As Requested from Carolyn H. I am beginning this thread with American Indian Tribes of North Dakota:
North Dakota Indian Tribes
Arikara. Signifying "horns," or "elk," and having reference to their ancient manner of wearing the hair with two pieces of bone standing up, one on each side of the crest; -ra is the plural suffix. Also called:
Ă da ka' da ho, Hidatsa name.
Ah-pen-ope-say, or A-pan-to'-pse, Crow name.
Corn eaters, given as their own name.
Ka'-nan-in, Arapaho name, meaning "people whose jaws break in pieces."
O-no'-ni-o, Cheyenne name.
Padani, Pani, applied to them by various tribes.
Ree, abbreviation of Arikara.
Sanish, "person," their own name, according to Gilmore (1927).
S'gŭǐes'tshi, Salish name.
Stâr-râh-he' [tstarahi], their own name, according to Lewis and Clark (1904-05).
Tanish, their own name, meaning "the people," according to Hayden (1862). Perhaps a misprint of Sanish.
Wa-zi'-ya-ta Pa-da'-nin, Yankton name, meaning "northern Pawnee."
Connections. The Arikara belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock and were a comparatively recent offshoot of the Skidi Pawnee.
Subdivisions and Villages
The Arikara are sometimes spoken of as a confederacy of smaller tribes each occupying its own village, and one account mentions 10 of these, while Gilmore (1927) furnishes the names of 12, including 4 of major importance under which
the others were grouped. These were as follows:
Awahu, associated with which were Hokat and Scirihauk.
Hukawirat, with which were associated Warihka and Nakarik.
Tusatuk, with which were associated Tsininatak and Witauk.
Tukstanu, with which were associated Nakanusts and Nisapst.
Earlier sources give other names which do not agree with these:
Hosukhaunu, properly the name of a dance society.
Hosukhaunukarerihu, properly the name of a dance society.
Lohoocat, the name of a town in the time of Lewis and Clark.
History. After parting from the Skidi in what is now Nebraska, the Arikara gradually pushed north to the Missouri River and on up that stream. In 1770 when French traders opened relations with them they were a little below Cheyenne River. Lesser and Weltfish (1932) suggest that they may have been the Harahey or Arahey of whom Coronado was told rather than the Pawnee. Lewis and Clark found them, reduced considerably in numbers, between Grand and Cannonball Rivers. In 1823 they attacked the boats of an American trader, killing 13 men and wounding others, and in consequence of this trouble they abandoned their country and went to live with the Skidi on Loup River. Two years later they returned to the Missouri, and by 1851 they had pushed as far north as Heart River. Meantime wars with the Dakota and the smallpox had reduced them so much that they were glad to open friendly relations with two other tribes, similarly reduced, the Hidatsa and Mandan. In 1862 they moved to Fort Berthold. In 1880 the Fort Berthold Reservation was created for the three tribes, and the Arikara have ever since lived upon it, though they are now allotted land in severalty, and on the approval of the allotments, July 10, 1900, they became citizens of the United States.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were about 3,000 Arikara. In 1804 Lewis and Clark gave 2,600. In 1871 they numbered 1,650; in 1888 only 500; and in 1904, 380. The census of 1910 returned 444 of whom 425 were in North Dakota. In 1923 the United States Indian Office gave 426. The census of 1930 returned 420, and the United States Indian Office in 1937, 616.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Arikara are noted merely as the most northerly of the Caddoan tribes and from their probable influence in introducing a knowledge of agriculture to the people of the upper Missouri. Arickaree in Washington County, Colo., perpetuates the name.
Assiniboin. In early days the Assiniboin were constantly coming across from Canada to fight and trade with the tribes of the upper Missouri, but they did not settle within the limits of North Dakota for any considerable period. (See Montana, and
Cheyenne. When they left Minnesota the Cheyenne settled for a while on the Sheyenne fork of Red River after which they moved beyond the limits of the State of North Dakota. (See South Dakota.)
Chippewa. After they had obtained guns the Chippewa pushed westward as far as the Turtle Mountains which gave their name to a Chippewa band. There were 2,966 Chippewa in North Dakota in 1910. (See Minnesota.)
Dakota. While working their way west from Minnesota, bands of Dakota occupied at various times parts of the eastern, southern, and southwestern margins of North Dakota and a part of the Standing Rock Agency is within the limits of the State. In 1910 1,190 Dakota were making their homes on its soil. (See South Dakota.)
Hidatsa. Derived from the name of a former village and said, on somewhat doubtful authority, to signify "willows." Also called:
A-gutch-a-ninne-wug, Chippewa name, meaning "the settled people."
A-me-she', Crow name, meaning "people who live in earth houses."
Gi-aucth-in-in-e-wug, Chippewa name, meaning "men of the olden time."
Gros Ventres of the Missouri, traders' name, probably derived from the sign for them in the sign language.
Hewaktokto, Dakota name.
Minitari, meaning "they crossed the water," said to have been given to them by the Mandan, from the tradition of their first encounter with the tribe on the Missouri.
Wa-nuk'-e-ye'-na, Arapaho name, meaning "lodges planted together."
Wetitsatn, Arikara name.
Connections. The Hidatsa belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their closest relations within it being the Crow.
Location. They lived at various points on the Missouri between the Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also Montana and Canada.)
Lewis and Clark (1804-5) give the following three names:
Amahami or Mahaha, on the south bank of Knife River, formerly an independent but closely related tribe.
Amatiha, on the south bank of Knife River.
Hidatsa, on the north bank of Knife River.
The band names given by Morgan are rather those of social divisions.
History. According to tradition, the Hidatsa formerly lived by a lake northeast of their later country, one sometimes identified with Devil's Lake. They moved from there to the mouth of Heart River, where they met and allied themselves with the Mandan, and from them they learned agriculture. As we have seen, Lewis and Clark found them on Knife River. In 1837 a terrible smallpox epidemic wasted them so completely that the survivors consolidated into one village which was moved in 1845 to the neighborhood of Fort Berthold, where the tribe has ever since continued to reside. They have now been allotted lands in severalty and are citizens of the United States.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the Hidatsa and Amahami together as numbering 2,500 in 1780. Lewis and Clark give 600 warriors, or about 2,100 people. In 1905 they totaled 471, and the census of 1910 gives 547, a figure repeated by the United States Indian Office in 1923. In 1930, 528 were returned and in 1937, 731.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Hidatsa appear most prominently, along with the Mandan, in connection with the ascent of the Missouri by Lewis and Clark and later expeditions into the same region. The name of Minatare, Scotts Bluff County, Nebr., probably refers to this tribe.
Mandan. Probably a corruption of the Dakota word applied to them, Mawatani. Also called:
A-rach-bo-cu, Hidatsa name (Long, 1791)
As-a-ka-shi, Us-suc-car-shay, Crow name.
How-mox-tox-sow-es, Hidatsa name (?).
Kanit', Arikara name.
Kwowahtewug, Ottawa name.
Métutahanke, own name since 1837, after their old village.
Mo-no'-ni-o, Cheyenne name.
Numakaki, own name prior to 1837, meaning "men," "people."
U-ka'-she, Crow name, meaning "earth houses."
Location. When known to the Whites, the Mandan were on the same part of the Missouri River as the Hidatsa, between Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also South Dakota.)
Subdivisions and Villages. The division names given by Morgan (1851) appear to have been those of their former villages and are as follows: Horatamumake, Matonumake, Seepoosha, Tanatsuka, Kitanemake, Estapa, and Neteahke. In 1804 Lewis and Clark found two villages in existence, Metutahanke and Ruptari, about 4 miles below the mouth of Knife River.
They were divided socially into two moieties named like those of the Hidatsa, the Four-Clan Moiety and Three-Clan Moiety, and many of the clans constituting these bear village names. One of Dr. Lowie's (1917) informants gave the Prairie-chicken people, Young white-headed Eagle, People all in a bunch, and Crow people, as clans of the first Moiety; and the Maxi'‘kina, Tamï'sik, and Nū'ptare as clans of the second. Another informant gave the following clans altogether: Si'pucka, Xtaxta'nü'mak', Village above, Maxáhe, Tamǐ'sik, Seven-different kinds, Hilltop village, Scattered village, white-bellied mouse people, and Nūptare. Curtis (1907-9) and Maximilian (1843) give a Badger clan; Curtis, Red Butte and Charcoal clans; Maximilian, Bear and Cactus villages, perhaps intended for clans; and Morgan, Wolf, Good Knife, Eagle, and Flathead clans. Some of Lowie's informants substituted other names for Nū'pta, which latter is also the name of a village.
History. When first visited by the Whites, the Mandan had distinct traditions of an eastern origin, and they may have come from the neighborhood of the Winnebago or from the Ohio country. Tradition also affirms that they first reached the Missouri at the mouth of White River, South Dakota, whence they moved to Moreau River and thence to Heart River, where the Whites found them. The first recorded visit to them was by Varendrye in 1738. The nine villages which they had in 1750 were merged into two by 1776 which were about 4 miles below the mouth of Knife River when Lewis and Clark visited them in 1804. In 1837 they were almost destroyed by smallpox, only 31 souls being left out of 1,600, according to one account. In
1845 some Mandan accompanied the Hidatsa to Fort Berthold, others followed at intervals, and the tribe has continued to reside there down to the present time, though lands are now allotted to them in severalty and they are citizens of the United States.
Population. Mooney's (1928) estimate of Mandan population for 1780 is 3,600. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimated there were 1,250, and in 1837, just before the great smallpox epidemic, there were supposed to be 1,600. In 1850 the total number was said to be 150, but in 1852 it had apparently increased to 385. In 1871 there were 450; in 1877, 420; in 1885, 410; and 1905, 249; while the census of 1910 returned 209, and the United States Indian Office Report of 1923, 273. The census of 1930 gives 271, and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 345.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Mandan attained wide notoriety among the Whites
(1) from their intimate dealings with the early White explorers and traders in the upper Missouri region;
(2) from the fact that their customs and ceremonies were made particular matters of record by Maximilian (1843), Catlin (1844), and other White visitors;
(3) from the reputation these Indians acquired of an unusually light skin color and theories of Welsh or, at least European, origin based upon these characters; and
(4) from the tragic decimation of the tribe by smallpox as above mentioned. The name has been adopted as that of a city in North Dakota, the capital of Morton County.
Alabama Indian Tribes
Abihka, see Creek Confederacy and Muskogee.
Alabama (See Alabama)
Apalachee. A part of this tribe lived for a time among the Lower Creeks and perhaps in this State. Another section settled near Mobile and remained there until West Florida was ceded to Great Britain when they crossed the Mississippi. A few seem to have joined the Creeks and migrated with them to Oklahoma. (See Florida.)
Apalachicola. Very early this tribe lived on the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee Rivers, partly in Alabama. Sometime after 1715 they settled in Russell County, on the Chattahoochee River where they occupied at least two different sites before removing with the rest of the Creeks to the other side of the Mississippi. (See Georgia.)
Cherokee. In the latter part of the eighteenth century some Cherokee worked their way down the Tennessee River as far as Muscle Shoals, constituting the Chickamauga band. They had settlements at Turkeytown on the Coosa, Willstown on Wills Creek, and Coldwater near Tuscumbia, occupied jointly with the Creeks and destroyed by the Whites in 1787. All of their Alabama territory was surrendered in treaties made between 1807 and 1835. (See Tennessee.)
Chickasaw. The Chickasaw had a few settlements in northwestern Alabama, part of which State was within their hunting territories. At one time they also had a town called Ooe-asa (Wǐ-aca) among the Upper Creeks. (See Mississippi.)
Creek Confederacy. This name is given to a loose organization which constituted the principal political element in the territory of the present States of Georgia and Alabama from very early times, probably as far back as the period of De Soto. It was built around a dominant tribe, or rather a group of dominant tribes, called
Muskogee. The name Creek early became attached to these people because when they were first known to the Carolina colonists and for a considerable period afterward the body of them which the latter knew best was living upon a river, the present Ocmulgee, called by Europeans "Ocheese Creek." The Creeks were early
divided geographically into two parts, one called Upper Creeks, on the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers; the other, the Lower Creeks, on the lower Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee. The former were also divided at times into the Coosa branch or Abihka and the Tallapoosa branch and the two were called Upper and Middle Creeks respectively. Bartram (1792) tends to confuse the student by denominating all of the true Creeks "Upper Creeks" and the Seminole "Lower Creeks." The dominant Muskogee gradually gathered about them, and to a certain extent under them, the Apalachicola, Hitchiti, Okmulgee, Sawokli, Chiaha, Osochi, Yuchi, Alabama, Tawasa, Pawokti, Muklasa, Koasati, Tuskegee, a part of the Shawnee, and for a time some Yamasee, not counting broken bands and families from various quarters. The first seven of the above were for the most part among the Lower Creeks, the remainder with the Upper Creeks. (For further information, see the separate tribal names under Alabama, Georgia, and Florida.)
Eufaula. A division or subtribe of the Muskogee.
Koasati. Meaning unknown; often given as Coosawda and Coushatta, and sometimes abbreviated to Shati.
Connections. They belonged to the southern section of the Muskhogean linguistic group, and were particularly close to the Alabama.
Location. The historic location of the Koasati was just below the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers to form the Alabama and on the east side of the latter, where Coosada Creek and Station still bear the name. (See also Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma.)
Villages. Two Koasati towns are mentioned as having existed in very early times, one of which may have been the Kaskinampo. (See Tennessee.) At a later period a town known as Wetumpka on the east bank of Coosa River, in Elmore County, near the falls seems to have been occupied by Koasati Indians. During part of its existence Wetumpka was divided into two settlements, Big Wetumpka on the
site of the modern town of the same name and Little Wetumpka above the falls of Coosa.
History. It is probable that from about 1500 until well along in the seventeenth century, perhaps to its very close, the Koasati lived upon Tennessee River. There is good reason to think that they are the Coste, Acoste, or Costehe of De Soto's chroniclers whose principal village was upon an island in the river, and in all probability this was what is now known as Pine Island. There is also a bare mention
of them in the narrative of Pardo's expedition of 1567 inland Santa Elena, and judging by the entries made upon maps published early in the eighteenth century this tribe seems to have occupied the same position when the French and English made their settlements in the Southeast. About that time they were probably joined by the
related Kaskinampo. Not long after they had become known to the Whites, a large part of the Koasati migrated south and established themselves at the point mentioned above. A portion seems to have remained behind for we find a village called Coosada at Larkin's Landing in Jackson County at a much later date. The main body all continued with the Upper Creeks until shortly after France ceded all of her territories east of the Mississippi to England in 1763, when a large part moved to Tombigbee River. These soon returned to their former position, but about 1795 another part crossed the Mississippi and settled on Red River. Soon afterward they seem to have split up, some continuing on the Red while others went to the Sabine and beyond to the Neches and Trinity Rivers, Tex. At a later date where few Texas bands united with the Alabama in Polk County, their descendants still live, but most returned to Louisiana and gathered into one neighborhood northeast of Kinder, La. The greater part of the Koasati who remained in Alabama accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma, where a few are still to be found. Previous to this removal, some appear to have gone to Florida to cast in their lot with the Seminole.
Population. The earliest estimates of the Alabama Indians probably included the Koasati. In 1750 they are given 50 men; in 1760,150 men. Marbury (1792) credits them with 130 men. In 1832, after the Louisiana branch had split off, those who remained numbered 82 and this is the last separate enumeration we have. Sibley (1806) on native authority gives 200 hunters in the Louisiana bands; in 1814 Schermerhorn estimates that there were 600 on the Sabine; in 1817 Morse places the total Koasati population in Louisiana and Texas at 640; in 1829 Porter puts it at 180; in 1850 Bollaert gives the number of men in the two Koasati towns on Trinity River as 500. In 1882 the United States Indian Office reported 290 Alabama, Koasati, and Muskogee in Texas, but the Census of 1900 raised this to 470. The Census of 1910 returned 11 Koasati from Texas, 85 from Louisiana, and 2 from Nebraska; those in Oklahoma were not enumerated separately from the other Creeks. The 134 "Creeks" returned from Louisiana in 1930 were mainly Koasati.
Connection in which they have become noted. Coosada, a post village
in Elmore County, Ala., near the old Koasati town, and Coushatta, the capital of Red River Parish, La, preserve the name of the Koasati.
Kolomi. A division of the Muskogee.
Mobile. Meaning unknown, but Halbert (1901) suggests that it may be from Choctaw moeli, "to paddle," since Mobile is pronounced moila by the Indians. It is the Mabila, Mauilla, Mavila, or Mauvila of the De Soto chroniclers.
Connections. The language of the tribe was closely connected with that of the Choctaw and gave its name to a trade jargon based upon Choctaw or Chickasaw.
Location. When the French settled the seacoast of Alabama the Mobile were living on the west side of Mobile River a few miles below the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee.
History. When they make their first appearance in history in 1540 the Mobile were between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, and on the east side of the former. Their chief, Tuscaloosa, was a very tall and commanding Indian with great influence throughout the surrounding country. He inspired his people to attack the invading Spaniards and a terrific battle was fought October 18, 1540, for the possession of one of his fortified towns (Mabila), which the Spaniards carried with heavy losses to themselves in killed and wounded, while of the Indians 2,500 or more fell. It is probable that the village of Nanipacna, through which a force of Spaniards of the De Luna colony passed in 1559, was occupied by some of the survivors of this tribe. At a later date they may have settled near Gees Bend of the Alabama River, in Wilcox County, because early French maps give a village site there which they call "Vieux Mobiliens." A Spanish letter of 1686 speaks of them as at war with the Pensacola tribe. When the French came into the country, the Mobile were, as stated above, settled not far below the junction of the Tombigbee and Alabaina. After a post had been established on the spot where Mobile stands today, the Mobile Indians moved down nearer to it and remained there until about the time when the English obtained possession of the country. They do not appear to have gone to Louisiana like so many of the smaller tribes about them and were probably absorbed in the Choctaw Nation.
Population. After allowing for all exaggerations, the number of Mobile Indians when De Soto fought with them must have been very considerable, perhaps 6,000 to 7,000. Mooney (1828) estimates 2,000 Mobile and Tohome in 1650, over a hundred years after the great battle. In 1702 Iberville states that this tribe and the Tohome together embraced about 350 warriors; warriors; 1725-26 and Boenville (1932, vol. 3, p. 536), gives 60 for the Mobile alone, but in 1730 Regis de Rouillet (1732) cuts this half. among the Mobile, Tohome and Narrates at about 100.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Mobile have attained a fame altogether beyond anything which their later numerical importance would warrant: (1) on account of the desperate resistance which they offered to De Soto's forces (2) from the important Alabama city to which they gave their name. There is a place called Mobile in Maricopa County, Ariz.
Napochi. If connected with Choctaw Napissa, as seems not unlikely, the name means "those who see," or "those who look out," probably equivalent to "frontiersmen."
Connection.-They belonged to the southern division of the Muskhogean proper, and were seemingly nearest to the Choctaw.
Location. Along Black Warrior River.
History. The tribe appears first in the account of an attempt to colonize the Gulf States in 1559 under Don Tristan de Luna. part of his forces being sent inland from Pensacola Bay came to Coosa in 1560 and assisted its people against the Napochi, whom they claimed to have reduced to "allegiance" to the former. After this the Napochi seem to have left the Black Warrior, and we know nothing certain of their fate, but the name was preserved down to very recent times among the Creeks as a war name, and it is probable that they are the Napissa spoken of by Iberville in 1699, as having recently and the Chickasaw. Possibly the Acolapissa of Pearl River and the Quinipissa of Louisiana were parts of the same tribe.
Connection in which they have become noted. The only claim the Napochi have to distinction is their possible connection with the remarkable group of mounds at Moundville, Hale County, Ala.
Shawnee. In 1716 a band of Shawnee from Savannah River moved to the Chattahoochee and later to the Tallapoosa, where they remained until early in the nineteenth century. A second band settled near Sylacauga in 1747 and remained there until some time before 1761 when they returned north. (See Tennessee.)
Taensa. This tribe was moved from Louisiana in 1715 and given a location about 2 leagues from the French fort at Mobile, one which had been recently abandoned by the Tawasa, along a watercourse which was named from them Tensaw River. Soon after the cession of Mobile to Great Britain, the Taensa returned to Louisiana. (See Louisiana.)
Tohome. Said by Iberville to mean "little chief," but this is evidently an error..
Location. About MacIntosh's Bluff on the west bank of Tombigbee River, some miles above its junction with the Alabama.
Subdivisions. Anciently there were two main branches of this tribe, sometimes called the Big Tohome and Little Tohome, but the Little Tohome are known more often as Naniaba, "people dwelling on a hill," or "people of the Forks;" the latter would be because they were where the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers unite.
Villages. No others are known than those which received their names from the
and its subdivisions.
History. Cartographical evidence suggests that the Tohome may once have lived on a creek formerly known as Oke Thome, now contracted into Catoma, which flows into Alabama River a short distance below Montgomery. When first discovered by the Whites, however, they were living at the point above indicated. In the De Luna narratives (1559-60) the Tombigbee River is called "River of the Tome." Iberville learned of this tribe in April 1700, and sent messengers who reached the Tohome village and returned in May. In 1702 he went to see them himself but seems not to have gone beyond the Naniaba. From this time on Tohome history is identical with that of the Mobile and the two tribes appear usually to have been in alliance although a rupture between them was threatened upon one occasion on account of the murder of a Mobile woman by one of the Tohome. In 1715 a Tohome Indian killed an English trader named Hughes who had come overland from South Carolina, had been apprehended and taken to Mobile by the French and afterward liberated. A bare mention of the tribe occurs in 1763 and again in 1771-72. They and the Mobile probably united ultimately with the Choctaw.
Population. In 1700 Iberville estimated that the Tohome and Mobile each counted 300 warriors, but 2 years later he revised his figures so far that he gave 350 for the two together. In 1730 Regis de Rouillet estimated that there were 60 among the Tohome and 50 among the Naniaba. In 1758 Governor De Kerlerec estimated that the Mobile, Tohome, and Naniaba together had 100 warriors. (See Mobile.)
Sequoya lived there in his boyhood. Another place which retained this name, and was probably the site of an earlier settlement was on the
north bank of Tennessee River, in a bend just below Chattanooga, while there was a Tuskegee Creek on the south bank of Little Tennessee River, north of Robbinsville, in Graham County, N. C. This band; or the greater part of it, was probably absorbed by the Cherokee. A second body of Tuskegee moved to the location mentioned above where the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers come together. It is possible that they first established themselves among the Creek towns on the Ocmulgee, moved with them to the Chattahoochee in 1715 and finally to the point just indicated, for we have at least two documentary notices of Tuskegee at those points and they appear so situated on a number of maps. It is more likely that these were the Tuskegee who finally settled at the Coosa-Tallapoosa confluence than a third division of the tribe but the fact is not yet established. In 1717 the French fort called Fort Toulouse or the Alabama Fort was built close to this town and therefore it continued in the French interest as long as French rule lasted. After the Creek removal, the Tuskegee formed a town in the southeastern part of the Creek territories in Oklahoma, but at a later date part moved farther to the northwest and established themselves near Beggs.
Connection in which they haze become noted. The name Tuskegee became applied locally to several places in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, and one in Creek County, Okla., but the most important place to receive it was Tuskeegee or Tuskegee, the county seat of Macon County, Ala. The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute for colored people, located at this place, has, under the guidance of the late Booker T. Washington, made the name better known than any other association.
Yamasee. There was a band of Yamasee on Mobile Bay shortly after 1715, at the mouth of Deer River, and such a band is entered on maps as late as 1744. It was possibly this same band which appears among the Upper Creeks during the same century and in particular is entered upon the Mitchell map of 1755. Later they seem to have moved across to Chattahoochee River and later to west Florida, where in 1823 they constituted a Seminole town. (See Florida.)
Yuchi. A band of Yuchi seems to have lived at a very early date near Muscle Shoals on Tennessee River, whence they probably moved into east Tennessee. A second body of the same tribe moved from Choctawhatchee River, Fla., to the Tallapoosa before 1760 and established themselves near the Tukabahchee, but they soon disappeared from the historical record. In 1715 the Westo Indians, who I believe to have been Yuchi, settled on the Alabama side of Chattahoochee River, probably on Little Uchee Creek. The year afterward another band, accompanied by Shawnee and Apalachicola Indians, established themselves farther down, perhaps at the mouth of Cowikee Creek in Barbour County, and not long afterward accompanied the Shawnee to Tallapoosa River. They settled beside the latter and some finally united with them. They seem to have occupied several towns in the neighborhood in succession and there is evidence that a part of them reached the lower Tombigbee. The main body of Yuchi shifted from the Savannah to Uchee Creek in Russell County between 1729 and 1740 and continued there until the westward migration of the Creek Nation. (See Georgia.)
Ahtena. Signifying "Ice People" Also called:
Copper River Indians, popular name
Intsi Dindjich, Kutchin name, meaning "men of iron"
Ketschetnäer or Kolshina, Russian name meaning, "ice people"
Mednofski, Russian name meaning "cooper river people"
Yellowknife Indians, by Ross (quoted by Dall, 1877
Yullit, Ugalakmiut name
Connections.-The Ahtena belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock. Physically they are said to bear a close resemblance to the Koyukukhotana (See Koyukan)
Location-In the basin of Cooper River
According to Allen (1887)
Miduusky, on Cooper River from its mouth to Tazlina River, and its branches.
Tatlazan, above the Tazlina.
According to Hoffman (ms,):
Ikherkhamut, near the mouth of Copper River.
Kangikhlukhmut, at the head of Copper River.
Kulchana, about headwaters of the Kuskokwim and extending probably into the valley of Copper River, but Osgood (1936) calls this "an erroneous generalized extension of the Ahtena people."
Kulushut, on Copper River next above the Ikherkhamut.
Shukhtutakhlit, on Copper River next above the Kangikhlukhmut.
Vikhit, next below the Kulchana (?).
Alaganik, with Ugalakmiut near the mouth of Copper River.
Batzulnetas, near upper Copper River where the trail for Tanana River begins.
Liebigstag, on the left bank of Copper River, latitude 61°57' N., longitude 145°45' W.
Midauski, on the east bank of Copper River below the mouth of Tonsina Creek.
Skatalis, near the mouth of Copper River, probably the original Alaganik
Skolai, on Nizina River near the mouth of Chitistone River, latitude 61°21' N., longitude 143°17' W.
Slana, at the confluence of Slana and Copper Rivers.
Titlogat, probably of the Kulchana division. (But cf. Osgood above.)
Toral, on Copper River at the mouth of Chitina River.
History.-The mouth of Copper River was discovered by Nagaieff in 1781, but expeditions into the interior met with such consistent hostility on the part of the natives that for a long time they were a simple record of failure. The attempts of Samoylof in 1796, Lastóchkin in 1798, Klimoffsky in 1819, and Gregorief in 1844 all ended in the same way. Serebrannikof ventured up the river in 1818, his disregard for the natives cost him his life and the lives of three of his companions. In 1882 after the cession of Alaska to the States, a trader named Holt ascended as far as Taral but on a subsequent visit he was killed by the natives. In 1884 Lt. Abercrombie explored a part of the river, and in 1885 a thorough exploration of the whole region was made by Lt. Allen, who visited the Ahtena villages on Copper River and on its principal tributaries. From that time on intercourse between the river people and Whites has been increasingly intimate.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimated 500 Ahtena for the year 1740. Petroff (1884) placed their numbers in 1880 at not more than 300. Allen (1887) gave 366 on the river and its branches. The census of 1890 returned 142, and that of 1910, 297. In 192o the total native population of Alaska speaking Athapascan dialects was 4,657 in 1930, 4,935.
Takhayuna, Knaiakhotana, name according to Petroff (1884).
U-nung'un, own name, according to Dall (1886).
Connections.-The Aleut constituted the only widely divergent branch of the Eskimauan linguistic stock, the remainder of the tongues of that family being closely related.
Location.-On the Aleutian Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and the western part of Alaska Peninsula.
There were two main subdivisions distinguished by difference in dialect: (1) the Atka, on Andreanof, Rat, and Near Islands; and (2) the Unalaska on the Fox and Shumagin Islands and Alaska Peninsula.
I. Atka Division
Attu, on Holt Bay (Chichagof Harbor ?), Attu Island.
Korovinski, at Korovin Bay, on Atka Island.
Nazan, on Atka Island.
Unalga, on Unalga Island, Andreanof group;
The following ruined places on the single island of Agattu: Agonakagna, Atkulik, Atkigyin, Hachimuk, Hamnulik, Hanilik, Hapkug, Higtiguk, Hilksuk, Ibin, Imik, Iptugik, Isituchi, Kakuguk, Kamuksusik, Kaslukug, Kigsitatok, Kikchik, Kikun, Kimituk, Kitak, Kuptagok, Magtok, Mukugnuk, Navisok, Siksatok, Sunik, Ugiatok, Ugtikun, Ugtumuk, Ukashik.
II. Unalaska Division:
Akutan, on Akutan Island, close to Unalaska Island.
Avatanak, on Avatanak Island, between Unalaska and Unimak Islands.
Belkofski, near the end of Alaska Peninsula.
Biorka, on Biorka Island near Unalaska.
Chernofski, on Unalaska Island.
Eider, on Captain Bay, Unalaska Island.
Iliuliuk, on Unalaska Island.
Kashiga, on Unalaska Island.
Korovinski, on Korovin Island.
Makushin, on Makushin Bay, Unalaska Island.
Mashik, at Port Moller, Alaska Peninsula.
Morzhovoi, at the end of Alaska Peninsula, formerly at the head of Morzhovoi and later on Traders Cove which opens into Isanotski Bay.
Nateekin, on Nateekin Bay, Unalaska Island.
Nikolaief, on Alaska Peninsula north of Belkofski.
Nikolski, on Umnak Island.
Pavlof, at Selenie Point, Pavlof Bay, Alaska Peninsula.
Pogromni, near Pogromni volcano, on the north shore of Unimak Island.
Popof, at Pirate Cove, Popof Island, one of the Shumagins.
Saint George, on St. George Island, Pribilof group.
Saint Paul, on Saint Paul Island, Pribilof group.
Sannak, on Sannak Island.
Unga, on Unga Island, Shumagin group.
Vossnessenski, on Vossnessenski Island, in the Shumagin group.
Villages reported by later writers:
Agulok, on Unalaska Island.
Akun, on Akun Island, between Unalaska and Unimak.
Artelnof, on Akun Island.
Beaver, on Unalaska Island.
Chaliuknak, on Beaver Bay, Unalaska Island.
Ikolga, on Unalaska Island.
Imagnee, on Summer Bay, Unalaska Island.
Itchadak, on one of the east Aleutian Islands.
Kalekhta, on -Unalaska Island.
Kutchlok on Unalaska Island.
Riechesni, on Little Bay, Akun Island in the Krenitzin group.
Seredka, on Seredka Bay in Akun Island.
Sisaguk, on Unimak Island.
Takamitka, on Unalaska Island.
Tigalda, on Tigalda Island, one of the east Aleutians.
Totchikala, on Unalaska Island..
Tulik, on Umnak Island, near a volcano of the same name.
Ugamitzi, on Unalaska Island.
Uknodok, on Hog Island, Captains Bay, Unalaska.
Veselofski, at Cape Cheerful, Unalaska.
History.-The Aleut became known to the Russians immediately after the voyages of Chirikoff and Bering in 1741, the discovery of the islands themselves being attributed to Mikhail Nerodchikof, September 1745. Though the natives at first resisted the exactions of the foreign traders with courage, their darts were no match for firearms, and they were not only cruelly treated themselves but were forced into the service of their masters as allies in attacks upon more distant peoples. It is said they were soon reduced to one-tenth of their former numbers. In 1794-1818 the Russian Government interfered to protect them from exploitation, and their condition was somewhat improved, but most of the improvement they experienced at Russian hands was due to the noted missionary Veniaminoff who began his labors in 1824. Through his efforts and those of fellow missionaries of the Greek Church, all of the Aleut were soon converted, and they were to some extent educated. In 1807 they, with the rest of the population of Alaska, passed under the control of the United States.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1740 there were 16,000 Aleut. Veniaminoff (1840) gave the Atka population as 750 in 1834 and the Unalaska population as 1,497. In 1848 Father Shaiesnekov enumerated 1,400 all told, a figure which was reduced to 900 as a result of the smallpox epidemic of that year. Dall (1877) estimated that there were about 2,000, and according to the census of 1890 there were 1,702, including 734 mixed-bloods. The census of 1910 returned 1,451. The native Alaskan population speaking Eskimauan dialects was 13,698 in 1920 and 19,028 in 1930,
Connection in which they have become noted.-The name of the Aleut is perpetuated in that of the Aleutian Islands, and from their language is derived the word Alaska, applied to Alaska Territory, and to Alaska Peninsula, which such a large number of the Aleut inhabit.
Dihai-kutchin. Signifying "Ku
Location.-The Dihai-kutchin lived about the north fork of Chandalar River, and the Middle and South Forks of the Koyokuk River, Alaska.
Population.-The Dihai-kutchin were never numerous and are now extinct as a separate body of Indians.
Eskimo. All of the coast lands of Alaska from Kayak Island near the mouth of Copper River to the Canadian boundary on the Arctic coast were fringed with Eskimo settlements except the upper end of Cook Inlet and that part of Alaska Peninsula which, with the Aleutian Islands, was occupied by the cognate Aleut. (See Aleut and Canada.)
Haida. A part of this tribe settled on Prince of Wales and Dall Islands early in the eighteenth century and are locally known as Kaigani. (See Haida under Canada.) The Kaigani population in 1910 numbered 530; in 1920, 524; and in 1930, 588.
Han. Signifying "those who dwell along the river."
Connections.-Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.-The Yukon River drainage between latitude 64° and 66° N., in east central Alaska and Yukon Territory, Canada.
Katshikotin or Eagle group (about the village of Eagle on Yukon River), including Johnny's Village and probably also Charlie's Village or Tadush (near the mouth of Kandik River), Takon of Nuklako (centering at the confluence of the Klondike and Yukon Rivers), and perhaps a third, Fetutlin (near the mouth of Forty Mile Creek.).
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 200 Han in 1740.
Ingalik. Name given by the Eskimo but widely used as applied to these Indians.
Connections.-The Ingalik were one of the westernmost divisions of the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.-Between Anvik and Holy Cross on the lower Yukon River, including the drainage of the Anvik River and the region southeast to the Kuskokwim River, including its drainage above Georgetown.
Osgood (1934) makes the following subdivisions:
(1) Anvik-Shageluk group, centering around the villages bearing these names.
(2) Bonasila group, centering around the village of the same name.
(3) Holy Cross-Georgetown group, centering around the villages bearing these names.
(4) McGrath group, the people of the drainage of the upper Kuskokwim River; this group somewhat arbitrarily constructed.
Villages Reported in this Area
Akmiut, a little above Kolmakof on Kuskokwim River.
Anvik, at the junction of Anvik and Yukon Rivers.
Chagvagchat, near the headwaters of Anvik River.
Inselnostlinde, on Shageluk River.
Intenleiden, on the east bank of Shageluk River.
Khugiligichakat, on Shageluk River.
Khunanilinde, near the headwaters of Kuskokwim River.
Koserefski, on the left bank of the Yukon near the mouth of Shageluk Slough, later an Ikogmiut Eskimo village.
Kuingshtetakten, on Shageluk River.
Kviginmpainag, on the east bank of Yukon River, 20 miles from Kvikak.
Napai, on the north bank of Kuskokwim River.
Palshikatno, on Innoko River.
Tigshelde, on Innoko River.
Tlegoshitno, on Shageluk River.
Vagitchitchate, near the mouth of Innoko River.
Population. (See Ahtena.)
Connections.-The Koyukon belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.-On the drainage of the Yukon River south of the mouth of the Tanana to about latitude 63° N., including the drainage of the Innoko River north of the latitude named, and of the Koyukuk in west central Alaska.
Kaiyuhkhotana, on Yukon River between the Anvik and Koyukuk, including the drainage of Innoko River north of latitude 63° N.
Koyukukhotana, the drainage of the Koyukuk River.
Yukonikhotana, the drainage of Yukon River south of the mouth of the Tanana to the mouth of the Koyukuk.
(1) Kaiyuhkhotana villages:
Anilukhtakpak, on Innoko River.
Chinik, or, the east bank of Yukon River at the junction with the Tallbisok.
Iktigelik, un Unalaklik River.
Innoka, on Tlegon River.
Ivan, on the divide between Unalaklik and Yukon Rivers.
Kagogagat, on the north bank of Yukon River at the mouth of Medicine Creek.
Kaiakak, on the west bank of Yukon River.
Kaltag, on the left bank of Yukon River.
Khogoltlinde, on Yukon River.
Khulikakat, on Yukon River.
Klamaskwaltin, on the north bank of Yukon River near the mouth of Kaiyuh River.
Kunkhogliak, on Yukon River.
Kutul, on Yukon River 50 miles above Anvik.
Lofka, on the west bank of Yukon River.
Nulato, on the north bank of Yukon River about 100 miles from Norton Sound.
Taguta, on the north bank of Yukon River 15 miles below the mouth of the Kaiyuh.
Takaiak, east of Yukon River near Nulato.
Talitui, on Tlegon River.
Tanakot, on the right bank of Yukon River near the mouth of Melozi River.
Terentief, on the Yukon below Koyukuk River.
Tutago, on Yukon River at the mouth of Auto River.
Wolasatux, on the east bank of Yukon River on a small stream north of Kaiyuh River.
(2) Koyukukhotana villages:
Batza, on Batza River.
Bolshoigor, on Yukon River 25 miles above the mouth of Koyukuk River.
Dotle, on Koyukuk River.
Hussliakatna, on the right bank of Koyukuk River, 2 miles above the south end of Dall Island.
Kakliaklia, on Koyukuk River at the mouth of Ssukloseanti River.
Kaltat, on an island in Yukon River not far from its junction with Koyukuk River.
Kanuti, on Koyukuk River in latitude 66°18' N.
Kautas, on Koyukuk River.
Kotil, at the junction of Kateel River with Koyukuk River.
Koyukuk, near the junction of Koyukuk and Yukon Rivers.
Mentokakat, on the left bank of Yukon River 20 miles above the mouth of Melozi River.
Nohulchinta, on the South Fork of Koyukuk River 3 miles above the junction.
Nok, on the west bank of Koyukuk River near its mouth.
Notaloten, on Yukon River 20 miles above the mouth of Koyukuk River. Oonigachtkhokh, on Koyukuk River.
Soonkakat, on the left bank of the Yukon River below Nulato.
Tashoshgon, on Koyukuk River.
Tlialil, on Koyukuk River.
Tok, on an island at the junction of Koyukuk River with the Yukon.
Zakatlatan, on the north bank of Yukon River, in longitude 156°30' W.
Zogliakten, on the east bank of Koyukuk River.
Zonagogliakten, on the east bank of Koyukuk River.
(3) Yukonikhotana villages:
Chentansitzan, on the north bank of Yukon River 30 miles below the mouth of Melozi River.
Medvednaia, on the south side of Yukon River.
Melozikakat, on Melozikakat River.
Noggai, on Yukon River.
Nowi, on the south side of Yukon River at the mouth of Nowikakat River_.
Tohnokalong, on the north bank of Yukon River in longitude 154°25' W.
Tuklukyet, on the north bank of Yukon River 15 miles below the mouth of the Tozi River.
History.-Russian influences began to penetrate the country of the Koyukon after the establishment of the Russian settlement of before any settlements had been made on the Kuskokwim or Yukon. In 1838 the most important Russian settlement on the lower Yukon was made at Nulato, and this was the center of one of the very native uprisings. The post was attacked by neighboring Indians in 1851 and most of the inmates butchered. With American ownership in 1867 the influences of civilization began to increase, and the current was swollen still further by the discovery of gold, though this was hardly to the advantage of the aborigines. (See Ahtena,.)
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 1,500 Koyukon in the year 1740. In 1890, 940 were returned.
Fort Indians, Ross (M.
Ik-kil-lin, Gilder quoted by Murdoch (1892).
Itchali, 11th Census, Alaska, p. 154.
It-ka-lya-ruin, Dall (1877, p. 30); Nuwukmiut Eskimo name.
Itkpe'lit, Petitot (1876, Vocab., p. 42).
Itku'dliñ, Murdoch (1892).
Lowland people, Whymper (1868, p. 247).
Na-Kotchpô-tschig-Kouttchin, Petitot (1891, p. 361).
O-til'-tin, Dawson (1888, p. 202.
Youkon Louchioux Indians, Ross (MS.).
Connections. The Kutcha-kutchin were a tribe belonging to Kutchin division of the northern section of the Athapascan linguistic family.
Location.-Along the valley of the Yukon from the widening of the river a few miles above Circle to about Birch Creek below Fort Yukon.
One at Fort Yukon and one at Senati, on the middle Yukon.
History.-The history of all the Kutchin tribes had best be treated in one place. They were first brought into contact with Europeans when Alexander Mackenzie met some of them in 1789 during descent of the river which bears his name. This became more intimate with the establishment of the first Fort Good Hope in 1847. Until Alaska passed into the hands of the United States practically all of the relations which the Kutchin tribes had with Europeans were through the Hudson's Bay Company. Since then influences from the west have been more potent. The discovery of gold in the Klondike region and the rush which followed marked the opening of a new era for these people, but one in which the bad for a long time outweighed the good.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 500 of these Indians in 1740. The Kutcha-kutchin and the Tranjikkutchin may be put together as Kutchin in the census of 1910, which enters 359. The Hudson's Bay Co.'s census of 1858 gave 842 Kutchin belonging to six tribes as resorting to Fort Yukon. Osgood (1936), who quotes this, believes that the entire Kutchin population at that date might be set down at 1,200. (See Ahtena.)
Connection in which they have become noted .-The Kutchin tribes were noted for their greater energy and more warlike character, as compared with neighboring Athapascans, and for a peculiar three-caste system in their social organization.
Nabesna. From the name of Nabesna River, the meaning of which is unknown.
Connections.-The Nabesna belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family.
Location.--In the entire drainage area of the Nabesna and Chisana Rivers, including the tributaries of the Tanana River, which they form at their confluence, as far down as the Tok River; the upper White River, including its tributaries the Beaver and the Snag, and the headwaters of the Ladue; together an area roughly enclosed between latitude 61°31' and 63°30' N., and longitude 141°30' and 143°30' W. (Dr. Robert C. McKennan through Osgood, 1936).
According to McKennan (1935), including the following "extremely fluid bands:"
(1)Ranged about Last Tetling Lake and the Tetling River.
(2)Ranged about the mouth of the Nabesna River.
(3)Ranged from the head of the Nabesna through the upper Chisana River to the White.
(4)Ranged from Scottie Creek to the Snag.
The first of these evidently includes the Nutzotin of earlier writers with their villages of Nandell near Wagner Lake and Tetling, and the third the Santotin. Khiltats, at the mouth of Nabesna River, must have belonged to the second division.
Allen (1887) mentions the village of Khiltats at the mouth of the Nabesna River.
History.-White contact with these people was made in 1885 and a settlement established at Chisana in 1913.
Niska. This is a tribe of the Chimmesyan linguistic family which lived just beyond the boundaries of Alaska to the southeast and al times hunted over some of its territory. It belonged properly to British Columbia. (See Canada.)
Natsit-kutchin. Signifying "those who dwell off the flats [i. e., Yukon River]." Also called:
Gens du Large, by Ross (M, from which came the name of Chandelar River.
Natehe'-Kutchin, by Dail (1877, p. 430).
Neyetse-kutchi, by Richardson (1851, vol. 1, p. 309).
Tpe-ttchié-dhidié-Kouttchin, by Petitot (1891).
Connections.-The Natsit-kutchin were one of the tribes of the Kutchin group of the northern division of the Athapascan linguistics stock.
Location.-On Chandelar River.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimated 200 Natsit-kutchin as of the year 1740. The census of 1910 returned 177. (See Kutchakutchin.)
Tanaina. Own name, meaning, "people" exclusive of Eskimo and Europeans. Also called Knaiakhotana.
Connections.-The Tanaina belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.-According to Osgood (1934): "The drainage of Cook Inlet north of Seldovia (59°20' N. lat.), the north half of Iliamna Lake troll its drainage, including Clark Lake. Since contact, possibly slight incursions have been made into territory formerly occupied by Eskimo, notably Seldovia Bay and portions of Iliamna Lake."
Osgood (1936) gives the following:
(1) Lower Inlet (Seldovia and Kachemak Bay).
(2) Middle Inlet (Tustamena, Skilak, and Kenai Lakes and the
(4) Susitna (Susitna River and drainage).
(5) Tyonek (west coastal region of Cook Inlet).
(6) Iliamna (region of the north part of Iliamna Lake arid its drainage).
(7) Clark Lake (the region about Clark Lake).
Chinila, on the east side of Cook Inlet near the mouth of Kaknu River.
Chuitna (not given by Osgood), on Cook Inlet at the mouth of Chult River
Eklutna, at the head of Knik Arm.
Iliamna, near the mouth of the Iliamna River.
Kasilof, on the east coast of Cook Inlet at the mouth of Kasilof River.
Kasnatchin, at Anchor Point, Kenai Peninsula.
Kenai, on the east side of Cook Inlet at the mouth of Kid, eu River.
Kilehik (not noted by Osgood), on Lake Clark.
Knakatnuk, opposite Nitak on the west side of Knik Arm, at the head of Cook Inlet.
Knik, near the mouth of Knik River.
Kultuk, on the east side of Cook Inlet near Nikishka.
Kustatan, on the west side of Cook Inlet below Tyonek.
Nikhkak, on Lake Clark.
Nikishka, near East Foreland at the head of Cook Inlet.
Ninilchik, on the east coast of Cook Inlet south of the mouth of Kasilof River.
Nitak, on the east side of Knik Bay at the head of Cook Inlet and near Eklutna.
Skilak, on the south side of Skilak Lake, Kenai Peninsula.
Skittok, on Kaknu River and forming part of the Kenai settlement.
Susitna, on Susitna River, Cook Inlet.
Titukilsk, on the east shore of Cook Inlet and near Nikishka.
Tyonek, on the west side of Cook Inlet.
Zdluiat, on the east side of Knik Bay south of Nitak.
History.-Cook Inlet received its name from Captain Cook who entered it in May 1778, but all of the natives met by him seem to have been Eskimo. The Russian settlement of Kodiak in 1784 marked an important event for the history of the region because the Russians, assisted by Aleut hunters, at once began to exploit the animal wealth of the neighboring region, and Cook Inlet was a principal scene of their activities. In July 1786, Portlock and Dixon went to the very head of Cook Inlet and must have had dealings with the Tanaina because they met with considerable success in their trading operations. Captain Douglas visited the inlet in. 1788. Russian ownership gave place to ownership by the United States in 1867, but Cook Inlet was exploited relatively little until the railroad line was built from Seward to Fairbanks and skirted the head of the inlet for many miles. The Tanaina Indians were one of the last groups in Alaska to receive attention from ethnologists.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 1,200 Tanaina in 1740. In 1818, 1,471 natives were enumerated in Cook Inlet. In 1825 Baron Wrangell returned 1,299. Veniaminoff (1840) gave 1,628 and in 1860 the Holy Synod returned 937. In 1869 Halleck and Colyer returned the grossly exaggerated estimate of 25,000. The census of 1880 returned 614 and that of 1890, 724. Mooney estimated 890 in 1900. (See Ahtena.)
Tanana. Named from the Tanana River.
Connections.-The Tanana belonged to the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic family. They were formerly erroneously classed among the Kutchin tribes.
Location.-"The drainage of the lower Tanana River below the Tok River, the region about the confluence of the Tanana and Yukon, and the region along the latter river above the confluence." [Osgood, 1936.)
Subdivisions and Villages
Clatehotin, on Tanana River.
Huntlatin, on Tanana River.
Minchumina Lake people, around the lake of that name.
Nuklukayet, a rendezvous for various tribes, on the north bank of the Yukon just below the mouth of the Tanana.
Nukluktana, on Tanana River just below Tutlut River.
Tatsa, on Yukon River.
Tolwatin, on Tanana River.
Tozikakat, north bank of the Yukon at the mouth of Tozi River.
Tutlut, at the junction of Tutlut and Tanana Rivers.
Weare, at the mouth of Tanana River.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimates a possible population of 500 in 1740 including the Nabesna. Richardson (1851) cut this estimate to 100. Da11 (1870) made it 500, Petroff (1884), 300-700, Allen (1887) 600, the census of 1890, 373. In 1900, 370 were given and by the census of 1910, 415. (See Ahtena.)
Birch Creek Kutchin, Osgood (1934, p. 172)
Birch River Indians, Whymper (1868, p. 255).
Gens de Bouleaux, Dall (1870 p. 431)
Connections.-The Tennuth-Kutchin were a tribe of the Kutch in group of the northern division of the Athapascan stock.
Location.-In the region of Birch Creek.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 100 Tennuth-Kutchin in 1740. They have long been extinct having been swept away in 1863, according to Dall (1870), by an epidemic of scarlet fever. (See Kutcha-kutchin.)
Tlingit (literally Lingi`t). Signifying "people," in their own language Also called:
Kolusehan, a name given to them as a linguistic family by Powell (I H4111, originally a Russian or Aleut term referring to the labrets worn by their women.
Connections.-The Tlingit were originally constituted into win linguistic stock by Powell, but show resemblances to the Athapascan dialects and to Haida which have induced Sapir (1915) to class the three together as the Na-déné. The exact nature of the relationship is still disputed.
Location.-All of the coast and islands of Alaska from Yakutat Bay inclusive southward with the exception of the southern end Prince of Wales and Dall Islands and Annette Island, through these latter have been alienated from them only in comparatively recent times.
Subdivisions and Villages
Auk, on Stephens Passage and Douglas and Admiralty Islands, including the following villages:
Anchguhlsu, opposite the north end of Douglas Island.
Tsantikihin, on the site of the present Juneau.
Chilkat, about the head of Lynn Canal, including these villages:
Chilkoot, on the northeast arm of Lynn Canal.
Deshu, at the head of Lynn Canal.
Dyea, at the modern place of the same name.
Katkwaahltu, on Chilkat River about 6 miles from its mouth.
Klukwan, on Chilkat River 20 miles from its mouth.
Skagway, at the site of the modern town of that name at the head of Lynn Canal.
Yendestake, at the mouth of Chilkat River.
Gonaho, at the mouth of Alsek River.
Hehl, on Behm Canal.
Henya or Hanega, on the west coast of Prince of Wales Island between Tlevak Narrows and Sumner Strait, including the following villages:
Klawak, on the west coast of Prince of Wales Island.
Shakan, a summer village on the northwest coast of Prince of Wales Island.
Tuxican, on a narrow strait on the northwest coast of Prince of Wales Island.
Huna, on Cross Sound, encamping in summer northward beyond Lituya Bay, with
Akvetskoe, a summer village on Lituya Bay.
Gaudekan, the chief town, now usually called Huna, in Port Frederick on the north shore of Chichagof Island.
Hukanuwu, on the north side of Cross Sound between the mainland and Chichagof Island.
Klughuggue, given by Petroff (1884) as a town on Chichagof Island but probably identical with one given by Krause (1885) on the opposite mainland, and perhaps the same as Tlushashakian.
Kukanuwu, on the north side of Cross Sound.
Tlushashakian, on the north side of the west entrance to Cross Sound.
Hutsnuwu, on the west and south coasts of Admiralty Island, with these villages:
Angun, north of Hood Bay, Admiralty Island.
Killisnoo, on Killisnoo Island near Admiralty Island.
Nahltushkan, on Whitewater Bay, on the west coast of Admiralty Island.
Kake, on Kupreanof Island, the designation being sometimes extended to cover Kuiu and Sumdum, and including a village of the same name.
Kuiu, on Kuiu Island, with a village of the same name in Port Beauclerc.
Sanya, about Cape Fox, their village being called Gash, at Cape Fox.
Sitka, on the west coasts of Baranof and Chichagof islands, with these villages:
Old Sitka, a summer camp on Baranof Island.
Sitka, site of the modern town.
Tluhashaiyikan, as indicated by the native word straight opposite Mount Edgecombe.
Silver Bay, a summer camp.
Stikine, on Stikine River and the neighboring coasts, with these villages:
Kahltcatlan, a place called also Old Wrangell.
Katchanaak, on the site of modern Wrangell.
Shakes' Village, on Etolin Island.
Sumdum, at Port Houghton, the village and location being the same.
Taku, on Taku River and Inlet, Stevens Channel, and Gastineau Channel, with the following villages:
Sikanasankian, on Taku Inlet.
Takokakaan, at the mouth of Taku River, as the name itself implies.
Tongass, at the mouth of Portland Canal, on the north side, with a village of the same name on Tongass Island, Alexander Archipelago.
Yakutat, principally about Yakutat Bay but extending westward in later times to the mouth of Copper River, including these villages:
Chilkat, a village or group of villages on Controller Bay.
Gutheni, north of Dry Bay.
Hlahayik, on Yakutat Bay behind an island called Hlaha which gave it the name.
Yakutat, on Yakutat Bay.
Population,-Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 10,000 Tlingit in 1740. Veniaminoff (1840) gave 5,850 for the year l835, an enumeration made by Sir James Douglas 4 years later showed 5,455 exclusive of the Yakutat. In 1861 Lt. Wehrman of the Russian Navy reported 8,597 as the result of a census. Petroff (1884) in the census of 1880 gave 6,763, but the census of 1890 showed only 4,583, not counting the Tlingitized Ugalakmiut. The census of 1910 returned 4,426; that of 1920, 3,895; and that of 1930, 4,462.
Connection in which they have become noted.-The Russian capital and the first American territorial capital Sitka was on Tlingit land, as is the later and present territorial capital Juneau. The ports of this tribe, especially those in the Chilkat country, figured prominently in the great Klondike rush.
Tranjik-kutchin. Signifying "one who dwells along the river [i. e. the Black River]." Also called:
Black River Kutchin, by Osgood (1936).
Cache River People, by Cadzow (1925).
Connections.-The Tranjik-kutchin belonged to the Kutchin group of tribes of the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic stock
Location.-In the country around Black River.
History.- (See Kutcha-kutchi)
Vunta-kutchin. Signifying "those who dwell among the lakes." Also called:
Crow River Kutchin, by Osgood (1934, p. 173), from a stream in their country.
Gens des Rats, by Dall (1877, p. 31).
Rat People, by Dall (1869, p. 261).
Zjén-ta-Kouttchin, by Petitot (1891, p. 361), meaning "muskrat people," a name probably based on a legend, though a tributary of the Porcupine is called Rat River.
Connections.-The Vunta-kutchin are one of the group of Kutchin tribes belonging to the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic family.
Location.-On the middle course of Porcupine River and the country to the northward, including Old Crow Creek.
Population Mooney (1928) estimated that the Vunta-Kutchin together with the Tukkuth-kutchin, and Tutcone-kutchin comprised a population of 2,200 in 1670, but they had been reduced to 1,700 in 1906 and the census of 1910 returned only 5 under this name by itself (See Kutcha-kutchin.)
Caddo. These Indians are treated under the five following heads: Adai and the Natchitoches Confederacy in Louisiana, Eyeish and the Hasinai Confederacy in Arkansas, and Kadohadacho Confederacy in Texas. Tribes of the Kadohadacho Confederacy are the only ones known to have lived in Arkansas.
Cherokee. Some Cherokee lived in this State while they were on their way from their old territories to Oklahoma, and a tract of land in northwestern Arkansas was granted them by treaty in 1817, which in 1828 they re-ceded to the United States Government. (See Tennessee.)
Choctaw. The Choctaw had a village on the lower course of Arkansas River in 1805 and they owned a large strip of territory in the western part of the State, granted to them by the treaty of Doak's Stand, October 18, 1820. They surrendered the latter in a treaty concluded at Washington, January 20, 1825. (See Mississippi.)
Illinois. When Europeans first descended the Mississippi an Illinois division known as Michigamea, "Big Water", was settled in northeastern Arkansas about a lake known by their name, probably the present Big Lake in Mississippi County. They had probably come from the region now embraced in the State of Illinois only a short time before, perhaps from a village entered on some maps as "the old village of the Michigamea." Toward the end of the seventeenth century they were driven north again by the Quapaw or Chickasaw and united with the cognate Kaskaskia. (See
Osage. The Osage hunted over much of the northern, and particularly northwestern, part of Arkansas and claimed all lands now included in the State as far south as Arkansas River. They ceded most of their claims to these to the United States Government in a treaty signed at Fort Clark, Louisiana Territory, in 1808, and the
remainder by treaties at St. Louis, September 25, 1818, and June 2, 1825. (See Missouri.)
Quapaw. Meaning "downstream people." They were known by some form of this word to the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, Osage, and Creeks. Also called:
Akansa, or Arkansas, by the Illinois and other Algonquian Indians, a name probably derived from one of the Quapaw social subdivisions.
Beaux Hommes, a name given them by the French.
Bow Indians, so-called probably because the bow wood from the Osage orange came from or through their country.
Ima, by the Caddo, probably from one of their towns.
Papikaha, on Marquette's map (1673).
Utsushuat, Wyandot name, meaning "wild apple," and referring to the fruit of the Carica papaya.
Connections. The Quapaw were one of the five tr
Tourima, at the junction of White River with the Mississippi, Desha County, probably the town' elsewhere called Imaha.
Ukakhpakhti, on the Mississippi, probably in Phillips County.
Uzutiuhi, on the south side of the lower course of Arkansas River not far from
History. Before the French became acquainted with this tribe (in 1673) the Quapaw had lived on Ohio River above its junction with the Wabash, and that portion of the Ohio was known as Arkansas River by the Illinois from this circumstance. It was formerly thought that the Pacaha or Capaha met by De Soto in this part of Arkansas were the tribe in question, but it is not probable that they had left the Ohio then, and the name Capaha, the form on which the relationship is supposed to be established, is probably incorrect. In 1673 Marquette visited them and turned back at their towns without descending the Mississippi any farther. La Salle in 1682, Tonti in 1686, and all subsequent voyagers down and up the Mississippi mention them, and they soon became firm allies of French. Shortly after Marquette's visit they were ravaged by pestilence and the Ukakhpakht and the village was moved farther downstream. A few years before 1700 the people of Tongigua moved across and settled with those of Tourima, and still later all of the towns moved from the Mississippi to the Arkansas. Le Page du Pratz (1758) encountered them about 12 miles above the entrance of White River. Sibley (1832) found them in 1805 on the south side of Arkansas River about 12 miles above Arkansas Post.
By a treaty signed at St. Louis, August 24; 1818, the Quapaw ceded all their claims south of Arkansas River except a small territory between Arkansas Post and Little Rock, extending inland to Saline River. The latter was also given up in a treaty signed November 15, 1824, at Harrington's, Arkansas Territory and the tribe agreed to live in the country of the Caddo. They were assigned by the Caddo a tract on Bayou Treache on the south side of Red River, but it was frequently overflowed, their crops were often destroyed, and there was much sickness, and in consequence they soon returned to their old country. There they annoyed the the white settlers so much that by a treaty signed May 13, 1833, the United States Government conveyed to them 150 sections of land in the extreme southeastern part of Kansas and the northeastern part of Indian Territory, to which they in turn agreed to move. February 23, 1867, they ceded their lands in Kansas and the northern part their lands in Indian Territory. In 1877 the Ponca were brought to the Quapaw Reservation for a short time, and when they removed went to their own reservation later west of the Osage most of the Quapaw went lands with them. Still later the lands of the Quapaw were allotted in severalty and are now citizens of Oklahoma.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the Quapaw numbered 2,500. In 1750 Father Vivier stated that they had about 400 warriors or about 1,400 souls. In 1766, however, the British Indian Agent, John Stuart, reported that they had but 220 gunmen. Porter estimated that the total Quapaw population in 1829 was 500. In 1843 it was 476. In 1885 there were 120 on the Osage Reservation and 54 on the Quapaw Reservation, and in 1890, 198 on both. The census of 1910 gave 231, but the Indian Office Report of 1916, 333, and that of 1923, 347. The census of 1930 returned 222.
Connection in which they have become noted. The native form of the name of this tribe, Quapaw, is but seldom used topographically, although there is a village of the name in Ottawa County, Okla., but Arkansas, the term applied to them by the Illinois Indians, has become affixed to one of the largest branches of the Mississippi and to one of the States of the American Union. It has also been given to a county and mountain in Arkansas and to cities in that State and in Kansas.
Tunica. From some names given by the chroniclers of De Soto it is probable that the Tunica or some tribes speaking their language were living in Arkansas in his time. In fact it is not unlikely that the Pacaha or Capaha, who have often been identified with the Quapaw, were one of these. In later historic times they camped in the northeastern part of Louisiana and probably in neighboring sections of Arkansas. (See Mississippi.)
Yazoo. Like the Tunica this tribe probably camped at times in northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas,
CALIFORNIA AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES
California is the state with the most American Indians and the most tribes:
Indian Tribes of Connecticut
Mahican. The northwestern corner of Litchfield County was occupied by the Wawyachtonoc, a tribe of the Mahican Confederacy of the upper Hudson, though their main seats were in Columbia and Dutchess Counties, N. Y. (See New York.)
Mohegan. The name means "wolf." They are not to be confused with the Mahican. Also called:
Unkus [Uncas] Indians, from the name of their chief.
Connections. The Mohegan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and spoke a y-dialect closely related to Pequot.
Location. The Mohegan originally occupied most of the upper valley of the Thames and its branches. Later they claimed authority over some of the Nipmuc and the Connecticut River tribes, and in the old Pequot territory. (See also New York.)
Ashowat, between Amston and Federal.
Catantaquck, near the head of Pachaug River.
Checapscaddock, southeast of the mouth of Shetucket River in the town of
Kitemaug, on the west wide of Thames River between Uncasville and Massapeag.
Mamaquaog, on Natchaug River northeast of Willimantic.
Mashantackack, near Palmertown, town of Montville.
Massapeag, at the place now so-called' on the west side of Thames River. Mohegan, at the present town of Mohegan on the west side of Thames River.
Moosup, at the present Moosup in the town of Plainfield.
Nawhesetuck, on Fenton River north of Willimantic.
Pachaug, at the present Pachaug in the town of Griswold.
Paugwonk, near Gardiner Lake in the town of Salem.
Pautexet, near the present Jewett City in the town of Griswold.
Pigscomsuck, on the right bank of Quinebaug River near the present line between
New London and Windham Counties.
Poquechanneeg, near Lebanon.
Poquetanock, near Trading Cove, town of Preston.
Shantuck, on the west side of Thames River just north of Mohegan.
Showtucket or Shetucket, near Lisbon in the fork of the Shetucket and Quinebaug Rivers.
Wauregan, on the east side of Quinebaug River in the town of Plainfield.
Willimantic, on the site of the present city of Willimantic.
Yantic, at the present Yantic on Yantic River.
History. The Mohegan were probably a branch of the Mahican. Originally under Sassacus, chief of the Pequot, they afterward became independent and upon the destruction of the Pequot in 1637, Uncas, the Mohegan chief, became ruler also of the remaining Pequot and set up pretensions to territory north and west beyond his original borders. At the end of King Philip's War, the Mohegan were the only important tribe remaining in southern New England, but as the White settlements advanced they were reduced progressively both in territory and in numbers. Many joined the Scaticook, and in 1788 a still larger body united with the Brotherton in New York, where they formed the largest single element in the new settlement. The rest continued in their old town at Mohegan, where a remnant of mixed bloods still survives.
Population. The number of Mohegan were estimated by Mooney (1928) at 2,200 in 1600; in 1643, including the remnant of the Pequot and perhaps other tribes, at between 2,000 and 2,500. In 1705 they numbered 750; in 1774, 206 were reported; in 1804, 84; in 1809, 69; in 1825, 300; in 1832, about 350; in 1910, 22.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Mohegan became celebrated on account of the services rendered the Whites by Uncas. Today their name is perpetuated in Mohegan, on Thames River, and the name of their chief in Uncasville on the same stream. There a post village of this name in McDowell County, W. Va., and Mohegan Lake in Westchester County, N. Y., but this is named after the Mahican.
Connections. These were the same as for the Eastern Niantic. (See Rhode Island.)
Location. On the seacoast from Niantic Bay to Connecticut River.
Niantic or Nehantucket, near the present town of Niantic. There was another near Old Lyme.
History. Originally the Western Niantic are thought to have constituted one tribe with the Eastern Niantic and to have been cut apart from them by the Pequot. They were nearly destroyed in the Pequot war and at its close (1637) were placed under the control of the Mohegan. About 1788 many joined the Brotherton Indians. A small village of Niantic was reported as existing near Danbury in 1809, but this perhaps contained remnants of the tribes of western Connecticut, although Speck (1928) found several Indians of mixed Niantic-Mohegan descent living with the Mohegan remnant, descendants of a pure-blood Niantic woman from the mouth of Niantic River.
Population. The Western Niantic population was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 600 in 1600; there were about 100 in 1638; 85 in 1761.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the Western Niantic is perpetuated in Niantic village, Niantic River, and Niantic Bay, in New London County. Post villages in Macon County, Ill., and Montgomery County, Pa., bear the name Niantic.
Nipmuc. Some bands of this tribe extended into the northeastern part of the State. (See Massachusetts.)
Pequot. The name means, according to Trumbull (1818), "destroyers." Also called:
Sickenames, in a Dutch deed quoted by Ruttenber (1872).
Connections. The Pequot belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, and spoke a y-dialect closely related to Mohegan.
Location. The Pequot occupied the coast of New London County from Niantic River nearly to the Rhode Island State line. Until driven out by the Narraganset, they extended into Rhode Island as far as Wecapaug River. (See also Rhode Island.)
Asupsuck, in the interior of the town of Stonington.
Aukumbumsk or Awcumbuck, in the center of the Pequot country near Gales Ferry.
Aushpook, at Stonington.
Cosattuck, probably near Stonington. Cuppanaugunnit, probably in New London County.
Mangunckakuck, probably on Thames River below Mohegan.
Maushantuxet, at Ledyard.
Mystic, near West Mystic on the west side of Mystic River.
Monhunganuck, near Beach Pond in the town of Voluntown.
Nameaug, near New London.
Noank, at the present place of that name.
Oneco, at the place of that name in the town of Sterling.
Paupattokshick, on the lower course of Thames River.
Pawcatuck, probably on the river of the same name, Washington County, R. I. Pequotauk, near New London.
Poquonock, inland from Poquonock Bridge.
Sauquonckackock, on the west side of Thames River below Mohegan.
Shenecosset, near Midway in the town of Groton.
Tatuppequauog, on the Thames River below Mohegan.
Weinshauks, Dear Groton.
Wequetequock, on the east side of the river of the same name.
under the authority of Uncas. Their Indian overlords treated them so harshly, however, that they were taken out of their hands by the colonists in 1655 and settled in two villages near Mystic River, where some of their descendants still live. Numbers removed to other places Long Island, New Haven, the Nipmuc country, and elsewhere while many were kept as slaves among the English in New England or sent to the West Indies.
Population. The Pequot population was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 2,200 in 1600; in 1637, immediately after the Pequot war, there were said to be 1,950, but the figure is probably too high. In 1674 the Pequot in their old territory numbered about 1,500; in 1762, 140. In 1832 there were said to be about 40 mixed-bloods, but the census of 1910 gave 66, of whom 49 were in Connecticut and 17 in Massachusetts.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Pequot are remembered principally on account of the bitter and, to them, disastrous war related above. The name is borne by a post village in Crow Wing County, Minn.
Wappinger. The valley of Connecticut River was the home of a number of bands which might be called Mattabesec after the name of the most important of them, and this in turn was a part of the Wappinger. (See New York.)
Delaware Indian Tribes
Nanticoke. Bodies of Indians classed, under this general head extended into the southern and western sections. Unalachtigo and Nanticoke are two forms of the same word though, as differentiated, they have been applied to distinct tribes. (See Maryland.)
Florida Indian Tribes
Acuera. Meaning unknown (acu signifies "and" and also "moon").
Connections. This tribe belonged to the Timucuan or Timuquanan linguistic division of the Muskhogean linguistic family.
Location. Apparently about the headwaters of the Ocklawaha River.
Towns. (See Utina.)
History. The Acuera were first noted by De Soto in a letter written at Tampa Bay to the civil cabildo of Santiago de Cuba. According to information transmitted to him by his officer Baltazar de Gallegos, Acuera was "a large town where with much convenience we might winter," but the Spaniards did not in fact pass through it, though, while they were at Ocale, they sent to Acuera for corn. The name appears later in Laudonniere's narrative of the second French expedition to Florida, 1564-65 (1586), as a tribe allied with the Utina. It is noted sparingly in later Spanish documents but we learn that in 1604 there was an encounter between these Indians and Spanish troops and that there were two Acuera missions in 1655, San Luis and Santa Lucia, both of which had disappeared by 1680. The inland position of the Acuera is partly responsible for the few notices of them. The remnant was probably gathered into the "Pueblo de Timucua," which stood near St. Augustine in 1736, and was finally removed to the Mosquito Lagoon and Halifax River in Volusia County, where Tomoka River keeps the name alive.
Population. This is nowhere given by itself. (See Utina.)
Aguacaleyquen, see Utina.
Ais. Meaning unknown; there is no basis for Romans' (1775) derivation from the Choctaw word "isi" (deer). Also called:
Jece, form of the name given by Dickenson (1699).
Connections. Circumstantial evidence, particularly resemblance in town names, leads to the conclusion that the Ais language was similar to that of the Calusa and the other south Florida tribes. (See Calusa.) It is believed that it was connected with the Muskhogean stock.
Location. Along Indian River on the east coast of the peninsula.
Villages. The only village mentioned by explorers and geographers bears some form of the tribal name.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians on the southeastern coast of Florida in 1650, including this tribe, the Tekesta, Guacata, and Jeaga, to have been 1,000. As noted above, the Ais were the most important of these and undoubtedly the largest. We have no other estimates of population applying to the seventeenth century. In 1726, 88 "Costa" Indians were reported in a mission farther north and these may have been drawn from the southeast coast. In 1728, 52 "Costa" Indians were reported.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Ais were noted as the most important tribe of southeastern Florida, and they were probably responsible for the fact that the watercourse on which they dwelt came to be called Indian River.
Alabama. Early in the eighteenth century the Pawokti, and perhaps some other Alabama bands, lived near Apalachicola River, whence they were driven in 1708. After the Creek-American War a part of the Alabama again entered Florida, but they do not seem to have maintained an independent existence for a very long period. (See Alabama.)
Chatot. Meaning unknown, but the forms of this word greatly resemble the synonyms of the name Choctaw.
Connections. The language spoken by this tribe belonged, undoubtedly, to the southern division of the Muskhogean stock.
Location. West of Apalachicola River, perhaps near the middle course of the Chipola. (See also Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana).
Villages. From the names of two Spanish missions among them it would appear that there were at least two towns in early times, one called Chacato, after the name of the tribe, and the other Tolentino.
History. The Chatot are first mentioned in a Spanish document of 1639 in which the governor of Florida congratulates himself on having consummated peace between the Chatot, Apalachicola, and Yamasee on one side and the Apalachee on the other. This, he says, "is an extraordinary thing, because the aforesaid Chacatos never maintained peace with anybody." In 1674 the two missions noted above were established among these people, but the following year the natives rebelled. The disturbance was soon ended by the Spanish officer Florencia, and the Chatot presently settled near the Apalachee town of San Luis, mission work among them being resumed. In 1695, or shortly before, Lower Creek Indians attacked this mission, plundered the church, and carried away 42 Christianized natives. In 1706 or 1707, following on the destruction of the Apalachee towns, the Chatot and several other small tribes living near it were attacked and scattered or carried off captive, and the Chatot fled to Mobile, where they were well received by Bienville and located on the site of the present city of Mobile. When Bienville afterward moved the seat of his government to this place he assigned to them land on Dog
River by way of compensation. After Mobile was ceded to the English in 1763 the Chatot, along with a number of other small tribes near that city, moved to Louisiana. They appear to have settled first on Bayou Boeuf and later on Sabine River. Nothing is heard of them afterward though in 1924 some old Choctaw remembered their former presence on the Sabine. The remnant may have found their way to Oklahoma.
Population. I would estimate a population of 1,200-1,500 for the Chatot when they were first missionized (1674). When they were settled on the site of Mobile, Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 536) says that they could muster 250 men, which would indicate a population of near 900, but in 1725-26 there were but 40 men and perhaps a total population of 140. In 1805 they are said to have had 30 men or about 100 people. In 1817 a total of 240 is returned by Morse (1822), but this figure is probably twice too large.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Chatot are noted because at one time they occupied the site of Mobile, Ala., and because Bayou Chattique, Choctaw Point, and Choctaw Swamp close by that city probably preserve their name. The Choctawhatchee, which is near their former home, was probably named for them.
Creeks see Alabama, Chiaha, Hitchiti, Mikasukee, Muskogee, Oconee, Sawokli, Tawasa, and Yuchi.)
Fresh Water ("Agna Dulce") Indians. A name applied to the people of seven to nine neighboring towns, and for which there is no native equivalent.
Connections. The same as Acuera (q. v.).
Location. In the coast district of eastern Florida between St. Augustine and Cape Canaveral.
The following towns are given in this province extending from north to south, but not all of the native names have been preserved:
Antonico, another possible name is Tunsa.
Equale, location uncertain.
Filache, location uncertain.
Maiaca, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns River.
Moloa, south of the mouth of St. Johns River (omitted from later lists).
San Julian, location uncertain.
San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine, destroyed in 1600 by a flood.
Tocoy, given by one writer as 5 leagues from St. Augustine; by another as 24
The names Macaya and Maycoya, which appear in the neighborhood of the last of these are probably synonyms or corruptions of Maiaca, but there seems to have been a sister town of Maiaca at an early date which Fontaneda (1854) calls Mayajuaca or Mayjuaca. In addition to the preceding, a number of town names have been preserved which perhaps belong to places in this province. Some of them may be synonyms of the town names already given, especially of towns like Antonico and St. Julian, the native names of which are otherwise unknown.
Caparaca, southwest of Nocoroco.
Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.
Ccicale, 3 leagues south of Nocoroco.
Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.
Disnica, probably south of St. Augustine, though not necessarily in the Fresh Water Province.
Elanogue, near Antonico.
Malaca, south of Nocoroco.
Mogote, in the region of Nocorooo.
Nocoroco, one day's journey south of Matanzas Inlet and on a river called Nocoroco River, perhaps Halifax River.
Perqumaland, south of the last mentioned; possibly two towns, Perqul and Maland.
Pia, south of Nocoroco.
Sabobche, south of Nocoroco.
Tomeo, apparently near or in the Fresh Water province.
Tuoura, apparently in the same province as the last mentioned.
Yaocay, near Antonioo.
History. The history of this province differed little from that of the other Timucua provinces, tribes, or confederacies. Ponce de Leon made his landfall upon this coast in 1513. The French had few dealings with the people but undoubtedly met them. Fontaneda (1854) heard of the provinces of Maiaca and Mayajuaca, and later there were two Spanish missions in this territory, San Antonio de Anacape and San Salvador de Maiaca. These appear in the mission list of 1655 and in that of 1680 but from data given with the latter it is evident that Yamasee were then settled at Anacape. All of these Indians were converted rapidly early in the seventeenth century and the population declined with increasing celerity. The last body of Timucua were settled in this district and have left their name in that of Tomoka Creek. (See Utina.)
Population. There are no data on which to give a separate and full statement of the Timucua population in this district. In 1602, however, 200 Indians belonging to it had been Christianized and 100 more were under instruction. (See Acuera.)
Hitchiti. The ancient home of the Hitchiti was north of Florida but after the destruction of the earlier tribes of the peninsula, in which they themselves participated, Hitchiti-speaking peoples moved in in great numbers to take their places, so that up to the Creek-American War, the Hitchiti language was spoken by the greater number of Seminole. The later immigration, as we have indicated above, reduced the Hitchiti element to a minority position, so that what we now call the Seminole language is practically identical with Muskogee. True Hitchiti as distinguished from Hitchiti-speaking peoples who bore other names, do not appear to have been very active in this early movement though Hawkins (1848) mentions them as one of those tribes from which the Seminole were made up. The Hitchiti settlement of Attapulgas or Atap'halgi and perhaps other of the so-called Fowl Towns seem to represent a later immigration into the peninsula. (See Georgia.)
Icafui. Meaning unknown.
Connections. They were undoubtedly of the Timucuan group though they seem to have been confused at times with a tribe called Cascangue which may have been related to the Muskogee or Hitchiti. On the other hand, Cascangue may have been another name of this tribe, possibly one employed by Creeks or Hitchiti.
Location. On the mainland and probably in southeastern Georgia near the border between the Timucua and the strictly Muskhogean populations.
Villages. Seven or eight towns are said to have belonged to this tribe but the names of none of them are known with certainty.
History. Icafui seems to be mentioned first by the Franciscan missionaries who occasionally passed through it on their way to or from interior peoples. It was a "visita" of the missionary at San Pedro (Cumberland Island). Otherwise its history differed in no respect from that of the other Timucuan tribes. (See Utina.)
Population. Separate figures regarding this tribe are wanting. (See Utina.)
Jeaga. Meaning unknown.
Connections. The Jeaga are classed on the basis of place names and location with the tribes of south Florida, which were perhaps of the Muskhogean division proper.
Location. On the present Jupiter Inlet, on the east coast of Florida.
Villages. Between this tribe and the Tequesta the names of several settlements are given which may have belonged to one or both of them, viz: Cabista, Custegiyo, Janar, Tavuacio.
History. The Jeaga tribe is mentioned by Fontaneda (1854) and by many later Spanish writers but it was of minor importance. Near Jupiter Inlet the Quaker Dickenson (1803), one of our best informants regarding the ancient people of the east coast of Florida, was cast ashore in 1699. In the eighteenth century, this tribe was probably merged with the Ais, Tequesta, and other tribes of this coast, and removed with them to Cuba. (See Ais.)
Population. No separate enumeration is known. (See Ais.)
Koasati. Appearance of a "Coosada Old Town" on the middle course of Choctawhatchee River on a map of 1823 shows that a band of Koasati Indians joined the Seminole in Florida, but this is all we know of them. (See Alabama.)
Villages. Alachua Talofa or John Hick's Town, in the Alachua Plains, Alachua County.
New Mikasuki, near Greenville in Madison County.
Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee Lake.
History. The name Mikasuki appears about 1778 and therefore we know that their independent status had been established by that date whether they had separated from the Hitchiti or the Chiaha. They lived first at Old Mikasuki and then appear to have divided, part going to New Mikasuki and part to the Alachua Plains. Some writers denounce them as the worst of all Seminole bands, but it is quite likely that, as a tribe differing in speech from themselves, the Muskogee element blamed them for sins they themselves had committed. Old Mikasuki was burned by Andrew Jackson in 1817. Most Mikasuki seem to have remained in Florida where they still constitute a distinct body, the Big Cypress band of Seminole. Those who went to Oklahoma retained a distinct Square Ground as late as 1912.
Population. Morse (1822) quotes a certain Captain Young to the effect that there were 1,400 Mikasuki in his time, about 1817. This figure is probably somewhat too high though the Mikasuki element is known to have been a large one. They form one entire band among the Florida Seminole.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Mikasuki attained prominence in the Seminole War. In the form Miccosukee their name has been applied to a lake in Jefferson and Leon Counties, Fla., and a post village in the latter county. In the form Mekusuky it has been given to a village in Seminole County, Okla.
Connections. They belonged with little doubt to the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock.
Location. About the head of Hillsboro Bay.
Villages. None are mentioned under any other than the tribal name.
History. The chief of this tribe gave asylum to a Spaniard named Juan Ortiz who had come to Florida in connection with the expedition of Narvaez. When De Soto landed near the Mocogo town its chief sent Ortiz with an escort of warriors to meet him. Ortiz afterward became De Soto's principal interpreter until his death west of the Mississippi, and the Mocogo chief remained on good terms with the Spaniards as long as they stayed in the neighborhood. There are only one or two later references to the tribe. (See Utina.)
Connection in which they have become noted. The contacts of the Mocogo with De Soto and his followers constitute their only claim to distinction.
Muklasa. A small Creek town whose inhabitants were probably related by speech to the Alabama and Koasati. They are said to have gone to Florida after the Creek War. (See Alabama.)
Oconee. After leaving the Chattahoochee about 1750 the Oconee moved into Florida and established themselves on the Alachua Plains in a town which Bartram calls Cuscowilla. They constituted the first large band of northern Indians to settle in Florida and their chiefs came to be recognized as head chiefs of the Seminole. One of these, Mikonopi, was prominent during the Seminole War, but the identity of the tribe itself is lost after that struggle. Another part of them seem to have settled for a time among the Apalachee. (See Georgia.)
Onatheaqua. In the narratives of Laudonni6re and Le Moyne this appears as one of the two main Timucua tribes in the northwestern part of Florida, the other being the Hostaqua (or Yustaga). Elsewhere I have suggested that it may have covered the Indians afterward gathered into the missions of Santa Cruz de Tarihica, San Juan de Guacara, Santa Catalina, and Ajoica, where there were 230 Indians in 1675, but that is uncertain. (See Utina.)
Pensacola. Meaning "hair people," probably from their own tongue, which in that case was very close to Choctaw.
Connections. The name itself, and other bits of circumstantial evidence, indicate that the Pensacola belonged to the Muskhogean stock and, as above noted, probably spoke a dialect close to Choctaw.
Location. In the neighborhood of Pensacola Bay. (See also Mississippi.)
History. In 1528 the survivors of the Narvaez expedition had an encounter with Indians near Pensacola Bay who probably belonged to this tribe. It is also probable that their territory constituted the province of Achuse or Ochus which Maldonado, the commander of De Soto's fleet, visited in 1539 and whence he brought a remarkably fine "blanket of sable fur." In 1559 a Spanish colony under Tristan de Luna landed in a port called "the Bay of Ichuse," (or "Ychuse") undoubtedly in the same province, but the enterprise was soon given up and the colonists returned to Mexico. The Pensacola tribe seems to be mentioned first by name in Spanish letters dated 1677. In 1686 we learn they were at war with the Mobile Indians. Twelve years afterward, when the Spanish post of Pensacola was established, it is claimed that the tribe had been exterminated by other peoples, but this is an error. It had merely moved farther inland and probably toward the west. They are noted from time to time, and in 1725-6 Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 535) particularly describes the location of their village near that of the Biloxi of Pearl River. The last mention of them seems to be in an estimate of Indian population dated December 1, 1764, in which their name appears along with those of six other small tribes. They may have been incorporated finally into the Choctaw or have accompanied one of the smaller Mobile tribes into Louisiana near the date last mentioned.
Population. In 1725 (or 1726) Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 535) says that in the Pensacola village and that of the Biloxi together, there were not more than 40 men. The enumeration mentioned above, made in 1764, gives the total population of this tribe and the Biloxi, Chatot, Capinans, Washa, Chawasha, and Pascagoula collectively as 251 men.
Connection in which they have become noted. Through the adoption of their name first for that of Pensacola Bay and secondly for the port which grew up upon it, the Pensacola have attained a fame entirely disproportionate to the aboriginal importance of the tribe. There are places of the name in Yancey County, N. C., and Mayes County, Okla.
Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy. Meaning unknown.
Connections. They were evidently closely connected with the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock. (See Utina).
Location. On the south shore of Tampa Bay.
Towns. (See History.)
History. This tribe, or a part of the same, appears first in history under the names Oçita or Ucita as a "province" in the territory of which Hernando de Soto landed in 1539. He established his headquarters in the town of the head chief on June 1, and when he marched inland on July 15 he left a captain named Calder6n with a hundred men to hold this place pending further developments. These were withdrawn at the end of November to join the main army in the Apalachee country. In 1612 these Indians appear for the first time under the name Pohoy or Pooy in the account of an expedition to the southwest coast of Florida under an ensign named Cartaya. In 1675 Bishop Calder6n speaks of the "Pojoy River," and in 1680 there is a passing reference to it. Some time before 1726 about 20 Indians of this tribe were placed in a mission called Santa Fe, 9 leagues south of St. Augustine, but they had already suffered from an epidemic and by 1728 the remainder returned to their former homes. (See Utina.)
Population. In 1680 the Pohoy were said to number 300.
Connection in which they have become noted. The only claim of the Pohoy to distinction is derived from their contacts with the expedition of De Soto.
Potano. Meaning unknown.
Connections. (See Utina.)
Location. In the, territory of the present Alachua County.
Towns. The following places named in the De Soto narratives probably belonged to this tribe: Itaraholata or Ytara, Potano, Utinamocharra or Utinama, Cholupaha, and a town they called Mala-Paz. A letter dated 1602 mentions five towns, and on and after 1606, when missionaries reached the tribe, stations were established called San Francisco, San Miguel, Santa Anna, San Buenaventura, and San Martin(?). There is mention also of a mission station called Apalo.
History. The name Potano first appears as that of a province through which De Soto passed in 1539. In 1564-65 the French colonists of Florida found this tribe at war with the Utina and a assisted the latter to win victory over them. After the Spaniards had supplanred the French, they also supported the Utina in wars between them and the Potano. In 1584 a Spanish captain sent to invade the Potano country was defeated and slain. A second expedition,
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Potano Indians at at 3,000 in 1650 and this is probably fairly accurate, as the Franciscan missionaries state that they were catechizing 1,100 persons in the 5 towns belonging to the tribe in 1602. In 1675 there were about 160 in the 2 Potano missions (See Acera and Utina)
Connections in which they have become noted. The Potano tribe was anciently celebrated as, with one or two possible exceptions, the most powerful of all the Timucua peoples.
Surruque. Meaning unknown.
Connections. Somewhat doubtful, but they were probably of the Timucuan linguistic group. (See Utina.)
Location. At or' very close to Cape Canaveral.
History. The Surruque appear first in history as the "Sorrochos" of Le Moyne's map (1875,) and his "Lake Sarrope" also probably derived its name from them. About the end of the same century, the sixteenth, trouble arose between them and the Spaniards, in consequence of which the Spanish governor fell upon a Surruque town, killed 60 persons and captured 54. Later they probably united with the Timucua people and shared their fortunes.
Population. No estimate is possible. (See Utina.)
Tacatacuru. The meaning is unknown, though it seems to have something to do with "fire" (taca).
Location. On Cumberland Island to which the name Tacatacuru was applied.
Villages. It is probable that the same name was used for its chief town, which was missionized by the Spaniards under the name of San Pedro Mocama. Under this mission were those of Santo Domingo and Santa Maria de Sena.
History. The chief of Tacatacuru (now Cumberland Island), or of the neighboring mainland, met Jean Ribault in 1562 and seems to have remained on good terms with the French during their occupancy of Fort Caroline in 1564-65. He, or a successor, is mentioned among those who joined De Gourgues in his attack upon the Spaniards in 1567, but soon afterward they made peace with Spain and one chief, Don Juan, was of great assistance to the white men in many ways, particularly in driving back the Guale Indians after their rising in 1597. This chief died in 1600, and was succeeded by his niece. The church built by these Indians was said to be as big as that in St. Augustine. The good relations which subsisted between the Tacatacuru Indians and the Spaniards do not appear to have been broken by the Timucua rebellion of 1656. By 1675 the tribe had abandoned Cumberland Island and it was occupied by Yamasee. The mission of San Pedro Mocama consequently does not appear in tho mission list of 1680, although it is in that of 1655.' The tribe was subsequently amalgamated with the other Timucua peoples and shared their fortunes. (See Utina.)
Population. There is no estimate of the number of Tacatacuru distinct from that of the other Timucua. The missionary stationed among them in 1602 notes that there were then 8 settlements and 792 Christianized Indians in his province, but this province may not have been confined to the tribe. In that year Santo Domingo served 180 Christians and Santa Maria de Sena 112.
Tawasa. Meaning unknown.
Connections. They spoke a dialect belonging to the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic family, intermediate between Timucua proper and Choctaw, Hitchiti, Alabama, and Apalachee.
Location. In 1706-7 in west Florida about the latitude of the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers; at an earlier time and again later they were on the Alabama near the present Montgomery. (See also Louisiana.)
4 I have stated elsewhere (Swanton, 1946, p. 187) that the name of this mission was wanting in the list drawn up in 1656. I should have given the date as 1680.
Villages They usually occupied only one town but Autauga on Autauga Creek in the southeastern part of Autauga County, Ala., is said to have belonged to them.
History. De Soto found the Tawasa near the Montgomery site in 1540. Some time during the next century and a half they moved to the neighborhood of Apalachicola River, but in 1707 they were attacked by the Creeks, who captured some of them, while the greater part fled to the French and were by them given lands near the present Mobile. They occupied several different sites in that neighborhood but in 1717 they moved back to the region where De Soto found them, their main village being in the northwestern suburbs of the present Montgomery. After the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814, they were compelled to abandon this place and move into the Creek territories between the Coosa and Talapoosa Rivers, where they remained until the main migration beyond the Mississippi. Previous to this, some of them had gone with other Alabama into Louisiana and they followed their fortunes. The name was remembered by Alabama in Polk County, Tex., until within a few years.
Population. The French census of 1760 returned 40 Tawasa men and the Georgia census of 1792 "about 60." The census of 1832-33 gives 321 Indians in towns called Tawasa and Autauga, but all of these were quite certainly not Tawasa Indians in the strict application of that term. (See Alabama.)
Connection in which they have become noted. The Tawasa tribe will be remembered ethnologically on account of the rescue of so much important information regarding the early history of themselves and their neighbors through the captive Indian Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 1908), who made his way into Virginia in 1708, and on account of the still more important vocabulary obtained from him.
Laudonniere (1586) states that there were more than 40 under the Utina chief, but among them he includes "Acquera" (Acuera) and Moquoso far to the south and entirely independent, so that we are uncertain regarding the status of the others he gives, which are as follows: Cadecha, Calanay, Chilili, Eclauou, Molona. Omittaqua, and Onachaquara.
As the Utina, with the possible exception of the Potano, was the leading Timucua division and gave its name to the whole, and as the particular tribe to which each town mentioned in the documents belonged cannot be given, it will be well to enter all here, although those that can be placed more accurately will be inserted in their proper places.
In De Soto's time Aguacaleyquen or Caliquen seems to have been the principal town. In the mission period we are told that the chief lived at Ayaocuto. Acassa, a town inland from Tampa Bay.
Aguacaleyquen, a town in the province of Utina between Suwannee and Santa
Ahoica, probably near the Santa Fe River.
Alachepoyo, inland from Tampa Bay.
Alatico, probably on Cumberland Island.
Albino, 40 leagues or 4 days inland from St. Augustine and within 1% to 2
leagues of two others called Tucuro and Utiaca.
Alimacani, on an island of the same name not far north of the mouth of St. Johns River.
Amaca, inland from Tampa Bay.
Anacapa, in the Fresh Water Province 20 leagues south of St. Augustine. Anacharaqua, location unknown.
Antonico, in the Fresh Water Province.
Apalu, in the province of Yustaga.
Arapaja, 70 leagues from St. Augustine, Probably on Alapaha River.
Araya, south of the Withlacoochee River.
Archaha, location unknown.
Assile, on or near Aucilla River.
Astina, location unknown.
Atuluteca, probably near San Pedro or Cumberland Island.
Ayacamale, location unknown.
Ayaocute, in the Utina country 34 leagues from St. Augustine.
Ayotore, inland from Cumberland Island and probably southwest.
Beca, location unknown.
Bejesi, location unknown, perhaps the Apalachee town of Wacissa.
Cachipile, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Çacoroy, south of St. Augustine and 1'J2 leagues from Nocoroco, probably in the Fresh Water Province.
Cadecha, allied with Utina.
Calany, allied with Utina.
Caparaca, south of St. Augustine, southwest of Nocoroco and probably in the
Fresh Water Province.
Casti, location unknown.
Cayuco, near Tampa Bay.
Chamini, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.
Çhinica, 131 leagues from St. Augustine.
Cholupaha, south of Aguacaleyquen in the Potano Province.
Chuaquin, 60 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Çicale, south of St. Augustine and 3 leagues south of Nocoroco, perhaps in the
Fresh Water Province.
Cilili, said to be a Utina town.
Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.
Coya, location unknown.
Disnica, south of St. Augustine, perhaps should be Tisnica.
Eçalamototo, on the site of Picolata
Egita, near Tampa Bay, possibly a variant of Oçita.
Eclauou, location unknown.
Edelano, on an island of the same name in St. Johns River.
Elajay, location unknown, perhaps Calusa.
Elanogue, in the Fresh Water Province near Antonico.
Emola, location unknown.
Enecaque, location unknown.
Equale, in the Fresh Water Province.
Ereze, inland from Tampa Bay.
Esquega, a town or tribe on the west coast.
Exangue, near Cumberland Island. Filache, in the Fresh Water Province.
Guacara, on Suwannee River in northwestern Florida
Guaçoco, probably a town on a plain so called Urriparacoxi country. Heliocopile, location unknown.
Helmacape, location unknown.
Hicachirico ("Little town"), one league from the mission of San Juan del Puerto,
which was probably at the mouth of St. Johns River in the Saturiwa Province.
Hiocaia, the probable name of a town giving its name to a chief, location unknown.
Huara, inland from Cumberland Island.
Itaraholata, south of Potano, Potano Province.
Juraya, a rancheria, apparently in the Timucua territory.
Laca, another name for Eçalamototo.
Lamale, inland from Cumberland Island.
Luca, between Tampa Bay and the Withlacoochee River in the Urriparacoxi country.
Machaba, 64 leagues from St. Augustine, near the northern border of the Timucua country inland.
Maiaca the town of the Fresh Water Province most distant from St. Augustine, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns River.
Malaca, south of Nocoroco.
Marracou, location unknown.
Mathiaqua, location unknown.
Mayajuaca, near Maiaca.
Mayara, on lower St. Johns River.
Mocama, possibly a town on Cumberland Island, province of Tacatacuru, but
probably a province.
Mogote, south of St. Augustine in the region of Nocoroco.
Moloa, on the south side of St. Johns River near its mouth, province of Saturiwa. Napa, on an island one league from Cumberland Island.
Napituca, north of Aguacaleyquen, province of Utina.
Natobo, a mission station and probably native town 232 leagues from San Juan
del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns River, province of Saturiwa.
Nocoroco, at the mouth of a river, perhaps Halifax River, one day's journey south of Matanzas Inlet, Fresh Water Province.
Ocale, in a province of the same name in the neighborhood of the present Ocala.
Oçita, probably on Terra Ceia Island, on Hillsborough Bay.
Onathaqua, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral.
Osigubede, a chief and probably town on the west coast.
Panara, inland from Cumberland Island.
Patca, location unknown.
Patica, on the seacoast 8 leagues south of the mouth of St. Johns River.
Patica, on the west bank of St. Johns River in the Utina territory.
Pebe, a chief and probably a town on the west coast.
Pentoaya, at the head of Indian River.
Perquyinaland, south of Nocoroco; possibly the names of two towns, Perqui and Maland, run together.
Pia, on the east coast south of Nocoroco.
Pitano, a mission station and probably a native town a league and a half from
Pohoy, a town or province, or both, at Tampa Bay, and perhaps a synonym of
Potano, the principal town of the Potano tribe, on the Alachua plains.
Potaya, 4 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns River. Puala, near Cumberland Island.
Punhuri, inland from Cumberland Island.
Tacatacuru. There was another town of the same name west of the Suwannee
Sabobche, near the coast south of Nocoroco.
Saint Julian, in the Fresh Water Province.
San Mateo, about 2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns
River, province of Saturiwa.
San Pablo, about 13 leagues from San Juan del Puerto, province of Saturiwa. San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine.
Sarauahi, a quarter of a league from San Juan del Puerto.
Sena, on an "inlet" north of the mouth of St. Johns River, perhaps Amelia River. Siyagueche, near Cape Canaveral.
Socochuno, location unknown.
Soloy, not far from St. Augustine and probably on the river called Seloy by the
Surruque, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral.
Tacatacuru, the name of Cumberland Island and Province, and perhaps of the chief town, on the mainland side of the island near the southern end, 2 leagues from the Barra de San Pedro.
Tafocole, inland from Tampa Bay.
Tahupa, inland from Cumberland Island.
Tanpacaste, a chief and perhaps town north of Pohoy, i. e., north of Tampa Bay.
Tarihica, 54 leagues from St. Augustine, and perhaps in the Onatheaqua Province.
Tocaste, on a large lake south of the Withlacoochee River, province of Urriparacoxi.
Tocoaya, very near Cumberland Island.
Tocobaga, the chief town of the province so called, in Safety Harbor, Tampa Bay.
Tocoy, in the Fresh Water Province 5 leagues south of St. Augustine. Tolapatafi, probably toward the west coast of the peninsula of Florida near
Toloco, location unknown.
Tomeo, near the Fresh Water Province.
Tucura, near the Fresh Water Province.
Tucuro, see Abino.
Tunsa, possibly a synonym of Antonico.
Uçachile, a town or tribe in the Yustaga Province, perhaps the mother town of the Osochi.
Uqueten, the southernmost village of the province of Ocale on Withlacoochee River entered by De Soto.
Urica, 60 leagues from St. Augustine.
Uriutina, just north of the river of Aguacaleyquen, perhaps at Lake City.
Urubia, near Cape Canaveral and 134 leagues from the town of Surruque. Utayne, inland from Cumberland Island.
Utiaca, see Abino.
Utichini, inland from Cumberland Island and within a league and a half of Puturiba.
Utinamocharra, 1 day's journey north of Potano, Potano Province.
Vera Cruz, half a league from San Juan del Puerto, province of Saturiwa.
Vicela, a short distance south of Withlacoochee River, province of Urriparacoxi.
Xapuica, near the Guale country, perhaps a synonym of Caparaca.
Xatalalano, inland from Cumberland Island.
Yaocay, near Antonico in the Fresh Water Province.
Ycapalano, inland from Cumberland Island and probably within half a league or a league of Puturiba.
Yufera, inland and probably northwest from Cumberland Island.
History. The Utina were evidently those Indians occupying the province called Aguacaleyquen which De Soto passed through in 1539. In 1564 the French came in contact with them after the establishment of Fort Caroline. On one occasion they sent a contingent to help them defeat the neighboring Potano. After the Spaniards had supplanted the French, the Timucua allied themselves with the former and in 1576 or 1577 a body of soldiers was sent to support them against several neighboring tribes. They were missionized at a comparatively early date, and afterward followed the fortunes of the rest of the Timucua. Following is a brief over-all sketch of the history of the tribes constituting the Timucuan group. They first came into contact with Europeans during Ponce de Leon's initial expedition in 1513 when the peninsula and subsequently the State received its name. Narvaez in 1528 and De Soto in 1539 passed through the country of the western tribes. Ribault visited those on and near St. Johns River in 1562, and the French settlers of Fort Caroline on that river in 1564-65 were in close contact with them. A considerable part of our knowledge regarding these Indians is contained in the records of that colony. The Spaniards supplanted the French in 1565 and gradually conquered
the Timucua tribes while the Franciscans missionized them. Our knowledge of the Timucua language is derived mainly from religious works by the missionaries Pareja and Mouilla and a grammar compiled by the former. During the early half of the seventeenth century the missions were in a flourishing condition but a general rebellion in 1656 occasioned some losses by death and exile. They also suffered
severely from pestilences which raged in the missions in 1613-17, 1649-50, and 1672. It is probable that some decline in population took place even before the great rebellion but that and the epidemics occasioned considerable losses. Toward the end of the seventeenth century, however, all the Florida Indians began to suffer from the invasion of Creek and Yuchi Indians to the northward, and this was
accentuated after the break-up of the Apalachee in 1704 by the expedition under Moore. Most of the remaining Timucua were then concentrated into missions near St. Augustine, but this did not secure immunity against further attacks by the English and their Indian allies. Sometime after 1736 the remnants of these people seem to have removed to a stream in the present Volusia County which in the form Tomoka bears their name. Here they disappear from history, and it is probable that they were swallowed up by the invading
Population.-The Timucua, in the wide extent of the term, are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 13,000 in 1650, including 3,000 Potano, 1,000 Hostaqua, 8,000 Timucua proper and their allies, and 1,000 Tocobaga. In a letter dated February 2, 1635, it is asserted that 30,000 Christian Indians were connected with the 44 missions then maintained in the Guale and Timucua provinces. While this figure is probably too high, it tends to confirm Mooney's (1928) estimate. In 1675 Bishop Calderón of Cuba states that he confirmed 13,152 in the four provinces of Timucua, Guale. Apalache, and Apalachicoli, but Governor Salazar estimates only 1,400 in the Timucua missions that year. Later, pestilences decimated the Timucua very rapidly, and their ruin was completed by attacks of the English and the northern Indians, so that by 1728 the single town which seems to have contained most of the survivors had but 15 men and 20 women. Eight years later 17 men were reported there. Not long after this time the tribe disappears entirely, though it is highly probable that numbers of individuals who had belonged to it had made their homes with other Indians.
As to the Utina tribe by itself, we have a missionary letter dated 1602 which estimates its population as 1,500, in this case probably an understatement.
Connection in which they have become noted. This tribe, known as the Utina or Timucua, is noteworthy
(1) for having given its name to the peoples of the Timucuan or Timuquanan stock now regarded as part of the Muskogean family, and
(2) as having been, next perhaps to the Potano, the most powerful tribe constituting that stock.
The Timucuan group has left its name in that of the river above mentioned.
Yamasee. Some tribes affiliated with the Yamasee settled in the Apalachee country in the latter part of the seventeenth century. The great body came to Florida from South Carolina after their war with the English colonists in 1715, and most of them remained in the northeastern part of the peninsula. Their final appearance is as the Ocklawaha band of Seminole. Part of them moved west, however, and settled near Mobile, and either this or a third party lived among the Creeks for a time, after which they seem to have returned to west Florida, where they were represented by the "Yumersee" town of the Seminole. A considerable number of them were captured by the Creek Indians and incorporated with them. (See Georgia.)
Yuchi. In the seventeenth century a body of Yuchi established themselves west of Apalachicola River, but moved north to join the Upper Creeks before 1761. At a much later date a body of eastern Yuchi joined the Seminole and in 1823 had a settlement called Tallahassee or Spring Gardens 10 miles from Volusia. They probably moved to Oklahoma at the end of the last Seminole war. (See Georgia
Yustaga. Meaning unknown.
Connections. No words of the Yustaga language have been preserved but circumstantial evidence indicates they belonged to the Timucuan branch of the Muskhogean linguistic stock, although occasionally the provinces of Timucua and Yustaga are spoken of as if distinct.
Location. Approximately between Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers, somewhat toward the coast.
Villages. The Yustaga villages cannot be satisfactorily identified though the missions of Asile, San Marcos, Machaba, and San Pedro seem to have belonged to it.
History. The Yustaga are first mentioned by Biedma (in Bourne, 1904), one of the chroniclers of De Soto, who gives the title to a "province" through which the Spaniards marched just before coming to Apalachee. While the French Huguenots were on St. Johns River, some of them visited this tribe, and later it is again mentioned by the Spaniards but no mission bears the name. Its history is soon merged in that of the Timucuan peoples generally. The last mention of the name appears to be in 1659. It is of particular interest as the province from which the Osocbi Indians who settled among the Lower Creeks probably emigrated in 1656 or shortly afterward.
Population. In 1675, 40 Indians were reported in the mission of Asile and 300 in each of the others, giving a total very close to Mooney's (1928) estimate of 1,000 as of the year 1600.
Georgia Indian Tribes
Apalachee. After the English and Creeks destroyed the Apalachee towns in Florida in 1704, they established a part of the tribe in a village not far below the present Augusta. In 1715, when the Yamasee war broke out, these Apalachee joined the hostile Indians and went to the Chattahoochee to live near that faction of the Lower Creeks which was favorable to Spain. Soon afterward, however, the English faction gained the ascendency among the Creeks, and the Apalachee returned to Florida. (See Florida.)
Alabama and Florida.)
Subdivisions and Villages. The following names of towns or tribes were given by a Tawasa Indian, Lamhatty, to Robert Beverley (1722) and may well have belonged to the Apalachicola: Aulbdley, Ephtppick, Sonepáh, and perhaps Socsoóky (or Socsósky). The census of 1832 returned two distinct bodies of Indians under the synonyms Apalachicola and Tälw łåko.
History. According to Muskogee legend, the ancestors of the Muskogee encountered the Apalachicola in the region above indicated, when they entered the country, and they were at first disposed to fight with them but soon made peace. According to one legend the Creek Confederacy came into existence as a result of this treaty. Spanish documents of the seventeenth century are the earliest in which the name appears. It is there used both as the name of a town (as early as 1675) and, in an extended sense, for all of the Lower Creeks. This fact, Muskogee tradition, and the name Talwa Iako all show the early importance of the people. They were on more friendly terms with the Spaniards than the Muskogee generally and hence were fallen upon by the Indian allies of the English and carried off, either in 1706 or 1707. They were settled on Savannah River opposite Mount Pleasant, at a place which long bore their name, but in 1716, just after the Yamasee war, they retired into their old country and established themselves at the junction of Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. Later they moved higher up the Chattahoochee and lived in Russell County, Ala., remaining in the general neighborhood until they removed to new homes in the present Oklahoma in 1836-40. There they established themselves in the northern part of the Creek Reservation but presently gave up their ceremonial ground and were gradually absorbed in the mass of Indians about them.
Population. In 1715 just before the outbreak of the Yamasee war, there were said to be 2 settlements of this tribe with 64 warriors and a total population of 214. A Spanish census of 1738 also gave 2 settlements with 60 warriors in one and 45 in the other; a French census of 1750, more than 30 warriors; a British enumeration of 1760, 60; one of 1761, 20; an American estimate of 1792, 100 (including the Chiaha); and the United States Census of 1832, a total population of 239 in 2 settlements.
Connection in which they have become noted. Apalachicola River,
Apalachicola Bay, and the name of the county seat of Franklin County, Fla., are derived from this tribe. The Spaniards applied their name to the Lower Creeks generally, and they were also noted as one of the tribes responsible for the formation of the Confederation.
Chatot. Some of these Indians lived at times in the southwest corner of this State. (See Florida.)
Cherokee. From early times the Cherokee occupied the northern and northeastern parts of Georgia, though from certain place names it seems probable that they had been preceded in that territory by Creeks. (See Tennessee.)
Chiaha. Meaning unknown though it may contain a reference to mountains or highlands. (Cf. Choctaw and Alabama tcaha, Hitchiti tcäihi, "high.") Also called:
Tolameco or Solameco, which probably signifies "big town," a name reported by the Spaniards.
Connections. The Chiaha belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic stock and in later times spoke the Muskogee' 'tongue, but there is every reason to class them in the Hitchiti group. (See Apalachicola.)
Location. In later historic times the Chiaha were on the middle course of Chattahoochee River, but at the earliest period at which we have any knowledge of them they seem to have been divided into two bands, one on Burns Island, in the present State of Tennessee, the other in eastern Georgia near the coast. (See also South Carolina and Florida.)
Subdivisions. The Mikasuki of northern Florida are said to have separated from these people.
Hawkins (1848) gives the following:
History. Some confusion regarding this tribe has been occasioned by the fact that in the sixteenth century there appear to have been two divisions. The name first appears in the De Soto narratives applied to a "province" on an island in Tennessee River which J. Y. Brame has identified in a very satisfactory manner with Burns Island close to the Tennessee-Alabama line. They were said to be "subject to a chief of Coca," from which it may perhaps be inferred that the Creek Confederacy was already in existence. Early in 1567 Boyano, Juan Pardo's lieutenant, reached this town with a small body of soldiers and constructed a fort, Pardo joining him in September. When Pardo returned to Santa Elena shortly afterward he left a small garrison here which was later destroyed by the Indians. Possibly Chehawhaw Creek, an eastern affluent of the Coosa indicates a later location of this band. The only remaining reference which might apply to them occurs in the names of two bodies of Creeks called "Chehaw" and "Chearhaw" which appear in the census rolls of 1832–33, but they may have gotten their designations from former residences on or near the creek so called. In 1727 there was a tradition among the Cherokee that the Yamasee Indians were formerly Cherokee driven out by the Tomahitans, i. e., the Yuchi, and in this there may be some reminiscence of the fate of the Chiaha.
In the Pardo narratives the name "Lameco or Solameco" is given as a synonym for the northern Chiaha, and this may have been intended for Tolameco, which would be a Creek term meaning "Chief Town." This was also the name of a large abandoned settlement near Cofitachequi on the middle course of Savannah River visited by De Soto in 1540. Since we know that Chiaha were also in this region, it is a fair supposition that this town had been occupied by people of this connection. There is a Chehaw River on the South Carolina coast between the Edisto and_ Combahee, and as "Chiaha" is used once as an equivalent for Kiawa, possibly the Cusabo tribe of that name may have been related. Moreover, we are informed (S. C. Docs.) that the Chiaha had their homes formerly among the Yamasee. In 1715 they withdrew to the Chattahoochee with other upper Creek towns, probably from a temporary abode on Ocmulgee River. After the Creeks moved to Oklahoma the Chiaha settled in the northeastern corner of the Creek Reservation and maintained a square ground there until after the Civil war, but they have now practically lost their identity. Some of them went to Florida and the Mikasuki are said by some Indians to have branched off from them. In the country of the western Seminole there was a square ground as late as 1929 which bore their name.
Population. There are no figures for the northern band of Chiaha unless they could have been represented in the two towns of the 1832–33 census given above, which had total populations of 126 and 306 respectively. For the southern division a Spanish census of 1738 gives 120 warriors but this included also the Osochi and Okmulgee. In 1750 only 20 were reported, but in 1760, 160, though an estimate the following year reduces this to 120. In 1792 Marbury gives 100 Chiaha and Apalachicola, and the census of 1832–33 returned 381 of, the former. In 1799 Hawkins states that there were 20 Indian families in Hotalgi-huyana, a town occupied jointly by this tribe and the Osochi, but in 1821 Young raises this to 210. He gives 670 for the Chiaha proper.
Chickasaw. A band of Chickasaw lived near Augusta from about 1723 to the opening of the American Revolution, and later they were for some time among the Lower Creeks. (See Mississippi and South Carolina.)
Creeks. A part, and perhaps a large part, of the Indians who after-ward constituted the Creek Confederacy were living in the sixteenth century in what the Spaniards called the province of Guale on the' present Georgia coast. Some of them moved inland in consequence of difficulties with the Whites, and in the latter half of the seventeenth century most of those afterward known as Lower Creeks were upon Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee Rivers, the latter river being then called Ocheese Creek, from the Hitchiti name given to the Indians living on it. After the Yamasee War (1715) all assembled upon Chattahoochee River and continued there, part on the Georgia side of the river, part on the Alabama side, until they removed to the present Oklahoma early in the nineteenth century. (See Creek Confederacy and Muskogee under Alabama.)
Hitchiti. Perhaps from Atcik-hata, a term formerly applied to all of the Indians who spoke the Hitchiti language, and is said to refer to the heap of white ashes piled up close to the ceremonial ground. Also called:
At-pasha-shliha, Koasati name, meaning "mean people."
Connections. The Hitchiti belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic family and were considered the mother town of the Atcik-hata group. (See Apalachicola.)
Location. The Hitchiti are oftenest associated with a location in the present Chattahoochee County, Ga., but at an earlier period were on the lower course of the Ocmulgee River. (See also Florida and Oklahoma.)
Hihaje, location unknown.
Hitchitoochee, on Flint River below its junction with Kinchafoonee Creek.
Tuttallosag, on a creek of the same name, 20 miles west from Hitchitoochee.
History. The Hitchiti are identifiable with the Ocute of De Soto's chroniclers, who were on or near the Ocmulgee River. Early English maps show their town on the site of the present Macon, Ga., but after 1715 they moved to the Chattahoochee, settling first in Henry County, Ala., but later at the site above mentioned in Chattahoochee County, Ga. From this place they moved to Oklahoma, where they gradually merged with the rest of the Indians of the Creek Confederacy.
Population. The population of the Hitchiti is usually given in conjunction with that of the other confederate tribes. The following separate estimates of the effective male Hitchiti population are recorded: 1738, 60; 1750, 15; 1760, 50; 1761, 40; 1772, 90; in 1832 the entire population was 381.
Connection in which they have become noted. In early days, as above mentioned, the Hitchiti were prominent as the leaders in that group of tribes or towns among the Lower Creeks speaking a language distinct from Muskogee. Hichita, McIntosh County, Okla., preserves the name.
Oconee. Significance unknown.
Connections. The Oconee belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic stock, and the Atcik-hata group. (See Apalachicola.)
Location. Just below the Rock Landing on Oconee River, Ga. (But see also Florida.)
History. Early documents reveal at least two bodies of Indians bearing the name Oconee and probably related. One was on or near the coast of Georgia and seems later to have moved into the Apalachee coun
Population. The following estimates of effective Oconee men in the Creek Nation are preserved: 1738, 50; 1750, 30; 1760, 50; 1761, 50. In 1675 there were about 200 Indians at the Apalachee Mission of San Francisco de Oconi.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Oconee is perpetuated in the Oconee River, the town of Oconee, Oconee Mills, and Oconee Siding, all in Georgia, but not necessarily in the name of Oconee County, S. C., which is of Cherokee origin, although there may be some more remote relationship. There is a place of the name in Shelby County, Ill.
History. The Okmulgee probably separated from the Hitchiti or one of their cognate towns when these towns were on Okmulgee River and settled at the point above indicated, where they became closely associated with the Chiaha and Osochi. They went west with the other Creeks and reestablished themselves in the most northeastern part of the allotted territory, where they gradually lost their identity. Although small in numbers, they gave the prominent Perryman family to the Creek Nation and its well-known head chief, Pleasant Porter.
Population. A French census of about 1750 states that there were rather more than 20 effective men among the Okmulgee, and the British census of 1760 gives 30. Young, quoted by Morse, estimates a total population of 220 in 1822. There are few other enumerations separate from the general census of the Creeks.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the city of Okmulgee and that of Ocmulgee River were derived independently from the springs above mentioned. The name Okmulgee given to the later capital of the Creek Nation in what is now Oklahoma was, however, taken from the tribe under consideration. It has now become a flourishing on city.
Yamasee. Meaning unknown, though it has been interpreted by
Muskogee yamasi, "gentle." The form given in some early writings, Yamiscaron, may have been derived from a Siouan dialect or from Timucua, as there is no r in any of the Muskhogean tongues.
Connections. The Yamasee town and chief names indicate plainly that they spoke a Muskhogean dialect and tradition affirms that it was connected most closely with Hitchiti, a contention which may be considered probable.
Location. The earliest references that we have place the Yamasee on Ocmulgee River not far above its junction with the Oconee. They seem to have ranged or extended northeastward of these rivers to or even slightly beyond the Savannah, but always inland. (See also Florida, Alabama, South Carolina.)
Subdivisions and Villages
Immediately before the outbreak of the Yamasee War there were the following: Upper Towns:
Yoa, near Huspaw.
Chasee, location unknown.
Oketee, probaly near one of the places so called on New River, in Jasper and Beaufort Counties, S. C.Pocasabo.
Tulafina (?), perhaps near Tulafinny Creek, an estuary of the Coosawhatchie River in Jasper County.
Other possible Yamasee settlements were Dawfuskee, Ilcombe, and Peterba.
History. The first reference to the Yamasee appears to be a mention of their name in the form Yamiscaron as that of a province with which Francisco of Chicora was acquainted in 1521. The "Province of Altamaha" mentioned by De Soto's chronicler Ranjel in 1540 probably included at least a part of the Yamasee people. For a hundred years afterward the tribe remained practically unnoticed except for a brief visit by a Spanish soldier and two missionaries in 1597, but in 1633 they are reported to have asked for missionaries, and in 1639 peace is said to have been made between the allied Chatot, Lower Creeks, and Yamasee and the Apalachee. In 1675 Bishop Calderon of Cuba founded two missions in the Apalachee country which were occupied by Yamasee or their near relatives. The same year there were three Yamasee missions on the Atlantic coast but one of these may have been occupied by Tamathli. Later they moved nearer St Augustine but in the winter of 1684–85 some act of the Spanish governor offended them and they removed to South Carolina, where the English gave them lands on the west side of Savannah River near its mouth. Some of these Indians were probably from the old Guale province, but the Yamasee now took the lead. Eighty-seven warriors of this nation took part in Barnwell's expedition against the Tuscarora (see North Carolina). In 1715 they rose in rebellion against the English and killed two or three hundred settlers but were defeated by Governor Craven and took refuge in Florida, where, until the cession of Florida to Great Britain, the Yamasee continued as allies of the Spaniards. Meanwhile their numbers fell off steadily. Some remained in the
neighborhood of the St. Johns River until the outbreak of the Seminole War.
The Oklawaha band of Seminole is said to have been descended from them. Another band accompanied the Apalachee to Pensacola and Mobile, and we find them located near those two places on various charts. They may be identical with those who, shortly afterward, appear among the Upper Creeks on certain maps, though this is the only testimony we have of their presence there. At any rate, these latter are probably the Yamasee found among the Lower Creeks in the nineteenth century and last heard of among the Seminole of west Florida. Of some historical importance is a small band of these Indians who seem to have lived with the Apalachicola for a time, after the Yamasee War, and in 1730 settled on the site of what is now Savannah under the name of Yamacraw. There the Georgia colonists found them three years later, and the relations between the two peoples were most amicable. The name Yamacraw was probably derived from that of a Florida mission, Nombre de Dios de Amacarisse, where some of the Yamasee once lived. Ultimately these Yamacraw are believed to have retired among the Creeks and later may have gone to Florida.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Yamasee are famous particularly on account of the Yamasee War, which marked an epoch in Indian and White history in the Southeast. At the end of the seventeenth century a certain stroke was used in paddling canoes along the coast of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida, which was called the "Yamasee stroke." A small town in Beaufort County, S. C., is called "Yemasee," a variant of this name.
Additional Georgia Indian Resources
Hawaii Indian Tribes
There are no American Indian Tribes recognized as living in Hawaii.
Although the federal government does not recognize Native Hawaiians as American Indians we who are American Indian do recognize them as such..
Idaho Indian Tribes
Bannock. From their own name Bana'kwŭt. Also called:
Diggers, by many writers.
Ogoize, by the Kalispel.
Panai'ti, form of name given by Hoffman (1886).
Pun-nush, by the Shoshoni.
Robber Indians, by Ross (1855).
Ush-ke-we-ah, by the Crow Indians.
Connections. The Bannock belonged to the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, being a detached branch of the Northern Paiute.
Location.—In historic times their main center was in southeastern Idaho, ranging into western Wyoming, between latitude 42° and 45° North and from longitude 113° West eastward to the main chain of the Rocky Mountains. At times they spread well down Snake River, and some were scattered as far north as Salmon River and even into southern Montana. (See also Colorado, Oregon, and Utah.)
Subdivisions. A few local group names have been preserved, such as the Kutsshundika or Buffalo-eaters, Penointikara or Honey-eaters, and Shohopanaiti or Cottonwood Bannock, but these are not well defined.
History. Bridger met the Bannock Indians in the country above indicated as early as 1829, but contacts between them and the Whites became much more intimate with the establishment of Fort Hall in 1834. In 1869 Fort Hall Reservation was set aside for them and the Shoshoni, but they were in the habit of wandering widely and it was a long time before they were gathered into it. They claimed the territory in southwestern Montana in which are situated Virginia City and Bozeman, and it is probable that they were driven across the mountains into the Salmon River Valley at a comparatively recent period. Before 1853 they were decimated by the smallpox and were finally gathered under the Lemhi and Fort Hall agencies. Loss of their lands, failure of the herds of buffalo, and lack of prompt relief on the part of the Government occasioned an uprising of the tribe in 1878, which was suppressed by General O. O. Howard.
Population. Bridger, in 1829, stated that the Bannock had 1,200 lodges, or a population of about 8,000, but he evidently included the neighboring Shoshoni. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1845 there were about 1,000, but Forney, in 1858 (p. 213) gave only 400 to 500. In 1870 Jones estimated 600 and Mann 800 "Northern Bannocks." In 1901 they numbered 513 but were so intermixed with Shoshoni that the figure is uncertain. The census of 1910 reported 413, all but 50 of whom were in Idaho, and the census of 1930 gave 415, including 313 in Idaho. In 1937, 342 were reported.
Connections in which they have become noted. The only prominence attained by the Bannock was for a brief period during the Bannock War. The name is perpetuated by a river, a range of mountains, and a county. There is also a place named Bannock in Belmont County, Ohio, and another in Butler County, Ky., but these are probably not connected with the tribe.
Kalispel. From a native term said to mean "Camas"; they were given the name Pend d'Oreilles, because when they were first met by Europeans nearly all of them wore large shell earrings. Also called:
Ak-min'-e-shu'-me, by the Crow and meaning "the tribe that uses canoes".
Camas People, a translation of Kalispel.
Earring People, an English translation of Pend d'Oreilles.
Hanging Ears, English translation of Pend d'Oreilles.
Ni-he-ta-te-tup'i-o, Siksika name.
Papshptln`lema, Yakima name, signifying "people of the great fir trees."
Connections. The Kalispel belonged to the interior division of the great Salishan family.
Location. On Pend Oreille River and Lake, Priest Lake, and the lower course of Clark's Fork. They were said to have extended east-ward to Thompson Lake and Horse Plains and to have hunted over some of the Salmon River country, Canada, and were formerly said to have extended to Flathead Lake and Missoula. (See also Montana and Washington.)
(1) Upper Kalispel or Upper Pend d'Oreilles (in Montana from Flathead Lake and Flathead River to about Thompson Falls on Clark Fork of the Pend Oreille River, including the Little Bitterroot, southward about to Missoula and north-ward to the International Boundary), with bands at Flathead Lake, near Kalispel, at or near Dayton, near Poison at the foot of the lake, and possibly one at Columbia Falls; some wintered on the Bitterroot and a large band at St. Ignatius.
(2) Lower Kalispel or Lower Pend d'Oreilles or Kalispel proper (from Thompson Falls down Clark Fork, Pend Oreille Lake, Priest Lake, and Pend Oreille River nearly to the International Boundary and hunting territories along Salmon River, British Columbia).
(3) The Chewelah (in the country west of the Calispell or Chewelah Mountains in the upper part of the Colville Valley).
The Lower Kalispel also included several minor bands, the Chewelah apparently two. The Chewelah subdivision spoke a slightly different dialect and was sometimes regarded as an independent tribe.
History. The Kalispel were visited by Lewis and Clark in 1805, and in 1809 a post was established on Pend Oreille Lake by the Northwest Company and another on Clark Fork the same year called Salish House. Emissaries of the American Fur Company reached them later, and in 1844 they were missionized by the Roman Catholic Church. July 16, 1855, the Upper Kalispel, Kutenai, and Salish surrendered all of their lands except an area about Flathead Lake which became the Jocko Reservation. The greater part of the Kalispel settled here, but part of the Lower Kalispel were gathered on Colville Reservation with the Okanagon, Colville, and a number of other tribes.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that the Kalispel numbered 1,200 in 1780, but Teit (1930) considered that the prehistoric population must have been between 5,000 and 6,500, an estimate which would seem to be excessive. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated that there were 30 lodges of these people and a population of 1,600. In 1905 there were 640 Upper and 197 Lower Pend d'Oreilles under the Flathead Agency (Jocko Reservation) and 98 under the Colville Agency. The census of 1910 reported 386 from Montana, 157 from Washington, 15 from Idaho, and 6 from three other States. They were not separately enumerated in 1930, but the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 97 in 1937.
Connections in which they have become noted. The name Kalispel is preserved in that of the banking city of Kalispell, county seat of Flathead County, Mont., by Calispell Lake, and by the Calispell Mountains. The name Pend d'Oreilles is preserved in Pend Oreille Lake in northern Idaho and in Pend Oreille River in Montana, Idaho, and Washington.
Shoshoni, Northern. Significance of the word Shoshoni is unknown. Also called:
E-wu-h'a'-wu-si, Arapaho name, signifying "people that use grass or bark for their houses or huts."Gens du Serpent, by the French.
Ginebigônini, Chippewa name, signifying "snake men."
Kinebikowininiwak, Algonkin name, signifying "serpents."
Ma-buc-sho-roch-pan-ga, Hidatsa name.
Miká-atí, Hidatsa name, signifying "grass lodges."
Mi'kyashĕ, Crow name, signifying "grass lodges."
Pezhi'-wokeyotila, Teton Dakota name, signifying "grass-thatch dwellers."
Pi-ci'-kse-ni-tup'i-o, Siksika name.
Sin-te'-hda wi-ca-sa, Yankton Dakota name, signifying "rattlesnake Indians." Sisízhanǐn, Atsina name signifying "rattlesnake men."
Snake Indians, common English name.
Snóă, Okanagon name.
Wákidohka-numak, Mandan name, signifying "snake man."
Wĕs'ănikacinga, Omaha and Ponca name, signifying "snake people."
Zuzéca wićása, Teton Dakota name, signifying "snake people."
Connections. The Northern Shoshoni belonged to the Shoshoni-Comanche dialectic group of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family.
Location. The Northern Shoshoni occupied eastern Idaho, except the territory held by the Bannock; western Wyoming; and north-eastern Utah.
Subdivisions. Their only subdivisions were a number of bands headed by popular chiefs, the make up of which was constantly shifting.
Lemhi and Central Idaho:
Padai, scattered along Lemhi River about Salmon.Pagadut, on Red Rock Creek, about Liina, Mont.; possibly a few families lived near Dillon, Mont.Pasasigwana, at a warm spring in the mountains north of Clayton. Pasimadai, on Upper Salmon River.Sohodai, on the upper Middle Fork of Salmon River, near Three Rivers.
Fort Hall Shoshoni: No band names given.
Bannock Creek (Kamduka) Shoshoni (Pocatello's Band) :
Biagamugep, the principal village, near Kelton.
Cache Valley (Pangwiduka) Kwagunogwai:
Along the Logan River above its junction with the Little Bear River. Salt Lake Valley:
There are said to have been bands in the Ogden, Weber, and Salt Lake Valleys, but their names have not been preserved; they are sometimes called Ute, but Steward is certain that they were affiliated with the Shoshoni.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 4,500 in the year 1845, including the Western Shoshoni. The United States Census of 1910 gave 3,840 "Shoshoni," of which number about 2,000 appear to have belonged to this division. The Report of the Office for Indian Affairs of 1917 indicated about 2,200. The census of 1930 reported 3,994 for the Northern and Western Shoshoni combined, but in 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 3,650 Northern Shoshoni alone.
Connections in which they have become noted. The Northern Shoshoni are the most prominent and strongest tribe of the upper plateau. They were also distinguished by the fact that their name was employed by Gallatin (1936) and later adopted by Powell (1891) for application to a linguistic stock, a stock now considered a branch of a much larger group, the Uto-Aztecan. The Shoshoni came into prominence in the last century
(1) because Sacagawea or Bird Woman, the famous guide and interpreter of Lewis and Clark in their expedition to the Pacific, was a member of this tribe; and
(2) because of the ability of chief Washakie and his constant friendship for the 'Whites.
The name Shoshone has been applied to rivers and mountains in Wyoming and Nevada; to a lake in Yellowstone National Park; to the Shoshone Falls of Snake River; to a county in Idaho; and to places in Inyo County, Calif.; Lincoln County, Idaho; White Pine County, Nev.; and Fremont County, Wyo.
Snakes, see Paiute, Northern.
Colorado Indian Tribes
Apache. A number of the Apache bands extended their raids from time to time over the territory of what is now Colorado, but only one of them, the Jicarilla, may be said to have been permanent occupants of any part of the State within the historic period. This tribe is considered under the name Jicarilla below; for an account of the other Apache tribes except the Lipan, see New Mexico. The Lipan are treated under Texas.
Jicarilla. A Mexican Spanish word, meaning "little basket," given to the tribe on account of the expertness of Jicarilla women in making baskets. Also called:
Bĕ'-χai, or Peχ'-gĕ, Navaho name.
Kinya-inde, Mescalero name.
Koop-tagúi, Kiowa name, signifying "mountain Apache."
Pi'-ke-e-wai-i-ne, Picuris name.
Tan-nah-shis-en, by Yarrow (1879) and signifying "men of the woodland."
Tashi'ne, Mescalero name.
Tinde, own name.
Tu-sa-be', Tesuque name.
Connections. The Jicarilla were one of the so-called Apache tribes, all of which belonged to the great Athapascan linguistic stock, but with the Lipan (see Texas) constituted a group distinct from the Apache proper. (See New Mexico.)
Location. Within historic times the homes of the Jicarilla have been in southeastern Colorado and northern New Mexico, though they have ranged into the adjacent parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Mooney (1928) gives the following:
Apatsiltlizhihi, who claim the district of Mora, N. Mex.
Dachizhozhin, original home around the present Jicarilla Reservation, N. Mex. Golkahin, claiming a former home south of Taos Pueblo, N. Mex. Ketsilind, claiming a former home south of Taos Pueb,u, N. Mex.
Saitinde, claiming the vicinity of present Espanola, N. Mex., as their original
Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 800 Jicarilla in 1845. In 1905 they numbered 795; according to the Census of 1910, there were 694; the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923 gave 608, and that for 1937, 714.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Jicarilla is given to mountains and a post village in Lincoln County, N. Mex.
Pueblos. Most of the Pueblo tribes trace their origin to some place in the north and there is no doubt that the ancestors of many of them lived in what are now the pueblo and cliff ruins of Colorado. In historic times the principal dealings of Colorado Indians with the Pueblos have been with the Pueblo of Taos, which was once a trading point of importance. Many of its people intermarried with the Ute. (See New Mexico.)
Additional Colorado Indian Resources
Indiana Indian Tribes
Chippewa. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 and treaties made in 1817 and 1821 by which lands in Indiana were relinquished to the Whites. (See Minnesota.)
Delaware. About 1770 the Delaware, most of whom were then living in Ohio, received permission from the Miami and Piankashaw to occupy that part of Indiana between the Ohio and White Rivers, where at one period they had six villages. In course of time, all moved west of the Mississippi to Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. (See New Jersey.)
Erie. Erie tribal territory may once have extended into the northeastern part of the State, but this tribe played but little part in the known history of the region covered by it. (See Ohio.)
Illinois. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, relinquishing land in Indiana to the Whites. (See Illinois.)
Iroquois. The earlier Indian occupants of Indiana were largely driven out by the Iroquois, particularly by the westernmost of the Iroquois tribes, the Seneca, yet they seem to have had few settlements in the State. (See New York.)
Kickapoo. When the Kickapoo were on Vermilion River, Ill., they undoubtedly occupied some of western Indiana for brief periods. (See Wisconsin.)
Miami. The name is thought to be derived from the Chippewa word Omaumeg, signifying "people on the peninsula," but according to their own traditions, it came from the word for pigeon. The name used by themselves, as recorded and often used by early writers, is Twigbtwees, derived from the cry of a crane. Also called:
Naked Indians, a common appellation used by the colonists, from a confusion of twanh, twanh, the cry of a crane, with tawa, "naked."
Pkíwi-léni, by the Shawnee, meaning "dust or ashes people."
Sänshkiá-a-rúnû), by the Wyandot, meaning "people dressing finely, or fantastically."
Tawatawas, meaning "naked." (See Naked Indians above.)
Wa-yä-tä-no'-ke, cited by Morgan (1851).
Connections. The Miami belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest immediate connections being with the Illinois.
Subdivisions and Villages
French writers divided the Miami into the following five bands: Piankashaw, Wea, Atchatchakangouen, Kilatika, Mengakonkia, and Pepicokia. The first two later became recognized as independent tribes, the last may have been absorbed by the Piankashaw but this and the other three divisions are no longer recognized. The following villages are:
Chicago, on the site of the present city, probably occupied by Wea.
Chippekawkay (Piankashaw), perhaps containing originally the Pepicokia band, on the site of Vincennes, Knox County, Ind.
Choppatee's Village, on the west bank of St. Joseph River, a few miles from Fort Wayne, Allen County, Ind.
Flat Belly's Village (see Papakeecha).
Kekionga, on the east bank of St. Joseph River, in Allen County, Ind., opposite
Kenapacomaqua, a Wea village on the west bank of Eel River, near its mouth, 6 miles above Logansport, Cass County, Ind.
Kokomo, on the site of the present Kokomo, Ind.
Kowasikka or Thorntown, on Sugar Creek near the present Thornton, Boone County, Ind.
Little Turtle's Village, on Eel River, Ind., about 20 miles northwest of Fort Wayne.
Meshingomesia, on a reservation on the northeastern side of Mississinewa River,
in Liberty Township, Wabash County, Ind.
Missinquimeschan, probably Piankashaw, near the site of Washington, Daviess County, Ind.
Mississinewa, on the east side of Mississinewa River at its junction with the Wabash in Miami County, Ind.
Osaga, location uncertain.
Papakeecha, named from its chief, east of Turkey Lake at the present Indian village, Noble County, Ind.
Piankashaw, occupied by Piankashaw, on Wabash River at the junction of the Vermilion.
Pickawillanee, on Miami River at the site of the present Piqua, Miami County, Ohio.
Saint Francis Xavier, mission for Miami and Mascouten on Fox River, Wis., near De Pere, Brown County.
Seek's Village, on Eel River about 3 miles from Columbia City, in Whitley County, Ind.
Thornton (see Kowasikka).
White Raccoon's Village, near the present Aboite, Allen County, Ind.
History. Miami were living in the neighborhood of Green Bay, Wis., when knowledge of the tribe first came to Europeans shortly after the middle of the seventeenth century. In 1670 they were at the headwaters of Fox River, but soon afterward they formed new settlements at the southern end of Lake Michigan and on Kalamazoo River, Mich. It is quite possible that bands of this tribe had moved from Wisconsin at a still earlier period and were in northern Indiana. Their first settlements at the lower end of Lake Michigan were at Chicago and on St. Joseph River. In 1703 there was a Miami village at Detroit, but the greater part of the tribe continued to live on St. Joseph River for a considerable period. By 1711 they had reached the Wabash, and presently they were forced from St. Joseph River by the Potawatomi, Kickapoo, and other northern tribes. In consequence they moved farther south and also, eastward to Miami River, and perhaps as far as the Scioto.
After the peace of 1763, they abandoned these eastern territories to the Shawnee and retired to Indiana. They took a prominent part in all subsequent wars in this section, but soon after the War of 1812 began to dispose of their lands and by 1838 had parted with most of them, the United States Government agreeing to provide them with new lands west of the Mississippi. In 1840 all of their remaining territories were ceded except one tract reserved for a part of the tribe called Meshingomesia's band, which had chosen to remain in their old country. In 1867 the rest accompanied the Illinois to Oklahoma, where they were given a reservation in the northeastern corner of the State. Their lands now have been allotted in severalty, and they are citizens of the State of Oklahoma. The lands of Meshingomesia's band in Indiana were divided among the survivors in 1872 and their descendants are citizens of Indiana.
Connection in which they have become noted. Historically the Miami were noted as one of those tribes which offered steady resistance to the westward movement of White population in the eighteenth century. Their name has been given to three Ohio rivers of some importance, the Great Miami, Little Miami, and Maumee; counties in Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas; and to places in California, Indiana, Oklahoma, Missouri, Ohio, Texas, and Manitoba, Canada; also to a creek in Missouri. There are places of the name in Gila County, Ariz.; Miami County, Ind.; Saline County, Mo.; Colfax County, N. Mex.; Ottawa County, Okla.; Roberts County, Tex.; Kanawha County, W. Va. Miamisburg is in Montgomery County, Miamitown in Hamilton County, and Miamiville in Clermont County, all in Ohio; and Miami Station is in Carroll County, Mo. The name of Miami, Fla., and the derived Miami Beach and Miami Springs, Fla., have a different origin. The Miami tribe had a famous chief, Little Turtle, whose name often appears in historical narratives.
Ottawa. Representatives of the Ottawa appear as parties to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, relinquishing Indiana land to the Whites, and as parties to similar treaties in 1817 and 1821. (See Michigan.)
Potawatomi. The Potawatomi pushed into the northern part of Indiana during the eighteenth century and were in occupancy until they ceded their lands to the United States Government in the first half of the nineteenth century. (See Michigan.)
Seneca, see Iroquois.
Shawnee. There was an ancient Shawnee town in Posey County, Ind., at the junction of the Wabash and Ohio. At a later period the tribe had settlements along the southern and eastern borders, and the soil of Indiana was the scene of the activities of the Shawnee prophet and his brother Tecumseh until after Gen. Harrison's victory at Tippecanoe. (See Tennessee.)
A sweet Summerannie just relied to a question concerning this and I want to THANK her. However I don't know where I had asked the question! Plus, I could not see anyway to reply to her message (within the email "announcement"). Can anyone help me locate the proper thread, and, reach Summerannie?
BTW, last night I inspired a desire in our 16 yr old grandson to learn his ancestry. Yeah! He is partially Native American and from both parents! He is the second of our 11, which span the ages of 17 to waiting to be born (in August)~~~
Thank you ever so much!!! Peace, Kathleen R ~The Angel Power Emporium,Inc.~