Note: Not all branches are included. Aerodynamics: the study of the motion of gas on objects and the forces created Anatomy: the study of the structure and organization of living things Anthropology: the study of human cultures both past and present Archaeology: the study of the material remains of cultures Astronomy: the study of celestial objects in the universe Astrophysics: the study of the physics of the universe Bacteriology: the study of bacteria in relation to disease Biochemistry: the study of the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occurring in organisms Biophysics: the application of theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology Biology: the science that studies living organisms Botany: the scientific study of plant life Chemical Engineering: the application of science, mathematics, and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms Chemistry: the science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself
Climatology: the study of climates and investigations of its phenomena and causesComputer Science: the systematic study of computing systems and computation Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment Electronics: science and technology of electronic phenomena Engineering: the practical application of science to commerce or industry Entomology: the study of insects Environmental Science: the science of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment Forestry: the science of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources Genetics: the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms Geology: the science of the Earth, its structure, and history Marine Biology: the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems Mathematics: a science dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement Medicine: the science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease
Meteorology: study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecastingMicrobiology: the study of microorganisms, including viruses, prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes Mineralogy: the study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals Molecular Biology: the study of biology at a molecular level Nuclear Physics: the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom Neurology: the branch of medicine dealing with the nervous system and its disorders Oceanography: study of the earth's oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes Organic Chemistry: the branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and reactions of carbon-containing compounds Ornithology: the study of birds Paleontology: the study of life-forms existing in former geological time periods Petrology: the geological and chemical study of rocks Physics: the study of the behavior and properties of matter Physiology: the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms Radiology: the branch of medicine dealing with the applications of radiant energy, including x-rays and radioisotopes Seismology: the study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth Taxonomy: the science of classification of animals and plants Thermodynamics: the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes Zoology: the study of animals
Exact sciences are those which typically require precise measurements, such as physics, and to a lesser degree, chemistry. Descriptive sciences are those which are more oriented towards classification and description, such as biology and paleontology.
The pure natural sciences are typically divided into the physical sciences and the biological sciences, both of which can be subdivided. The major physical sciences are physics, astronomy, chemistry, and geology; the main biological sciences are botany and zoology.
The sciences aren't distinct and independent from each other, but rather, there are are interconnections and cross-fertilisations. These interrelationships are often responsible for much of the progress today in several specialized fields of research, such as molecular biology and genetics. Several interdisciplinary sciences, such as biochemistry, have been created as a result.. Advances can be the result of research by teams of specialists representing different sciences, both pure and applied.
Dale H: The rest of that essay is highly instructive.
To me, there are only five divisions of natural science: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Astronomy, and Geology. The subdivisions within those branches and the connections between them illustrate the futility of essentialism.
Physics and chemistry are the "parent" sciences and biology, astronomy, and geology are the "children" sciences that are built on the first two. Parent sciences do not have a historical element, but children sciences do because the physical and chemical laws are applied to deep time to produce natural history. The scientific method is used to define and confirm all physical and chemical laws.
Having a holistic view of the universe, it seems to me that one can only understand it properly by looking at all its component parts and the various ways they can interact, and thus boundaries between different branches of science must ultimately become meaningless.