too interested in grain, unless I hand fed him. HE LOVES ATTENTION, ALWAYS HAS. MORE SO THEN THE OTHERS. HIS FIRST FEW MONTHS WERE AT A LARGE ANIMAL SHELTER DURING SUMMER CAMP THROUGH THE SPCA. 

They can get to horse stalls, the horses can't get to their run in. He often is found standing in one of the horse stalls. They are open on both sides to the paddock, so he can't get trapped, and he has grown up with the horses. There are two horses.

His automatic waterer is on the back wall of the horse barn, about 24 feet from where he stands most of the day. If he chooses the other horse stall, it is about 9 feet from him. Though he does walk further than that through the paddock at least every other day, I worry he might not be getting enough water. When I bring it in a bucket to him, some times he drinks, some times he doesn't. His urine is more concentrated than usual, even more so this past few weeks. I do know he is urinating, for when I clean his stall in the morning and no one else has access to it, he does go out of his way to pee in it on the shavings, rather than outside any where He also will urinate elsewhere, not just in his stall. IT is extremely dark, though he does  not appear to be blocked or straining to urinate or bothered in any way regarding urinating.  He has no past history of any urinary problems.

His gums are not as dark as they were, as I often check his capillary refill, as you would an animal under anesthesia.

His temperature is most often 104.5

He coughs a very small amount, nothing like he did when he was treated with antibiotics.

I have read that normal respiration for goats is 20? Is that what others find? He is a Saanen.

He looks at me with his face of wanting to be petted and groomed, though, it is a look now rather than the nudge of his head or tapping my foot with his hoof.

He still will move from me if I go to catch him with a leed rope, on his good days.

His knees are quite swollen now.

As for how much weight he has lost, over fifty lbs? The Toggenburg is not a huge grain eater. Unless it is raining, I can leave grain for Goatee all day. Never could I do that before, he'd eat until his died LITERALLY if he could find any way to get to grain. They have free choice hay, which is of good quality. What they pick through if it is ever not perfect, my horse eats and they get the fresh stuff. Usually I put out about 6-8 flakes at a time with the 2 horses and the few goats. This way it is all spread around and everyone still has areas to choose from, rather than getting the last spot open. I was told when I got him that he'd eat the left over hay from the horse. RIGHT! He and Trooper are so picky and heaven forbid you drop a treat on the ground! I am thinking he stands a lot because it might be easier for him to breathe or it is jut hard for him to get up and down. He just used to lie down so much more. Very sad sad mother Tomorrow I am supposed to take the two little boys into be castrated. Though they have not had their tetanus shots. If their mom was vaccinated, do they have enough protection or should I reschedule the surgery? My former boss is going to do it. I have to take them into the small animal clinic though, in Boston, MA. Good thing they like the truck (They are still small enough to stay in the back se3at if it is folded down). He does not do goats, well hasn't for so many years. I still feel confident taking him in, for the procedure is less involved than canine neuters. Also, he can be intubated and put on 02 and gas anesthesia if necessary, unlike if he was done here. Likely he (they) won't have to, but I'd rather have that option - the 02, etc in case of emergency.

9 years ago

Sorry...I swear I posted a reply to this thread 2 days ago. Anyway, here is the post that apparently is lost in cyber space: Goatee eats whatever he wants? Free-choice hay! What kind of hay does he get? If it is grass hay, try switching to alfalfa. It has more protein (he could use the extra nutrition) and goats seem to prefer it to grass hays. It may peak his interest in eating.

The fact his urine is very concentrated worries me. Dark urine usually indicates he is not getting enough fluids. Perhaps try flavoring his water with apple cider or berry or orange flavored Koolaid. Even though his skin doesn't tent, he could still be dehydrated. Try getting some gatorade down him or use one of the granulated equine electrolyte supplement like Farnum Apple Electrolyte Elite or Horse Health Electro Dex. It is important he gets the proper electrolytes for normal bodily functions. You may have to force water down him several times a day or consider SQ fluids via Lactated Ringers Solution. Limited water intake can potentially cause UC

When was the last time you wormed him? He could still have worms or coccidia. To get all life stages of parasites, it is necessary to treat with a wormer 3 X in a row at a 7-10 day interval, otherwise eggs will hatch, larvae/juveniles will mature, lay their own eggs, eggs hatch, mature and lay more eggs continuing the cycle. Most wormers do not kill the eggs, so you need to worm after they hatch.

While wormers like Ivomec will kill many parasites, they do not kill coccidia. You need to use a sulfa drug like Albon or Sulmet. Often loose/clumpy  stools or diarrhea are signs of cocci, but this is not always the case. Weight loss is another sign as is the gums/eyelids getting paler. If his gums are not as dark as they were he could have anemia due to a heavy parasite load. I'd worm him as described above and also use Sulmet or Albon for possible coccidia. Both Albon & Sulmet have the same dosage which goes by weight and can be used on kids and mature goats. You can take a fecal sample to your vet, have him do a fecal float to see what you are dealing with.

Five day treatment- you must treat the full five days.

Day one: 1 ml per 5 pounds- given orally.

Days 2-5: 1 ml per 10 pounds- given orally

For the anemia, you can give him a human multiple tablet with lots of vitamin B and iron to build his blood. He can have an adult dose a day until he has improved.

The swollen never said what his test results were for CAE. And did you have him tested for Johannes (a wasting disease) Keeping his pain under control and bringing down any swelling will help his mobility. You can get conventional pain killers from the vet and anti-inflammatory drugs. Personally I have  used herbs with wonderful success.

White Willow Bark

"The analgesic action of willow bark depends on symbiotic or "friendly" intestinal bacteria to digest is components into painkilling forms. Aspirin does not require digestion by intestinal bacteria, and works more quickly. Willow bark, on the other hand, continues to provide pain relief longer than aspirin. Unlike aspirin, the salicylates in willow bark do not increase the risk of bleeding. They do not usually irritate the lining of the stomach. For these reasons, willow bark may be useful for people who have chronic joint pain but cannot take NSAIDs or COX-2 inhibitors."


It has a good reputation as alternative medicine and extensive research has proved it to be of special benefit in the treatment of certain types of migraine headaches and rheumatism or arthritis. The plant is rich in sesquiterpene lactones, the principal one being parth

9 years ago

Parthenolide helps prevent excessive clumping of platelets and inhibits the release of certain chemicals, including serotonin and some inflammatory mediators. Applied externally as a tincture, the plant is used in the treatment of bruises.

Devil's Claw

"Devil's Claw, also known as "Nature's Bute", is well known for its ability to provide fast, powerful and reliable pain relief as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic benefits. Its action is said to be comparable to cortisone and phenylbutazone. Devil's Claw has been used to treat cases of arthritis, tendon and ligament damage and joint injury, where pain and inflammation need to be alleviated. It also has the ability to cleanse deep into tissue and muscle walls, and it supports liver function." Devils claw should not be used on pregnant does.

Yucca Root

Yucca Root reduces inflammation and relieves joint pain and stiffness due to arthritis

The two boys being castrated I would definitely give them  a shot of Tetanus- Antitoxin which is for short term protection (i think it lasts like 3-4 weeks)  Especially if they are around horses. Tetanus is in the soil everywhere. After 4 weeks, I'd vaccinate them with CD&T, which contains Tetanus-Toxoid for long term protection. Give one shot, then 4 weeks later a booster. Then yearly vaccinations afterwards.

9 years ago
Dorothy...any update on Goatee? Did i mention feeding him beet pulp to add weight? They give beet pulp to fatten up horses, may help put some weight on Goatee.