PUEBLA March 25, 2005 2:35 PM
Puebla State is located in the extreme east of the basin of the river Balsas, in the Saw Eastern Mother, between the parallel 17º 52' and 20º 40' of north latitude and the meridian 96º 44' and 99º 04' of west length.
Limit to the north with the State of Veracruz, to the west with the State of Hidalgo, State of Tlaxcala, State of Estado de Mexico and with the State of Morelos and to the south with the State of Guerrero and with the State of Oaxaca. Politically it is split into 217 municipalities and a population of approximately 5'076,686 inhabitants.v
In the territory that currently occupies the State of Puebla, with an extension of 33,919 km2, they were established villas and cities that thereinafter were converted in "Intendency of Puebla" and finally, by decree of the 3 of February of 1924, in Free and Sovereign State.
Its agricultural production, cattleraising and industrial, Puebla is important, but much more its history and indigenous culture and also its colonial art. Beautiful cities and large amusements are waiting, if is decided on visit.
The climate varies according to the region and thus we can find the climate tempered in the declivity of the Gulf, the same as in the north Saw, where rains in abundant form. In the plains, prevail the dry climate and of steppe. In the snowfall saw, the climate is tempered and wet, with temperature decreases in winter. In the valleys of Puebla City and Tepeaca, the climate is tempered and wet and in the eastern region, are registered variations that go from the tropical rainy until the polar climate in the high mountain. In Matamores and Chiautla the climate is tropical rainy and in the southern region, dry and of steppe.
We invite you to the fascinating animal kingdom this zoo offers. Located 17 kms. from Puebla by the road to Valsequillo. Founded in 1972, Africam Safari has around 3000 animals of 250 species.
These animals live in complete liberty in a habitat that encourages development and reproduction. The park is divided into four sections: African, American International and a "tiger heaven" along with a children's zoo. It has a picnic section and a marina with rental of boats to enjoy Valsequillo lake where you can enjoy taking pictures, a souvenirs shop and a camel ride. In the children's zoo there are pony rides and a restaurant.
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cont... March 25, 2005 2:42 PM
The African section is the largest one, it is divided into 3 areas known as Botswana, Uganda and Kenya. At the end of this last one you will find a marina called Mombasa. You get to this section once you go through the main entrance and listen to the greeting of a native which in Swahili tongue pronounces "Jambo wana" which means "hello white man." It is difficult to describe in a few words all you can see and enjoy in this zoo, it has giraffes, gazelles, zebras, ostriches, nandus, a great variety of felines, bears and elephants as well as beautiful exotic birds.
Most of the tour is done inside vehicles; in certain areas you must roll up your windows to prevent animal attacks. If you do not have an automobile, and Africam bus leaves the Puebla bus station regularly, you can recognize it for its zebra look.
Driving along the federal highway 150D and after 150 km from Mexico City, you reach Atlixco in the State of Puebla.
It is recomended to visit in Atlixco:
The Chapel of the Third Order
The churrigueresque-style Santa Maria de La Natividad Parish
The San Agustin CHURCH
and La Merced church
The San Juan de Dios Hospital
The Hacienda de Cristo
There are some spas with thermal waters
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Cuetzalan March 25, 2005 2:44 PM
Cuetzalan is a picturesque town located 183 km from Puebla City by the federal highway 125 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
In Cuetzalan you can visit:
The San Francisco and Guadalupe Churches
The Municipal Palace
The Etnographic Museum and
The Cemetery, always flowering and which belltower is decorated with 80 clay pitchers
Eleven kilometers farther is found the archaeological zone of Yohualichan that has a pyramid and a Juego de Pelota (the ball game).
Atepolihui Falls and Caves are nearby
Chignahuapan town is situated 189 km from Mexico City by the federal highways 150, 190 and 119 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
Among Chignahuapan principal attractions are:
The Nuestra Señora de la Salud Church, where a petrified mushroom with strange inscriptions over it, is venerated
The Inmaculada Concepcion Church, where you can admire a sculpture of the virgin which is 15mts. high
The Virgen del Ocote, a figure which was naturally formed and found when the bark was removed from the tree
Chignahuapan has some spas of
Its main handicrafts are wool blankets and clothing, and clay pottery.
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Cholula March 25, 2005 2:56 PM
Cholula is situated 12 km before entering Puebla City, by the federal highway 190 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
Cholula is characterized by its catholic temples, built over pre-Colombian monuments by the Spaniards, such as the enormous Pyramid in which tunnels you can admire beautiful prehispanic murals and in its top is found the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios Church
Another important construction in Cholula is the Royal Chapel (Capilla Real) which has 49 domes.
Museo de Sitio
Santuario de los Remedios
Antigua Casa del Gobernador
La Extraordinaria casa de San Luis Tehuiloyocan
Santa Maria Tonantzintla
San Francisco Acatepec
San Bernando Tlaxcalanzingo
Among Cholula main handicrafts are the hand woven textiles and glazed pottery.
San Pedro parish interior view
Royal Chapel interior view 2
Cholula panoramic view from Nuestra Señora de los Remedios church
San Pedro parish interior view 2
Cholula archaeological zone 1
Cholula archaeological zone 3
Cholula archaeological zone 5
Interior view of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios church
Royal Chapel interior view 1
Royal Chapel interior view 3
Human remains in the Cholula archaeological zone
San Gabriel parish
Cholula archaeological zone 2
Cholula archaeological zone 4
Cholula archaeological zone 6
Stair to Nuestra Señora de los Remedios church
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Huauchinango March 25, 2005 3:01 PM
Huauchinango is situated 190 km from Mexico City by the federal highway 130 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
One of Huauchinango main attractions is the Parish with its dome of 84 mts. in diameter, larger than the one of the Saint Peter's Basilic in Rome.
Also outstand the Municipal Palace and the Market of Flowers, in the latter there is a permanent exhibition of 200 varieties of Azalea.
Twenty-two kilometers from Huauchinango, by the same highway, is found Nuevo Necaxa which has beautiful mountain views, a big hydroelectric plant, and a lake where you can fish.
Huejotzingo is located 160 km from Mexico City by the federal highway 190 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
In Huejotzingo you can visit a beautiful fortress Convent with a mixed gothic-, renacentist-, and baroque-style.
One of the most beautiful carnivals of the country is celebrated here in Huejotzingo before the Ash Wednesday.
The Jorongos and the rugs made of wool, are among the most outstanding handicrafts of Huejotzingo.
Huejotzingo is an excellent apple cider producer.
Convent Garden and fountain
Fresco painting 1
Fresco painting 3
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cont... March 25, 2005 3:09 PM
Facade of the church
Fresco painting 2
Puebla City is a beautiful colonial City located 132 km from Mexico City by the federal highways 150D and 190 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
Among Puebla main attractions are:
The Cathedral of Nuestra Señora de la Inmaculada Concepcion, which is considered one of the most beautiful cathedrals in the Country
The Temple of San Francisco
The Temple of La Compañia, where the famous China Poblana is said to be buried
The Santo Domingo and Santa Monica Convents
The Santa Rosa Convent, which nowadays is the Handicrafts Museum
La Concordia Church, with its tiled yard
The Barrio del Artista
The Baroque-Style State Museum or the House of El Alfeñique
The Municipal Palace
The Natural History Museum
The Fine Arts Academy
El Bello Museum and the Main Theater.
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cont... March 25, 2005 3:28 PM
Regarding the traditional cuisine, the outstanding specialties in Puebla are:
In Puebla you can buy beautiful handicrafts such as ceramics, glassware, and pottery.
Market "La Victoria"
Tehuacan is located 120 km from Puebla City, via federal highway 150 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
Tehuacan is famous because of its natural mineral springs which waters posses curative properties.
Among Tehuacan main touristic places are:
The Regional Museum, which is considered to be the most important archaeological museum in the State
The Franciscan Temple and Convent
Del Carmen Temple
La Concepcion Parish
Iglesia del Calvario
Ex-Convento de San Francisco
Museo de Minerologia
Jardin Botanico de las Cactaceas
Manantiales de Peñafiel y Garci-Crespo
Zona Arqueologica la Meza
Delicious regional cuisine includes Chiles en Nogada (sweet green peppers in nut sauce) and Mole decadera.
Regarding handicrafts, the most important are the onyx, textiles, woven straw articles and embroideries.
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Tepeaca March 25, 2005 3:30 PM
Tepeaca is located 92 km from Puebla City via federal highway 150 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
In the center of the plaza of Tepeaca is found the Moorish Roller, once used to torture Indians, converted now into a four-sided clock.
Some other outstanding places to visit in Tepeaca are:
The San Francisco Convent
The House of El Marquez de Salinas
The Casa de la Colecturia
Onyx items are among its main handicrafts.
African safari and Valsequillo
Both places are located 15 km from Puebla City by the state highway to Valsequillo in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
Africam Safari is a great zoological park, where you can see African and American flora, and fauna roaming free.
The Valsequillo Lake is situated half a kilometer from the zoo, where you can practice aquatic ski and fishing. It is also an ideal place for pic-nics.
Piedras Encimadas Valley
The Piedras Encimadas Valley (stacked rocks) is located 22 km from Zacatlan in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
By the same highway and after taking the turnoff to the right, we reach this wooded place where we can admire a great spectacle of more than 50 natural sculptures, with stacked rocks resembling:
human figures, etc.
Some of them are over 20m high.
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ZACATLAN March 25, 2005 3:43 PM
Zacatlan is located 205 km from Mexico City by the federal highways 150, 190 and 119 in the State of Puebla, Mexico.
Zacatlan is famous because of its apple production which has led to celebrate the Apple Fair in August.
Among Zacatlan main attractions are:
The San Francisco ex-Convent
Casa de la Cultura "Profr. Baudelio Serafin Sosa"
Parroquia de san Pedro
Capilla de la Condelaria
The San Miguel springs
Zocalo (Plaza de Armas
Fabrica de relojes "Centenario" y Museo Alberto Olvera Hdez
The thermal baths of Jicolapa
The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. It shares its name with its capital and main city, Puebla.
The state of Puebla borders the states of Veracruz to the east, Hidalgo, México, Tlaxcala, and Morelos to the west, and Guerrero and Oaxaca to the south. The state covers an area of about 33,919 km². The terrain is mostly mountainous. In 2003 the estimated population was 5,377,800 people.
In addition to the city of Puebla, the state includes the city of Cholula and the towns of Acatlán, Atlixco, Chignahuapan, Ciudad Serdán, Cuetzalán, Izúcar de Matamoros, Tehuacán and Teziutlán.
One of Mexico's most recognized Universities is the Universidad de las Americas-Puebla
hotels in Acatlan
hotels in Atlixco
hotels in Cd. Serdan
hotels in Chignahuapan
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Map and Towns March 25, 2005 3:51 PM
puebla state, mexico
The Santuario was built between 1759 and 1782 to house the miraculous image of Jesus the Nazarene, or El Señor de Las Tres Caidas, whose cult was attracting increasingly large numbers of pilgrims from across the region. The retablo facade is a masterpiece of the barroco poblano style, possibly executed by stucco craftsmen from Puebla, although it is quite unlike any church in that city. Like the others in this group, the Santuario facade has been brightly painted in contrasting colors from time to time, although not at the present
The facade recounts the Christian story: the fall and redemption of man through the Life and Passion of Christ - illustrated in a series of expressive tableaux and reliefs that feature a myriad of biblical figures and events. The tableau of the Last Supper above the doorway is especially animated.
In the classic mode of the popular baroque, these detailed and formerly colorfully painted sculptures are densely framed by a variety of ornamental columns, friezes, archways and niches, decorated using an eclectic late baroque vocabulary of angels, swags, leafy spirals and scrolls.
(Full explication and analysis of the complex iconography of Jolalpan can be found in the masterly monograph Tepalcingo by the Mexican researcher Constantino Reyes-Valerio)
This sunbaked village lies just inside the Puebla state line, some 25 kms southeast of Tepalcingo. The village church here, also of Jesus the Nazarene, is currently painted in gaudy blues, greens and reds. The retablo-facade is divided by spiral half columns draped with leafy stucco tendrils and the numerous sculpture niches are framed by drawn stucco curtains.
Colorful statues of bearded saints fill the niches and reliefs of archangels flank the niche of the Virgin on the upper level. The most notable figure is the stucco relief of Jesus the Nazarene above the doorway, the rope around his neck held by a soldier in the spandrel. Intricate stucco ornament above the niches and along the friezes is picked out in bright colors.
Tzicatlán is a rural village in the tierra caliente of extreme southwestern Puebla state, whose parish church of San Lucás has to be one of the most striking examples of the popular Pueblan baroque.
Beside Tzicatlán, Tlancualpican seems almost austere. The extraordinary retablo facade is a classic statement of horror vacui - every inch encrusted with ornament. As at Tlancualpican, the church front has been repainted in a palette of eye-popping colors, its numerous relief sculptures highlighted in bright hues against a backdrop of lacy white stucco ornament. Columns, capitals, cornices and friezes are all densely embroidered - the only appropriate word - with vines, scrollwork and floral decoration. The local masons may have seen and been inspired by the spectacular Jesuit church of La Compañía in Puebla, completed in 1767 - the year of the Jesuit expulsion from Mexico.
Saints, musical angels, cherubs and archangels proliferate across all three tiers of the facade, some ensconced in elaborately draped niches, others clinging to the columns, arrayed around the door and window openings, or emerging unexpectedly from the capitals and friezes. Notable among the abundant figure sculptures are Jesus the Nazarene, perched above the entry as at Tlancualpican, here flanked by harp-toting angels. St Luke sits in triumph in the uppermost niche, his ox at his feet and martyrs on either side.
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Conservation Takes Flight in Puebla March 25, 2005 3:56 PM
By Talli Nauman
When Martín Camacho was a child, he had to leave school because his help was needed at home to support his family. Instead of attending classes, he went with his father to capture birds in the countryside. "Out in the country, when I was crying because I was hungry, I would be given wild birds' eggs, cactus fruit or other wild fruits. I liked to eat pigeons roasted over a fire," he said.
But at the age of 10, he had a revelation. A pigeon splayed and roasting on the fire looked to him like the figure of Jesus Christ martyred on the cross. A devout Roman Catholic, Camacho said, "It caused me great pain. I swore I would never again kill a bird, because I felt it was a living being who had to be respected."
Camacho, who is 45, never forgot this vision. It led him to transform his third-generation family bird-catching business into a group conservation project that not only saves birds but gives the former bird catchers jobs.
A Union of Bird-Catchers
In 1989 Camacho formed the Puebla Bird Catchers' Union, which now maintains an aviary that is housed in a gleaming geodesic dome, 75 feet (25 meters) high and 180 feet (60 meters) wide, which mirrors a 360-degree view of mountain cloud forests and replicates their images in a pool at its base. Called the Puebla Ecological Aviary, the dome shelters 1,300 birds in five artificial habitats that duplicate these highlands, as well as the tropical jungles, wetlands, deserts and plantations of Mexico.
Puebla Ecological Aviary
It is a reflection, too, of 10 years of concerted efforts by its caretakers, the low-income members of the non-profit Puebla Bird Dealers Union, to encourage the reproduction of a dwindling wildfowl population on which they depend for their living.
This spring, 11 white-fronted parrot chicks hatched inside the dome, one of a series of landmark accomplishments on the difficult road Camacho charted for the group when he formed it to save both the birds and the bird catchers' jobs. The union, one of 16 registered in as many states, was the first in the country to try breeding wild birds in captivity and now, after many tribulations, it has been so successful that other unions are following in its footsteps.
When Camacho turned his family bird business into a group conservation project, he promoted it by telling other bird catchers and sellers: "You're going to have more income and you're going to protect the raw material." And that's what he's telling members of different unions and non-profit community groups to this day. Now, he and his colleagues have introduced the concept to dozens of grassroots organizations around Mexico.
"Martín Camacho has developed a social organization that promotes the concept of sustainable use. It has been very successful," says biologist Ricardo Guadarama, of the federal office of the Attorney General for Environmental Protection in the south-central Mexican state of Puebla. "It is an excellent project that has a presence at the national as well as the state level."
A Venerable Trade
Catching and selling wild birds for pets is a venerable trade in Mexico, a bustling part of the small-business economy nationwide. A familiar figure in many neighborhoods is the street vendor going door to door with a stack of wooden bird cages strapped to his back or bicycle. The government allows trade in 85 wild species. Homemakers buy them to enhance their patios with song. And thousands of bird lovers take their feathered friends to Mexico City's basilica to be blessed in annual Palm Sunday pilgrimages.
But here, as in other Latin American countries, which boast some of the planet's richest biodiversity, wild bird populations are succumbing to increasing pressures from human populations, including demographic growth, urbanization, industrial development, species trafficking and pollution, all of which have led to habitat degradation. Today 36 of the 1,150 wild bird species in Mexico are in danger of extinction, among them toucans, parrots, woodpeckers, pheasants, turkeys and the eagle, the emblem on the Mexican flag.
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Protection Programs are Necessary March 25, 2005 3:58 PM
Several Latin American governments have undertaken programs to protect their birds and beasts. For example, Venezuela is carrying out a pilot project of habitat improvement for a group of colorful tropical birds called psitacids, which includes education and licensing of bird catchers with the aim of reducing the black market export trade. Colombia has established official crocodile breeding grounds, providing jobs for the rural population while reproducing the species, which is valued in the market for its hide. Local and international non-governmental organizations, as well as private businesses and academic institutions, have contributed to these and similar efforts. But many of the programs are in their infancy, and the Puebla Bird Dealers Union has the jump on them.
Says Guadarama of the group's experience, "It would be advantageous to share it with scientists on the international level." Camacho and the 70 participants in the Puebla-based project "can and do contribute a lot of information to other groups."
Camacho is an empirical scientist. Like others in his organization, he has only a primary school education but he has learned about birds since childhood. Old-time bird catchers, he recalls, only caught what they knew they could sell and "they taught the youth who followed them the same approach."
But as joblessness began to run rampant in Mexico in the 1980's, newcomers turned to bird catching to eke out a living. They captured and sold birds without any respect for the species or the trade itself," said Camacho. The newcomers, as well as some of the experienced bird catchers, increasingly took part in illegal activities, like operating without permits, taking birds in danger of extinction, capturing them off-season and selling nestlings. "I lived through these two eras, but I stick to the old ways," he said.
Tired of watching the bird population dwindle while environmental groups pinned the blame on bird catchers and authorities turned a blind eye, he decided some kind of organization was necessary.
Raising Conservation Awareness
"The first thing was to defend our job source," he said. The hardest thing was to raise consciousness about conservation practices. They set out to accomplish this, first by holding a series of short courses and conferences to educate themselves. They made use of scientists, such as veterinarian Fernando Seriña, and developed a set of regulations for members. They also compiled information about wild birds, and later shared their knowledge through guided tours at the aviary, through publications and with outreach to other birdcatchers' organizations. In every step of the process, they found they had to address the challenge of sacrificing short-term gain for the long-term good of their profession.
"As a pioneer, I came up against a lot of difficulties, including gaining the understanding of other bird catchers and sellers," said Camacho. Through short courses and conferences involving veterinarians and biologists, his union members began to rethink their role in the business. They developed a self-policing system. Members who break conservation regulations receive two warnings and can be ousted from the organization if they don't mend their ways.
However, their focus on replacing bird catching with reproduction is what really distinguishes the union members from the approximately 1,500 other bird dealers in Puebla, the nation's fourth-largest city. The aviary breeding ground has helped union members reduce their capture of wild birds by 20 percent. Said Camacho, "The object is to reduce it more and more – and also to be an example for other people who aren't in the union. A lot of people are watching us."
The project got off the ground with the technical assistance of veterinarian Fernando Seriña, who secured a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for the reproduction experiments with the group. They built a breeding ground in the cloud forest where experiments with the gray silky flycatcher, brown-backed solitaire, slaty solitaire and blue mockingbird, attracted television publicity that led to an invitation from the Puebla municipal government for the union to take charge of the city aviary.
Putting an Aviary to Rights
The aviary was in disrepair when the union took over. By donating labor and 35 dollars apiece, members created five mini-habitats within the structure, which are conducive to the lifestyles of the 140 species gathered there. The union had its first successes with pheasants, peacocks, cardinals and pigeons. Within five years, participants were experimenting with 12 more species. Today they boast the successful reproduction of 36 Mexican and migratory species, including parrots, ducks, doves, sparrows, grosbeaks and goldfinches.
With no government subsidies or private funding, the bird dealers, whose typical earnings were two to three times the minimum wage, or about 12 dollars a day, before deducting the cost of birdfeed, began to finance the work by charging a one-dollar entry fee to the aviary. They started providing guided tours to some of the 2,000 people who visited the dome each month, emphasizing respect for nature and preaching against trafficking in endangered species. The money was destined for maintenance, research and protecting the young birds from disease and predators until the time of sale, about two years.
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March 25, 2005 4:00 PM
Within a few years, their efforts began to have repercussions. In 1994, the government of the neighboring state of Tlaxcala, inspired by the union's example, built an aviary, enlisted the Puebla Bird Dealers' advice and succeeded in reproducing several species there.
Support From the United States
The following year, the union secured support from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for a bird study and general management plan for the 1,517-acre (614-hectare) Flor del Bosque Biosphere Reserve, one of the nation's newest parks of this kind and an important source of oxygen and water recharge for Puebla.
Following the plan, the reserve has created an aviary with 16 shelters for injured wildfowl, together with a rehabilitation and liberation program. Also as part of the plan, the reserve is now developing a tree nursery to help reforest the bird's habitat and a small zoo where Camacho is providing advice on reproduction efforts.
In 1995, Camacho admitted that despite the conservation progress the organization had made, union members had not been able to strengthen their financial position. He supplemented his family income by operating a stationery supply store. "I have sacrificed," he said, adding, "We have a lot of faith that in the short or medium term, we'll be able to improve our standard of living."
This faith and a good deal of persistence has paid off. Ashoka, a non-profit organization that supports social entrepreneurs worldwide, recognized Camacho's program as an innovative environmental enterprise, providing him with a small grant, the only one he had ever received, and the main thing to which he attributes a relaxation of personal financial stress.
In 1996 the union members got another financial boost when the Puebla state government provided them with a loan to remodel the aviary and upgrade its services. Although the aviary was closed to the public all year for the work, it reopened as one of the finest in the country, and with a correspondingly higher entrance fee of $1.30. This, and the sale of birds born in captivity, have helped defray the approximately $3,000-a-month cost of bird feed, maintenance and gardening, as well as providing money to increase from two to seven the number of union members who earn a salary at the dome.
Training Far and Wide
Word has spread, and peasant organizations in far-off states seek the union's expertise to improve their financial lot. On the Yucatan Peninsula, the union accepted an invitation to train rural community members in Campeche state to breed wildfowl and then went on to provide workshops for the construction of an aviary and breeding grounds for an indigenous community in Yucatan state.
Locally, it has inspired six backyard breeding projects in the township of Puebla, and has given courses in other low-income and indigenous townships around the state. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service renewed support for the union with a project this year covering six communities in Puebla state's highlands, including training residents to conduct an ecotourism and bird-watching enterprise.
The federal government's National Biodiversity Commission is also supporting the union now in a year-long effort to identify and count the birds in the 53 townships covered by the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Biosphere Reserve, which spans parts of the states of Puebla and Oaxaca. By mid-1999, the union had identified 86 species and researched their reproduction seasons and their food supply.
The union advises the boards of the two other bird dealers' organizations in Puebla state, encouraging them to promote backyard breeding grounds. Camacho also coordinates the Puebla governor's Subcommission for the Establishment and Development of Natural and Protected Areas. "It's gone well for us," said Camacho, "the work has multiplied."
As the years have passed, the union's efforts have raised consciousness about the need to protect the birds and their environment, resulting in a change in regulations that restricts the number of federal permits issued for capturing wild fowl: The number statewide in Puebla is down to 29, from 70, six years ago.
Alas, Capturing Birds Is Cheaper
In theory, this should guarantee that more wild birds survive, but in practice it has led to more illegal bird catching, because many who now can't get permits catch birds anyway, and they are hard for authorities to detect.
The Puebla Bird Dealers' answer to this problem: Continue promoting reproduction in captivity. "When they see that this is good business, people will stop capturing and start raising birds," said Camacho.
Nonetheless, he admits that catching a dozen birds in the wild is still cheaper than raising them in the backyard, and most bird catchers or potential dealers lack the money to build the cages, feed the birds and provide the attention necessary for reproduction in captivity.
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cont... March 25, 2005 4:04 PM
So when the federal Environment, Natural Resources and Fishing Secretariat recently recognized his group's efficacy by awarding it a contract to give three courses on breeding in capitivity, the members, not content with simply giving courses, insisted that each be a hands-on curriculum leading to the construction of at least one breeding ground for participants. Said Camacho, "We're not just leaving them education, but resources, too."
This kind of hands-on information, coupled with well-reasoned ecological arguments, the union's ability to demonstrate its successes, its ongoing follow-up consultations with beginners, and Camacho's clear devotion to the principles of his cause, help involve other bird catchers in the conservation effort.
Building Aviaries Is Catching On
At the aviary, the Puebla Bird Dealers Union also provides environmental education to student groups at all levels, with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service backing. If student groups lack the money for the entry fee, they get in free. One group of middle school students was so impressed that they built a small aviary on their school grounds, making nests to aid in reproduction.
With the co-sponsorship of the American donors and the Mexican Attorney General for Environmental Protection, the bird dealers have just published two books (in Spanish): "A List of the Birds of Puebla" and "The Illustrated Guide to the Native Birds of Mexico." They are available by mail.
The aviary outreach work aims to impart a philosophy to visitors, said Camacho. "The most important thing for us is that they go away with the ecological message that nature is something of which we are a part."
Thirty-five years after the revelation that changed his life, and with four children of his own, he maintains his conviction. "The birds have given us a living. They have made it possible for my children to go to school. I would be an ingrate if I did nothing for them, when they have given me so much. It's a moral obligation I have to them."
Raising a Thousand Chicks in Two Years
In the last two years, his group has raised more than 1,000 chicks in the aviary, no small feat, considering that wild birds don't begin to reproduce in captivity for at least two years. Some birds have laid eggs for four or five seasons now, providing the market with a supply greater than its demand. "But that doesn't mean that we're going to eat them with rice on the side," he joked.
He had hoped that by now this project would allow Mexican bird dealers to join their Dutch and Australian counterparts in the lucrative, century-old export market for wild birds reproduced in captivity. But that dream has yet to become reality. Because of the government paperwork required, limited financial resources, and the importance of experimenting with reproduction techniques, the union has assigned exports a lower priority. Whether the group integrates itself into the international trade scene will depend largely on the financial and technical resources it can muster.
By 2010, Camacho hopes the aviary will be the best in Latin America. He hopes the Puebla Bird Dealers' Union will have consolidated its economic base and expanded its capacities enough through its conservation, reproduction, education and sales efforts to claim a significant impact on the protection of Mexican wildfowl, and to have firmly inserted itself into worldwide efforts to raise environmental awareness through partnerships with other organizations and institutions.
"Our resonsibility to society is to make people conscious of how close we Are to destroying our ecosystems and losing our biodiversity," he says.
Talli Nauman, a U.S.citizen, has been working as a correspondent in Mexico for the last 12 years. She is Associate Editor of Ecoámericas (www.ecoamericas.com), a publication dedicated to critical coverage of environment and development in Latin America. In her 26-year journalistic career she has worked for international and national news organizations.
Needs of the Bird Dealers Union:
Mates for birds
Tax-deductible legal status for donors
Technical support on legal status, exporting and breeding
Avenida Vicente Guerrero 92
Colonia Insurgentes Zaragoza
72540 Puebla, Puebla
Fax: +(52 22) 44-47-92
San Francisco de los Viveros 701, E2-104
20190 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes
Fax: +(52 49) 70-15-93
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Size: 13,187 square miles
Location: Central Mexico
Borders: States of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Morelos, México, Tlaxcala and Hidalgo
cont... March 25, 2005 4:06 PM
Important cities/sites within the state: Acatzingo, Africam Safari, Atlixco, Calpan, Cuetzalan, Cholula, Huejotzingo, Puebla (capital) and Tonantzintla Major airports: Hermanos Serdan Intl. aka Puebla Intl. (PBC)
Time zone: Central Standard Time
Web site: www.puebla.gob.mx
The state of Puebla is located in the central part of the country. Its diverse natural beauty consists of stunning mountain ranges, enormous volcanoes, lush forests, fertile cropland, rivers, lakes, springs and reservoirs, all ideal for a variety of exciting outdoor activities.
The region was formerly populated by the Toltecs, Chichimecs and Xicalanca Olmecs. During the 10th century the Nahua group arrived in the area and by the 15th century, the Mexica (also known as the “Aztecs”) dominated nearly all of what is known today as the state of Puebla. When the Spaniards arrived, much of the city’s surroundings began to change. The Spanish conquerors founded the first baroque city in the country, Puebla de los Angeles, now one of Mexico’s prized jewels; implemented the handicraft work of Talavera ceramics, now internationally renowned; and influenced the area’s culinary traditions, some of the most unique and varied in Mexico, now characterized by a unique blend of Spanish, Oriental and indigenous flavors.
Puebla State features several important archaeological sites. The Tenapa Pyramid in Cholula, Puebla, dating back to 400 BC is one of the most frequently visited sites, four times larger in volume than the Keops Pyramid in Egypt. Several years ago, archaeologists discovered that the pyramid actually consists of several superimposed pyramids, and today, only a small percentage of the pyramid has actually been uncovered. One of the pyramid’s unique features is the “Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de los Remedios” church completed in 1666. Built at the top of the pyramid, its symbolic position stands witness to the success of the Catholic church in the conversion of the indigenous people.
Puebla also has four of the tallest volcanoes in Mexico, one of which is still active. The second tallest volcano in Mexico, the Popocatepetl, stands at approximately 78,900 feet and frequently spews steam, gases, and ash. And on occasion, eruptions and tremors occur, reminding the Poblanos of its powerful and potentially destructive presence, although the last major eruption happened thousands of years ago. Churches were built centuries ago at the foot of these volcanoes, many of which still stand today.
For those that enjoy outdoor and extreme sports, the state of Puebla offers many organized trips for tourists featuring rock-climbing, camping, trekking, and mountain-biking, to name a few. For food and music lovers, Puebla features an annual food festival in November and a concert of bells in October, where more than 100 bells from churches around the area participate.
The state’s capital, Puebla City, is one of the most beautiful and traditional colonial cities in Mexico. It was founded in 1531 by the Spaniards in an effort to encourage immigration, reduce the abuse against Indians and establish an enclave between Veracruz and Mexico. Today, the city is considered one of the most beautiful historic centers and tourist destinations in Mexico, located 80 miles from Mexico City, north of Tlaxcala and south of La Mixteca. As a World Heritage site, the city’s streets, churches and buildings are so breathtaking they are said to have been designed by the angels.
Cuetzalan is a picturesque colonial town located in the hills about 120 miles from Puebla City. Highlights in the town include, the San Francisco and Guadalupe churches, the Municipal Palace, the Ethnographic Museum and the cemetery. And just a few miles outside of town is the archaeological zone of Yohualichan, the Atepolihui Falls and plenty of caves to explore.
Puebla (capital city)
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Location: Puebla State, central Mexico
Distance from Mexico City: 80 miles south
Closest major airport: Hermanos Serdan Intl. aka Puebla Intl Airport (PBC)
Time zone: Central Standard Time
Founded in 1531, the gorgeous colonial city of Puebla is one of the oldest in Mexico. Located only 80 miles southeast of Mexico City and designed by the Spaniards using the symmetrical grid system, Puebla is very accessible to tourists. The locals, called “poblanos,” are also known for their warmth and hospitality.
Upon arriving in Puebla, the city’s colonial architecture is what first catches the newcomer’s eye. Puebla is renowned for its diverse architecture with numerous churches and museums, and one of Mexico’s most important cathedrals located in the city. Hand-painted tiles adorn the buildings of the city, adding to its color and historical richness.
Puebla´s magnificent historic center, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its unique beauty, offers a comprehensive background on the city’s local and national history. Its streets, churches and buildings are so breathtaking they are said to have been designed by an angel. Travelers can admire majestic churches and convents, colonial doorways and facades, picturesque plazas, patios and historic museums. Renowned landmarks include the cathedral, Palafox Library (the largest in Ibero-America on theology), the Museum of Natural History and Fort Loreto. Other structures in the area worth visiting include the Amparo and Bello museums, the National Railroad Museum and the Puebla Regional Museum of Viceregal Art.
cont... March 25, 2005 4:09 PM
Puebla’s signature handicraft is its world-famous Talavera pottery, hand-painted works of art in the form of dishes, vases, jars and tiles, with Asian, Spanish and Mexican Indian motifs. The art of Talavera pottery in Mexico dates back to over 500 years ago, when the Spaniards taught the craft to the indigenous peoples as the ceramics were needed to adorn the numerous churches that were being built. The original process, which requires great skill and artistic sense, is still used today with modern variations in color and theme. Daily tours of the Uriarte Talavera factory are available in Puebla, with a showroom also located in Mexico City in the upscale Polanco District. Talavera pottery is quite expensive, with each piece being unique and of extraordinary quality. Given its popularity, many cheap imitations exist, but originals indicate they are from Puebla and are signed at the base, identifying the workshop that created the piece.
Puebla is also famous for its cuisine, with world-renowned dishes having originated in this city. The blending of prehispanic and Spanish spices and techniques is behind the richness of the cuisine from Puebla. The famous, mole poblano, a chocolate chile sauce used in white meat dishes, was invented in Puebla, as well as the chiles en nogada (chiles stuffed with meat and covered with a pecan sauce). Restaurants abound in Puebla with a variety of dishes to choose from, but these two are highly recommended. For those who like sweets, Santa Clara Street (La Calle Santa Clara) is lined with specialty sweet shops, featuring cookies, figurines made from marzapan, alfajores and Mexico’s famous camotes (sweet potato rounds).
Antiquing is perhaps one of the most popular pastimes in Puebla, and antique shops as well as an outdoor fair can be found in the Plaza de Los Sapos, a street loaded with all kinds of treasures as well as creations by local artisans.
Puebla State also features several important archaeological sites. The Tenapa Pyramid in Cholula, Puebla, dating back to 400 BC, is one of the most frequently visited sites. The Tenapa Pyramid is four times larger in volume than the Keops Pyramid in Egypt. Several years ago, archaeologists discovered that the pyramid actually consists of several superimposed pyramids, and today, only a small percentage of the pyramid has actually been uncovered. One of the pyramid’s unique features is the Nuestra Señora de los Remedios Church, completed in 1666. Built at the top of the pyramid, the church stands witness to the success of the Catholic Church in the conversion of the indigenous peoples centuries ago.
Puebla also has four of the tallest volcanoes in Mexico, one of which is still active. The second tallest volcano in Mexico, the Popocatepetl, stands at approximately 78,900 feet and on occasion, spews steam, gasses, and ash. Eruptions and tremors also occur from time to time, reminding the Poblanos of its powerful and potentially destructive presence, although the last major eruption happened thousands of years ago. Churches were built centuries ago at the foot of these volcanoes, many of which still stand today.
For those who enjoy outdoor and extreme sports, Puebla State boasts many options from volcano-climbing and camping, to trekking, fishing and mountain-biking, to name a few. The San Baltasar Lagoon is one of many nature reserves that feature special zones for nature walks, biking, camping and boat trips on the lake.
For food and music lovers, Puebla features an annual food festival in November and a concert of bells in October, where more than 100 bells from churches around the area participate.
Puebla also holds a special place in Mexico’s history. In 1862, the ill-equipped Mexican people defeated the French army on May 5, and Cinco de Mayo has since become an international day of celebration.
[Population and territory of Puebla state. First half of the nineteenth century]
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[Article in Spanish]
Aranda Romero JL.
PIP: The irregular topography of the state of Puebla, Mexico, has to some extent been responsible for its demographic development. Puebla became a providence after Mexican independence was won. In 1836, it was converted to a department and in 1848 to a state. The Constitution of 1857 established it definitively as a state. But in 1849, on creation of the state of Guerrero, Puebla lost its former partidos of Tlapa and Ometepec and its outlet to the Pacific. In 1853, it lost the district of Tuxpan to the state of Veracruz. The area of the remaining state of Puebla was 33,653 sq km. These territorial modifications in the mid- 19th century created problems for analysis of Puebla's demographic development, as did changes in the formal territorial divisions demographic development, as did changes in the formal territorial divisions within the state. A careful evaluation of sources should accompany any analysis based on census and population records. An 1849 census of the state of Puebla showed it to be divided into 8 departments and 27 partidos. Estimates of the 1849 population were based on an 1825 census for 12 partidos and on an 1840 study for 9 partidos. 2 population estimates were calculated for each department, 1 based on the 1849 report and the other a correction by the author. The total population for the department was estimated at 801,910 in the 1849 report and at 714,578.80 by the author. Based on data in the 1849 report, the overall crude birth rate averaged 49.788/1000 and the crude death rate averaged 43.806/1000. According tot he author's calculations, the state of Puebla los an estimated 105,868.8 inhabitants, some 14.82% of the total, with the separation of Tlapa and Tuxpan.
PMID: 12284140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
more from Puebla March 25, 2005 4:16 PM
STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF THE IXTACAMAXTITLÁN HYDROTHERMAL DEPOSIT, PUEBLA STATE, MEXICOTRITLLA, Jordi1, MORALES-RAMÍREZ, Jose Manuel1, CAMPRUBÍ, Antoni1, and CORONA-ESQUIVEL, Rodolfo2, (1) Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Carretera Qro.-S.L.P. km 15.5, Campus UNAM-Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro, 76230, Mexico, email@example.com, (2) Instituto de Geología, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F, 04510, Mexico
The Ixtacamaxtitlán municipality is located north of the Puebla State in Central Mexico. The local geology comprises (1) Lower to Middle Cretaceous limestone formations of the Sierra Madre Oriental, and (2) igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks of Tertiary to recent age, of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMV. The hydrothermal deposits of the area are hosted by pyroclastic deposits and the plutonic to sub-volcanic rocks that intruded them.
The Ixtacamaxtitlán hydrothermal deposit is made up by a succession, from bottom to top, of: (1) quartz veins and stockwork, with subordinate sulphides (pyrite and chalcopirite) enclosed in a porphyritic subvolcanic body with propylitic alteration haloes and a former potassic alteration event (biotitization) preserved; (2) an overlying, kaolinitized rhyolitic tuff; and (3) a layered opal deposit with preserved mud cracks and bioturbation. This vertical arrangement coupled with the distribution of the alteration assemblages lead to the interpretation of the whole as a low-sulfidation epithermal deposit, with a partially preserved silica sinter on top.
Both the fluid inclusion study carried on the veins and the stockwork and the stable isotopic analyses of the kaolinitized bodies suggest the presence of two major hydrothermal events. An early event, characterized by hot, hypersaline fluids (up to 280ºC and 36 wt% NaCl eq.) closely associated with the potassic alteration episode, with primary fluid recrystallized, showing hook-shaped morphologies, due to an uplifting period that occurred before the emplacement of the second hydrothermal stage. The late event is distinguished by cooler and dilute fluids (up to 150ºC and 4 wt% NaCl eq.) associated with propylitic and quartz-sericite alterations at depth, and acid-sulfate alteration close to the paleosurface. The calculated isotopic composition of water in equilibrium with the kaolinitic sequence, plot close and underneath to the meteoric water line, partially overlapping the Los Humeros geothermal fluids. These evidences coupled with the petrographic observations suggest that steam-heated phreatic waters altered the rhyolitic tuffs. This would have occurred when acid vapors exsolved from deeper hydrothermal fluids by boiling reached the local paleowater table and condensed. Cordilleran Section - 99th Annual (April 1–3, 2003)
General Information for this Meeting Session No. 23--Booth# 32
Cordilleran Ore Deposits: New Perspectives (Posters)
Hotel NH Krystal: La Capilla
8:30 AM-5:30 PM, Wednesday, April 2, 2003
(Zapotitlán of Méndez)
In the town of Zapotitlán of Méndez, they meet two places with interesting petroglifos carried out by the prehispanic man.
Among their multiple engravings human figures stand out and of animals, represented in different forms and sizes.
Signs and geometric figures are also appreciated that conform a circle divided in sections that the villagers name him Aztec Calendars. incorporate to this, is in one of the places a great rock called Piedra de los Sacrificios (Stone of the Sacrifice).
Archaeological Area of Cholula
The space that at the moment occupies the archaeological area of Cholula it is only a small part of what was the denominated prehispanic city Cholollan.
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cont... March 25, 2005 4:21 PM
Their main reason of attention is the great pyramid that is considered the most voluminous prehispanic complex in Mesoamérica by its proportions.
To the arrival of the Spaniards, this pyramid was known as Tlachihualtépetl, translated as "handmade hill", and it was the place where it was adored to the god Chicomenaquihuitl (nine rains), lawyer against the drought.
The singular construction is covered with vegetation and it looks like a natural hill; however, thanks to the architect's scientific studies Ignacio Marquina, is known that it is product of several overlappings of pyramidal structures with more than two thousand years of antiquity.
The Big Piramid
The group is conformed by a square base of approximately 400 m for side and a height bigger than 60 meters. The characteristics of this structures can be contemplated by the interior of the pyramid, through more than 6 km of tunnels, where they stand out their banks, boards, perrons, corridors, drainage channels and two big paintings to the cool air. One is known as mural of "The Chapulines" and the other one as "The Drinkers"; this last one represents the oldest version in the gods of the pulque and it is considered the painting bigger mural that one knows of the prehispanic time.
For the sides of the great pyramid open spaces are observed, defined by buildings elegantly decorations. The most complete is toward the south part of the pyramid and it is known as "Patio of the Altares", where they are harmonious constructions with boards and scapulars.
They are also altars and trails with interesting engravings, similar to those of The Tajín (Veracruz). It is interesting also an it knocks down with offerings and human remains.
Working in Cholula
Archeologycal Zone of Cantona
The development of this prehispanic city was the moment of the loss of power of the Classic's big cities and the emergence of the direction for the military groups of the Postclásico.
Stage of strong social movements, of great political imbalance, of transformations and adaptations toward a new form of life. It is one of the few populations from the old Mexico whose planning is extremely elaborated.
The Acropolis, leaves high where they are the architectural structures that denote that there the political, economic powers and religious of this great city concentrated; it is surrounded for roadways, corridors and alleys that communicate to the whole population, which inhabits spaces fully defined, defined by outlying walls and to which have been named "patios."
The streets were built, in their biggest part, high on the natural surface of the land, with lateral walls and always with the paved stream.
Cantona is located on a basaltic spill with slope toward the sides, in its low part the "rural" population that inhabited the patios located; in the half part people inhabited with certain social range; and in the superior part of the south unit the temples were placed and also constructions with character civic-religious, as well as the residences of the bosses and leaders.
Characteristic feature of Cantona is that in its architectural constructions, it was not used any cementante type or cement to unite or to seat the stones; much less the stucco to recover them; stone was only placed it has more than enough stone and scarce earth.
Another excellent and worthy feature of being mentioned is the symmetry existence in the buildings. The constructions were carried out taking advantage, adapting and exploiting the natural surface of the land.
Cantona was a great city-fortress. Besides their location in a country that prints him that character, also has a moat in their limit with the valley, accesses completely controlled and several military positions.
In Cantona they are manifested the rituals and religious ceremonies clearly. One of these was the one carried out in the agricultural rituals and of fertilization of the earth.
The base of the inhabitants' of Cantona subsistence was besides the agricultural production, the commercial exchange of obsidian that they exploded of the locations of the area. This important prehispanic city succumbed to the pressures of groups, maybe chichimecas, unaware to the area. Around the year 1050 the city was abandoned.
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Tepexi el Viejo (the Old one) March 25, 2005 4:27 PM
Tepexi was the headquarters of a dominion popoloca that controlled a portion of the south of the current state of Puebla in the 3 centuries previous to the conquest.
In the XV century the conflicts among popolocas induced to the construction of cities strength, as that of Tepexi the Old one whose ruins are located in a place surrounded by deep ravines with an access, to which you arrives ahead for a breach that leaves of the homestead Moralillo, of Tepexi.
Archaeological Area of Yohualichan
Ceremonial Center of the Totonac culture located to the northeast of Cuetzalan.
It is believed that it was founded to beginnings of the Classic period (0 at 900 to.C.) and that before the invasion of warlike groups, it began to be abandoned from half of the Posclásico (900 to 1519 d.C.). Yohualichan means "Place of the Night."
Their ruins consist of a rectangular square, around which there are 5 mounds with different numbers of basements and vestiges of temples in their summits; there is also a ball game. These ruins remember a lot to the prehispanic city of The Tajín in Veracruz.
Juego de Pelota (Ball Game)
24 ball games are known. Twelve of them are integrated in aligned architectural groups that they are characterized to have temple, square, architectural structures in their periphery.
Santo Domingo and the Rosario's Chapel
The majestic Rosario's Chapel dates of the second half of the XVII century and one of the biggest achievements in the art Baroque novohispano constitutes.
The chapel is recovered with lined stucco with sheet of gold of 22 karats. It is qualified from their foundation like a marvel of the world.
San Francisco Acatepec Church
It was built in the XVII century and it is considered as a work teacher of the Mexican Baroque. It represents the maximum expression of the alarifes work, potters poblanos who covered the facade of the temple masterfully with ceramic pieces elaborated using mainly talavera potteries by hand.
The interior has a fantastic plaster-work decoration that impresses so much for the profusion and brightness in the ways like for the expression of the images.
Santa María Tonantzintla Church
Tonantzintla means "Place of our Little Mother". Their construction began in the XVI century. It is one of the richest jewels in the Mexican Baroque in their exuberant grade.
The hands of the natives who modeled the plaster-works captured in them their own universe creating an iconography mexicanista composed by brown angels, niches with feathers of feathers, tropical fruits and mainly ears of corn.
La Concordia and the Patio of the Azulejos (Tiles)
In front of Santa Inés's square it is an architectural group composed by the Church of the Concordia, the building where it had headquarters their fraternity and their house of exercises, famous for their patio decorated by tiles.
This temple is an example of the Baroque poblano in its classic slope that is characterized by the structure of the cover worked in quarry.
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cont March 25, 2005 4:31 PM
The Patio of the Tiles is located in the House of Exercises of the fraternity, the walls of this patio can be considered as the most beautiful in the city, they are decorations with diverse designs in which the base is the tile and the brick.
Patio of the Azulejos
The church of this convent had its origin in a chapel built to expose to Our Lady of the Soledad in 1708.
Later on, it intended to be founded the Soledad's convent there in 1731, being the convent later founded 17 years. They highlight in their exterior the had dome of black and white tiles, and the tower, of two bodies and an it finishes off.
In the interior, the neoclassical bigger altar is work of José Manzo. Flanking this altar excellent Baroque altarpieces of the first third of the XVIII century is observed.
Temple and Posed Chapels of San Andrés
Built around 1548 San Andrés' Franciscan temple it is a rampart of the colonial architecture for the iconography of their posed chapels, carved in stone with such a master that one can affirm that in any other monument of the XVI century in Mexico is a decoration so elaborated of scenes in relief like in this chapels.
National Fair of Puebla
(Puebla de Zaragoza)
It is carried out from April 30 to May 31, having as main headquarters the Civic Center May 5 (hills of Loreto and Guadalupe). The program includes: agricultural exhibition, cattleman, industrial, handmade and gastronomic.
During every day they are carried out cultural events, concerts, theater, folkloric dances and varied artistic festivities. The civic and sport events supplement the fair.
It begins from second Sunday of the year with traditional Sundays of masks, known this way, because in the central park people's groups are presented disguised with cardboard masks that you/they cohabit and they dance in the afternoons with band music.
On Saturday previous to Wednesday of Ash the properly this carnival begins, with autochthonous dances of the Negritos, the Sappers, the Suavos, the Turks, the Indians, the Mountain ones and the Zacapoaxtlas who dance in the central park and in the main streets of the town from half-day until the evening, accompanied by its respective band of music of wind and band of war.
On Sunday, Monday and Tuesday, these same groups begin their dances from early hour; they name a general in boss and they form different groups that represent the autochthonous marriage, the lady's kidnapping, the outlaws and mockeries of war.
The last day at the 12:00 hours, it is carried out a parade of all the participant groups that the main streets of the town travel; later on they organize a meal and it burns it from a jacal to gunshots.
The cordiality and the population's happiness stay during all these holidays and they conclude with a mockery of war among all the participants.
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March 25, 2005 4:49 PM
Ahhhh, usted trae muchas buenas memorias, Tere. En 1977, viví en Cholula por seis semanas. Durante mi tiempo alli, la ciudad reparaba las calles en el zocalo, así que encontré muchos artefactos que estaban en los fosos. Gocé siempre el subir de las escaleras de la pirámide y el caminar en los túneles estrechos adentro. Sobretodo, como siempre, gocé de la gente que vivió en Cholula. Una época que no será olvidada.
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March 26, 2005 5:00 PM
De gente como tú Jim, Mexico jamás se olvida tampoco.
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March 27, 2005 9:01 AM
Ahora me estoy ruborizando. Gracias!
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Gracias March 27, 2005 2:17 PM
Hola Teresa, qué padre que hagas todo esto. Me ha dado gusto ver toda la información que has puesto de los otros estados y ahora un poco más ya que soy de Puebla Gracias por todo el tiempo que has puesto.
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March 28, 2005 4:03 PM
De nada Norma, y porfavor si tienes información importante de Puebla la puedes poner aquí.
Gracias a tí.
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September 11, 2005 6:33 PM
Casa del Alfeñique
Casa de los Azulejos
Detalle de Herrería
Cholula -Tiendas Típicas
Cholula - Iglesia de la Pirámide
Púlpito de la Catedral
Callejón y Plazuela de Los Sapos
Plaza de Cholula
Cholola - Tumbas en Santo Domingo
(c) 2000 Sistemas Cíclope, México.
The Battle of Puebla and Cinco de Mayo
In 1862, the United States was in the middle of a civil war. All the South needed was a strong exterior ally and its strengthened cause might have permanently split the United States. A possible exterior ally was closer than Abraham Lincoln liked, as the French Army under Gen. Laurencez was making its way through Mexico.
The French Army was considered the greatest military force on the globe. For nearly 50 years—since the defeat of Napoleon I’s army at the hands of allied forces at Waterloo, Belgium in 1815—it had not known defeat and had recently won victories in Europe and Asia. In 1862, the French landed in Veracruz along with forces from Queen Isabella II of Spain and Queen Victoria of Great Britain. They had come to collect the debt owed to them by Mexico—debts that Mexican President Benito Juarez had officially suspended because the country was essentially bankrupt.
Refusing Juarez’ proposed compromise to repay the debts two years later, the collaboration of the three countries’ militaries seized the custom house at Veracruz. They intended to intercept the customs payments in exchange for their debt. After some time, the diplomats for Spain and Great Britain reached an agreement with Juarez and the armies from those two countries departed from Mexico. The French, on the other hand, stayed and headed for Mexico City.
France had significant interest in halting the growth of the United States. The North American country’s rate of expansion and power was threatening to the other world powers. If Napoleon was successful in conquering Mexico, the possibility of marching north to aid the Confederates in dividing the United States into two less powerful and less threatening countries was real.
The United States was a major cause of France’s attack on Mexico. The war America recently won over Mexico leveled the Mexican treasury and led to financial disaster. Thus, Juarez suspended payment to France and incited Napoleon III, ruler of France, to act. Lincoln and the United States were dependent on Mexico staving off the French troops until the Confederacy could be defeated and Lincoln could deploy troops south to aid Juarez.
Early on May 5, 1862, General Laurencez led 6,000 French troops toward Puebla, Mexico, just 100 miles from Mexico City. Expecting the attack was General Ignacio Zaragoza, a Texas-born Mexican who was ordered to defend Juarez with a force of 4,000 troops, many of them agricultural workers armed with antiquated rifles and machetes. The battle would take place in a muddy, uneven field.
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September 11, 2005 7:05 PM
To show his contempt for the Mexicans, Gen. Laurencez ordered his troops to attack through the middle of the foes’ defenses, their strongest position. The French cavalry went through ditches, over adobe ruins and toward the slope of Guadalupe Hill. By then, the cavalry, exhausted and nearly disbanded, failed to achieve its goal. The Mexican army stood its ground. Gen. Zaragoza, who had no experience in military tactics but was a veteran in guerrilla warfare, ordered his troops to go after the French, who fled to Orizaba, where Zaragoza attacked the French again, forcing them to flee to the coast.
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PUEBLA, surnommée la relique des Amériques, est une ville coloniale ; elle fut fondée en 1531 par les espagnols.
Avec plus d'un million d'habitants, c'est la 4ème ville du Mexique.
Elle s'est rendue célèbre grâce à sa production d'azulejos qui ornent toutes les églises. Elle fut le théâtre de la victoire du général Ignacio de Zaragoza contre l'envahisseur français le 5 mai 1862.
Les azulejos ne sont pas la seule spécialité de Puebla. La ville se distingue par une particularité inattendue : c'est ici que fut créé, il y a plusieurs siècles, le fameux Mole Poblano. C'est une délicieuse sauce faite de chocolat, de chilis et d'épices.
L'église Santo Domingo abrite la précieuse Chapelle du Rosaire de style churrigueresque. Les murs et le dôme sont recouverts d'une extraordinaire profusion de motifs en stuc, dorés à la feuille.
Dans tous les champs aux alentours, les paysans et les chevaux sont au travail. Aujourd'hui, ils semblent retourner la terre, avant les semis peut-être?
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La mécanisation de l'agriculture est rare. Ceci s'explique par la réforme agraire qui a eu pour effet de redistribuer la terre aux paysans.
Cette mesure courageuse a cependant des effets secondaires :
-Pas de gros propriétaires, donc peu d'investissements malgré les coopératives,
-Les terres cultivables n'étant pas extensibles à l'infini, il n'y en a plus pour tout le monde. Comment vont réagir ceux qui ne seront pas servis ?
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