Militia: a word which has been twisted into something that has an entirely different meaning from when our country was founded and now with its every utterance, spits on the graves of those who died in our nation's birthing. Thanks to the Clintonite media after the Oklahoma City slaughter, just the mention of it conjures up images of rednecks dressed in camouflage, running around the woods with plans to kill everyone isight. A fringe element with who knows what on their minds -- but you can bet it is evil. It is a group that has little in common with the farmers, shopkeepers, and mechanics of Lexington, Concord and Battle Road.
But what really is the militia? According to United States Code, Title 10 USC § 311 -- Militia: composition and classes:
(a)The militia of the United States consists of all able-bodied males at least 17 years of age and, except as provided in section 313 of title 32, under 45 years of age who are, or who have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States and of female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard.
(b)The classes of the militia are-
(1)the organized militia, which consists of the National Guard and the Naval Militia; and
(2)the unorganized militia, which consists of the members of the militia who are not members of the National Guard or the Naval Militia.
Who is the unorganized militia? To find out who the unorganized militia is, we need to look at the history of this country. In its early days, all males of military age were expected to have sufficient arms, ammunition, and supplies to answer the call to meet a threat. What were these threats? Prior to the Revolutionary War, they were savages, foreign incursion, and to some extent, wild animals. There are those who will argue that we no longer face those threats. Are they uninformed or willfully misleading when there is rampant crime committed by soulless monsters in urban areas and there are border areas of this country where Americans are advised not to tread?
The reason the Second Amendment was included in the founding documents was to ensure that the people could meet the threat of a standing army. Its writers knew from history that a standing army serves only the government, not the people. Since the form of government they provided rested the ultimate authority with the people, it was only fitting and proper that the people had a means to ensure their power was not usurped.
And what is more, the National Guard is governed by the Governor of the respective State in which they are formed, not the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. and normally the President seeks the Governor's permission to use them for the service of the Federal Government as they have since the first Gulf War. That includes the Army National Guard, Air Force National Guard and the Navy National Guard as I understand it, my daughter having served in the Air Force National Guard. I know that Washington State has all 3 but not sure of all other States. Good thing to research so I will check that out.
Linda: The National Guard is considered a reserve component of the Army and Air Force and are subject to the requirements set forth by those services, receive funding from those sources, can be federalized, and officers are subject to conformation by the the US Senate. Spent more than ten years in the NJARNG and am well aware of what the governor can and can't do. The governor can call up elements to work with authorities in natural disasters and disturbances likes riots and strikes in the past. The unit I was in was called up for the Newark riots just prior to when I joined them. To be a member of a NG unit the person must conform to the requirements of the regular military service as to training, military education, unit assignment, etc for promotion. The higher the rank, especially for commissioned officers, the fewer the assignment slots so many end up going into service reserve control group to make top ranks since those aren't subject to the unit assignment requirement but accumulate fewer retirement points and don't attend drills so don't receive drill pay. Depending upon funding they can do active duty for training on a regular basis but they belong to the reserve for their military branch and not the NG. Of course there is also the regular reserve components for those branches as well that have organized units that drill, do annual training, and are subject to mobilization. For a while now the bulk of the reserve combat units for the branches were in the National Guard and the support forces in the Reserve units to a greater degree. That's one reason units and individuals from the NG were called up for the actions in the Middle East when combat forces were needed. That wasn't always the case since the unit I enlisted in out of high school was the signal battalion of a infantry division and was a Army Reserve unit.
Some states also have a State Guard arrangement as well as I know that Ohio does, Didn't know when I moved back but I could have joined but the upper age limit is 67 or 68 so didn't have much time left when I found out. Not sure exactly what its function since I never inquired after finding out that it existed.
John, middle son joined the Army Reserves while a JR. in high school and after one year of college, enlisted full time Army and is just completely in 20 years. Well aware of how the Reserves work. My daughter graduated from college and joined the Air Force National Guard and so I know how that works, too.
But this might help you some:
The Army and other reserves are always under the president's control. Not so with National Guard units. Though the federal government picks up much of the bill, both Air Force and Army National Guard units are assigned to and primarily controlled by states, which actually gives them greater freedom on the home front. The Posse Comitatus Act makes it illegal for troops to enforce civilian laws but doesn't apply to soldiers serving states. Governors can and frequently do call up National Guard troops to serve as kind of adjunct police (as, for instance, when National Guardsmen are asked to enforce curfews after hurricanes).
National Guard units can be federalized by the president should he declare a national emergency, as President Bush did with a partial mobilization after 9/11. The president has relied on that same emergency declaration to keep National Guard units available for Iraq. When such an order is given, the part-timers, who normally train one weekend a month and two additional weeks per year, can be called to duty for two-year stints, a timeframe the Army is now considering lengthening. (Soldiers usually don't serve anywhere near that long when working for governors.) The federal government can go one step further: A full mobilization can happen if Congress declares a national emergency. If such a situation occurs, soldiers can be required to serve for "length of the emergency plus six months."
The part-time soldiers of the Army Reserve can also be tossed into active duty for the same amount of time. That's not the only similarity between the reserves and the National Guard forces. There are frequent complaints from both about second-rate equipment. And then there's the echoing language. About a month before the Army's Reserve's commander warned of the possibility of "a broken force," the Guard's top commander warned that unless something is done to alleviate the strain on his forces, the "Guard will be broken and not ready the next time it's needed, either here at home or for war."
So I think that some of your information is either in error or I am not clear on what you were saying. But the Air Guard and the Army National Guard are not components of the Reserves but are actually two separate groups for both the Air Force and the Army.
The rest of your information was very interesting and thank you for sharing.
The official site of the National Guard states that it "is the oldest component of the Armed Foreces of the US" and it is subject to the same standards as the Reserve and Active units (unfortunately in some cases since the equipment is older in many cases and that affects members' skill levels). Eisenhower did take control of some NG units in the 50s during the civil rights actions when governors were using them to quash protests and also used Federal troops as well (both likely in conflict with posse comitaitus as was Bubba's actions at Waco. Politically NG and Reserve troops were not used to any degree in Vietnam but after the war NG forces became a much more important source of forces to the Active component as a cost cutting measure. Some were designated "round out" units to active duty divisions and some Air Guard units are the primary air defense units for the US mainland. Bush2 was in one such units so the whole hype about him bugging out of Vietnam was misguided and a political smear. F102s were not the safest air plane to fly either.
Linda, John, I believe you are both giving correct answers to two separate questions, specifically those of how it is supposed to work and how it does work.
I guess my question would be -- Does ANYTHING work like it's supposed to work anymore?
Tara Jane, you are exactly right. The problem is that the Constitution is routinely ignored, as is the concept of rule of law. Consequently, government at all levels and subdividsions thereof do not work as they are supposed to, generally at the hands of a combination of leftist idealogues and non-leftist opportunists both of which work to squelch the voice of anyone who holds up the Constitution and asks "What part of this do you not understand?"
If the foundation fails, nothing built above it will be stable or reliable for any purpose which is why it is imperative to restore the republic to a condition in which the Constitution is scrupulously followed.
And David -- take a look at the State constitutions! This year, on election day, we were asked to vote on 15 ammendments to the STATE constitution. We moved to Florida 37 years ago - I don't even recognize it anymore.
I always ask - surely there are more important things for our elected officials to do than totally change a constitution that has been working well for lo these many years.
Barack Obama taught Constitutional Law. Imagine that. He has been circumventing the Constitution for the past four years and he is on a roll now. Obama believes the Constitution is a piece of crap written by stupid dead people.
If we follow the Constitution we preserve America for our grandchildren and beyond.
I'm of the firm belief that Obama is not a true patriot. How could he be? He grew up at the knees of a communist thinking mother and grandparents and studied the Koran in Indonesia dropping to his knees multiple times during the day saying his prayers in perfect Arabic. I believe Obama thinks he is in a starring role and is performing hoping for an Oscar.
The liberals will have one for him. They would blindly follow him through a field of manure and tell the republicans what a pleasant scent was in the air.