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Fact Sheet-Native Americans and Housing
14 years ago
v Housing Needs: An estimated 200,000 housing units are needed immediately in Indian country. (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, “A Quiet Crisis: Federal Funding and Unmet Needs in Indian Country,“ 2003) v Homeless: Approximately 90,000 Native families are homeless or under-housed. (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, “Quiet Crisis,” 2003) v Overcrowding: In tribal areas, 14.7 percent of homes are overcrowded, compared to 5.7 percent of homes of the general U.S. population. (Census Bureau, 2000) v Plumbing: On Native American lands, 11.7 percent of residents lack complete plumbing facilities, compared to 1.2 percent of the general U.S. population. (Census Bureau, 2000) v Telephone Service: Compared to the 2.4 percent of the American population, 16.9 percent of Native Americans in tribal areas lack telephone service. (Census Bureau, 2000) v Indian Housing Funding: Approximately $650 million a year has been appropriated towards Native housing over the last few years. Funds are distributed to 575 housing entities, amounting to an average of $1.1 million per tribe. Of that funding amount, about 40 percent, or ($440,000 per tribe) goes towards new housing construction. (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, “Quiet Crisis,” 2003) v Cost of New Homes: The average cost of a new home on a reservation is $125,000. (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 2003) v Tribes: There are 562 federally-recognized tribes, of these, 229 are Alaska Native Villages. (Federal Register, 12-05-03; Vol. 68, No. 234) v Total Population: There are 2.5 million Native Americans and Alaska Natives in the United States (single race), accounting for 0.9 percent of the total population. There are 4.3 million people (mixed race), totaling 1.5 percent of the entire U.S. population. (Census Bureau, 2000) v Location: A total of 34 percent of the Native population resides in rural areas, where many reservations are located. (Census Bureau, American Indian/Alaska Native Heritage Month, 2003) v Income: Native Americans have the second lowest median household income, $32,116, while whites have the highest at $46,305. (Census Bureau press release, 9-24-2002) v Poverty Rate: The poverty rate for Native Americans is approximately 26 percent—2.6 times higher than that for whites and more than twice the average for all Americans, at approximately 12 percent. (Census Bureau, 2000) v Unemployment Rate: Compared to 5.8 percent of the general U.S. population, 13.6 percent of the workforce on reservation areas is unemployed. (Census Bureau, 2000) v Employment Data: A total of 56.5 percent of the population of trust lands and reservations is in the workforce (16 years of age and older). (Census Bureau, 2000 (continued in next post)
Fact Sheet-Native Americans and Housing, cont'd- part 2
14 years ago
v Tribes and Economic Development: The majority of tribes, a total of 361, are without gaming. (National Indian Gaming Association website, 2003) v Mortgages Made On Trust Lands: In 2002, 354 loans were made for Section 184, 760 loans for Section 248 and 153 loans for the Rural Housing Service Section 502 (Direct Loans). (General Accounting Office Report, “Native American Housing: VA Could Address Some Barriers to Participation in Direct Loan Program,” 2002) v Loan Foreclosure and Delinquency Rates: The foreclosure rate for Native Americans on Section 184 loans is .011 percent, while the delinquency rate is 7.7 percent. (HUD as of 4-21-2004) Denial rates for conventional home purchase loans: In 2001 In 2002 Native American 35 % 23 % White 16 % 12 % Hispanic 23 % 18 % Black 36 % 26 % Asian 11 % 10 % The number of conventional/government-backed home purchase loans made to Americans: In 2001 In 2002 % change Native American 15,279 18,752 23% White 3,257,542 3,341,732 3% Hispanic 405,809 449,893 11% Black 285,243 291,491 2% Asian 175,151 206,909 18% (All loan data from: Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council for institutions covered by the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, August 2003) the state of indian housing fact sheet ownloadid%3D192+homeless+native+americans&hl=en National American Indian Housing Council 900 Second St NE Suite 305 Washington, DC 20002
Native Village News
14 years ago Tribal housing An affordable-housing program has begun on the Salt River Reservation. The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Community has committed $121,000 per year over the next five years to renovate or build 20 homes. Gail Gianndrea, program director, said the program is a response to federal legislation requiring tribes to work with government agencies and the private sector to improve housing. "The majority of the homes built on the reservation were funded with federal money," Gianndrea said. "The federal government has always told Native Americans where, when and how to build housing. Now we need to seek out other resources." The tribe will seek matching funds from the private sector. Native Village News
Speaking of Federal and "Federal Recognition"
14 years ago
Some words by John Two-Hawks: Issues Pet Peeeeeeeeves! "Federal Recognition" We were here 100,000 years before you, and you don't 'recognize' us? This is something that has always been a pet peeve of mine. The United States is just a baby - not even 250 years old yet. The Indian Nations of this Turtle Continent are nearly all into the many thousands of years old. Yet, for political reasons, an Indian Nation which was in existence 9,000 years before there was a 'USA' has to be 'Federally Recognized' by the USA to be considered a legitimate Indian Nation. I find this ridiculous. It seems to me, that the ancient Indian Nations of this land oughta be trying to decide if they 'recognize' the USA as a legitimate nation! It just doesn't make any sense in my mind that an Indian Nation which PRE-dates the USA has to 'prove' its legitimacy and beg the U.S. to 'recognize' it as a real nation. Of course, I am fully aware that there are certain Treaty and political interests that play into this, but the concept of a 50,000 year old Indian nation begging a 250 year old baby nation to 'recognize' it peeeeeeves me!" By John Two-Hawks
Hard Roads
14 years ago Hard Roads Programs serving Homeless Native Americans Give Hand up to Those Left Behind by Melissa Wall A Sliammon Indian from British Columbia, Gloria McKenzie was sent away from her reservation at Powell River more than 30 years ago when her mother died. From that point on, her life has been marked by constant moves, family breakups, alcohol abuse, and violence. As the 50-year-old woman recounts segments of her life, it's as if she is picking through shards of broken glass, now shattered into memories. McKenzie doesn't know how one of her sisters died. The other was stabbed to death. Her remaining three siblings are spread from Vancouver BC, to Nanaimo. McKenzie herself has lost homes, jobs, a husband, and close contact with her only living son. Her own left leg was amputated two years ago. Yet as she sits sipping coffee in Seattle's Chief Seattle Club, she speaks in a voice that is without complaint or anger. A former panhandler, she now lives in a downtown hotel. She's stopped drinking and goes to AA meetings. She talks enthusiastically about working now toward her GED, and her job at the Lutheran Compass Center, where she handles the mail. Double Jeopardy for Natives While it might appear that Seattle's booming economy should bring more opportunity to the low-income, and more success stories like McKenzie's, the reality is different. Those at the bottom may actually be harmed by the boom as it makes housing increasingly unaffordable. For homeless Native Americans, the situation is possibly worse than it is for other groups. Native Americans make up five percent of Seattle's homeless, but only one percent of Seattle's general population. These numbers don't include those not documented because they list their race as "other" or those who either have been turned away from shelters or who turn only to family and friends for help. Many of these might have been able to find housing in the past, but today the high cost of housing is shutting them out. Just a few years ago, people could get a place for around $250 a month, but today the minimums are starting at $400, according to Peter Joe, a Native American community worker for the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services. The Seattle Indian Center reports that 25% of Seattle-King County Indians live with a friend, relative or in institutional housing; only 10% own their own home. Those with housing tend to live in the downtown area and in the southwest. Many people think Native Americans are all back on the reservations doing fine, according to Eduardo Diaz, who runs a facility for homeless Native American youth. Yet there is not enough space or jobs on most reservations. Instead, Native Americans from Alaska, the Northern Plains, California, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, come to Seattle with nowhere to live. The booming economy promises jobs that often never materialize. Some come directly from the reservations and don't understand how the city works, says Pauline Little Owl, adult activity coordinator with the Seattle Indian Board of Health. They are "afraid to speak up" and think people are "looking down on them." Some will not seek outside help from fear of the government taking away their children. "There are young people with children and no place to go-the moms and sometimes the dads," says Little Owl. Three months ago they found a grandfather and his grandkids, she says. "They were all living in a van." Groups are working to help The Labateyah homeless youth facility serves up to 40 youths; nearly 40% are Native American. Part of the United Indians of All Tribes Foundation, the home provides educational, medical, and other counseling services. Labateyah also seeks to change negative self images through culture affirming events such as powwows and talking circles. At the Seattle Indian Health's arts activities workshops, homeless Native Americans create everything from medicine pouches to dream catchers. Most have their own patterns which they learned on the reservations, says Little Owl. These projects help them reconnect with their individual cultures. At the Chief Seattle Club, funded by the Church Council of Greater Seattle, between 50 and 75 homeless Native Americans rest, eat, and shower from 7 am to 10 am daily. "It's a place to start off the day in a positive mode," says Peter Joe, who works at the club twice a week. For people such as McKenzie to change permanently, he says, they need to decide for themselves first. Forced changes often work only in the short term. "I let them express what their needs are, what choices they need to make. It's a longer process," says Joe. Joe describes a client in his late 30s who went from living in a garage to managing an apartment building and arranging for his two children to take violin lessons. The change took more than seven years and included counseling for him and his son, and encouragement from community workers such as Joe. However effective, such an approach takes plenty of financial resources, which are only being cut, not increased. Native Americans, like other ethnic groups, often need to cope with their problems in culturally appropriate ways. Besides attending AA, McKenzie burns sage at home in a ritual which clears away the bad spirits. Some Native Americans are not comfortable with homeless programs for all groups. Little Owl says sometimes they are "picked on" at shelters, even by other minorities. She and others would like to see a space just for Native Americans that's open all day. Joe believes a one-stop building with multiple services ranging from job hunting to health to housing assistance would greatly improve the homeless Native American population's chances of success. Despite the system's gaps and the increasingly harsh housing situation, folks like McKenzie do turn their lives around. No longer out on the stree
Hard Roads, part 2
14 years ago
Despite the system's gaps and the increasingly harsh housing situation, folks like McKenzie do turn their lives around. No longer out on the streets, she spends most mornings rapidly wheeling from the Chief Seattle Club to her job. When she goes uphill in her wheelchair, McKenzie says, she turns her chair backwards. But what really matters is that she's headed in the right direction. ========= FAIR USE for learning about issues of social, economic injustice and human/homeless civil rights and civil liberties, etc. =========
Pine Ridge Reservation
13 years ago
from Time to Shine: " Many indigenous people in America continue to live under poverty-inducing conditions that create a population of diabetic and obese people who do not have the means to obtain healthy food, quality housing, health care or economic independence. Governmental policies create well below poverty-level conditions for Native Americans living on most of the U.S. Reservations resulting in 80-90% unemployment, 70-80% homelessness, and one of the worst youth suicide epidemics our world has ever seen. On the Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota, below poverty level conditions have existed since the Wounded Knee Massacre occurred there in 1890. Today in the Lakota nation, at Wounded Knee and on the Pine Ridge reservation, as is true with most US reservations, there remains 80% homelessness (in a climate of up to 90 below zero in the winter) 95% unemployment, and one of the highest suicide and accidental death rates in our world." Homeland- The Story "n the 1876 Treaty following the war between the U.S. and the Sioux, the U.S. government promised "a comfortable house" to all families living in Indian Territory. Despite these promises, hundreds of people on the Pine Ridge Reservation are homeless and thousands live in crowded or substandard housing. The American Indian Relief Council estimates that 44 percent of Sioux households lack complete kitchens and 55 percent do not have a telephone. Many Lakota families have moved off the reservation in the hopes of finding jobs and creating a better future for their children. In Rapid City where thousands of Lakota have settled, Native people face prejudice and hardship due to differences between their culture and the white man's world. "
Red Feather Development Group
13 years ago Natural Home salutes Robert Young, who builds safe, sustainable housing for Native Americans. Laurel Kallenbach What does the world need, another t-shirt or a decent home? That was the question Seattle clothing manufacturer Robert Young asked himself a decade ago. On a sales trip, he read a newspaper report about the number of elderly tribal members who freeze to death each winter—either because they’re homeless or they live in uninsulated reservation dwellings. Appalled, Young founded Red Feather Development Group, a nonprofit organization that helps Native Americans learn how to build energy efficient straw bale homes. Headquartered in Bozeman, Montana, Red Feather collaborates with the Crow, Northern Cheyenne, and Chippewa nations—and other tribes nationwide—to assist reservations with planning and building sustainable communities. “Before I spent time on reservations, I didn’t realize the bone-crunching, Third World poverty that faces these people,” Young admits. Of the 2 million tribal members who live on U.S. reservations, more than 300,000 are homeless or live in substandard conditions. Those lucky enough to have a roof over their heads often share a dilapidated shack or trailer with a dozen or more family members. Straw bale housing is a good solution, but it’s not easy. “The bureaucracy is mind-numbing,” Young laments. “To build a home we have to deal with at least six government agencies. Jumping through all these hoops and hurdles paralyzes community members, who feel they’re already set up for failure.” With every building project, however, more people gain hope. One resounding success is the Crow Nation Community Study Hall, a straw bale structure where kids can do homework and use computers. The project was spearheaded by four middle-school girls who call themselves The Rez Protectors. For a school science project, they conducted experiments on a Red Feather–built house to prove that straw structures are waterproof, fire resistant, and insulated to withstand the northern Plains’ temperature extremes. The girls’ project won the Bayer/National Science Foundation competition, and they used the $25,000 to fund the straw bale community building. That project’s money more than doubled when Red Feather received the Oprah Winfrey “Use Your Life” award. A $50,000 prize from Volvo for Life last year also supports the building projects. Alternative construction wasn’t an immediate hit with tribe members, who were suspicious that straw houses were just another form of substandard housing. “Once the stucco covers the bales and people walk through a cool house on a 120-degree day, most start asking, ‘How do I build one?’” says Young. In winter, Red Feather teaches straw bale seminars on reservations so tribes become self-sufficient in their building skills. In summer, tribal members work alongside Red Feather volunteers to erect the homes and community centers they’ve helped plan. “Straw building is simple and not intimidating,” says Young. “It unites people and helps communities heal.” Working on remote reservations is a far cry from the chic garment industry, but Young has never looked back. “What I’m doing now helps break the cycle of homelessness,” he says. “This project reminds us the world can change for the better.” To donate to or volunteer for Red Feather’s American Indian Sustainable Housing Initiative Program, call (406) 585-7188 or check Check out the January 2004 issue for articles on getting back to the basics in home decorating and getting rid of clutter. ====================== FAIR USE for looking at solutions and alternatives,etc. ======================
13 years ago FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE NAVAJO ELDERS TO RECEIVE ASU-DESIGNED INNOVATIVE NEW HOME THAT INCORPORATES NAVAJO CULTURE AND MODERN TECHNOLOGY Home Replaces Dilapidated Dwelling; Creates A Model For Future Affordable Housing TEMPE , Ariz. (Aug. 11, 2005): An innovative new home designed by Navajo architecture students at Arizona State University to use 80 percent less energy than a conventional home will be turned over to Navajo Nation elders Mary and Kee Augustine in a special ceremony on August 11. The new home replaces a dilapidated structure the Augustines had been living in on their allotted land in Nageezi , New Mexico . The project, initiated by Navajo students at the ASU College of Architecture and Environmental Design in collaboration with the ASU Stardust Center for Affordable Housing, the Navajo Housing Authority and Navajo FlexCrete, blends the Navajo culture with new technology. The home is designed with 12-inch thick R35 block walls made of aerated flyash concrete block called Navajo FlexCrete as well as with a passive solar design for heating and cooling, and supplemental radiant floor heating. FlexCrete is a lighter version of traditional block that will help heat and cool the house without air conditioning or central heat. The design incorporates Dine´ culture throughout, including a central courtyard designed to reflect the traditional Hooghan , a traditional shade arbor, Chahash'oh , that protects the south wall from the sun, and an east facing entry that welcomes the morning sun. The design honors the four elements of fire, water, earth and air through a central fireplace, a roof designed to collect rain water, the use of local materials, and a natural ventilation system. “Letting us do this project was an act of faith by the Augustines because it was so difficult for them to see their house torn down, even if it was in such bad shape,” said Daniel Glenn , Associate Director for Design Services for the ASU Stardust Center . “We hope to use this home as the model to change the way housing is produced on the reservation. The intent is to create smart, affordable housing that protects the traditional culture at the same time it responds to the regional climate.” A press conference at 11:30 a.m. will precede the official dedication of the home. Among those expected for the event are Lawrence Morgan, Speaker of the Navajo Nation Council, Dr. Peterson Zah, former President and Chairman of the Navajo Nation, members of the student design/build team, representatives from the Stardust Center , Navajo Housing Authority, Navajo FlexCrete, volunteers who built the home and community members. The event will take place at the home, five miles south of the Nageezi Post Office Office off of Highway 550 (between Farmington and Cuba , New Mexico ) on County Road 7820. Windows and doors were recycled from houses in Phoenix provided by Stardust Building Supplies and logs used for beams in the Hogan came from trees that had been thinned from Navajo forest land. Navajo FlexCrete is made from recycled waste flyash from power plants in Paige , Arizona . The design/build team included seven students from the ASU College of Architecture and Environmental Design: Christopher Billey, Adrian Holiday , Alisa Lertique, Ernesto Fonseca, Matthew Green, Jason Croxton and Tanya Yellowhair, and one student, Peter Crispell, from the ASU Del Webb School of Construction. Chris, Adrian, Tanya and Jason are all members of the Navajo Tribe. Christopher Billey, a Stardust Center staff member, initiated the project and worked as the local coordinator for the project. Ernesto Fonseca, a native of Mexico , led the construction process and provided energy analysis for the project as a graduate student in Energy Performance and Climate Responsive Design at Arizona State University . He will be remotely monitoring the building's energy performance over the next year. The Stardust Center The Stardust Center for Affordable Homes and the Family is a new initiative by Arizona State University which seeks to increase the quantity and quality of affordable housing through innovative education, research and design efforts and through technical assistance to housing providers. The Center, led by nationally renowned affordable housing architect Michael Pyatok , seeks to promote housing that is affordable, dignified and environmentally and culturally responsive. As part of this initiative, the Center plans to engage in design/build efforts each year to create models in affordability, quality and sustainability. ### Karen Francis Public Information Officer Office of the Speaker (928) 871-6384 =========== FAIR USE for learning about solutions and homelessness-related issues,etc. ===========
Hello Harmony.
13 years ago

I am referencing out of context here -  little off this topic also but I read it here! From above:

"""This is something that has always been a pet peeve of mine.
The United States is just a baby - not even 250 years old yet.
The Indian Nations of this Turtle Continent are nearly all into
the many thousands of years old. Yet, for political reasons,
an Indian Nation which was in existence 9,000 years before
there was a 'USA' has to be 'Federally Recognized' by the
USA to be considered a legitimate Indian Nation. I find this
ridiculous. It seems to me, that the ancient Indian Nations
of this land oughta be trying to decide if they 'recognize' the
USA """

For the past few days in all I see, or hear, or read, then I was actually feeling, another 'civil war ' with here in America, AGAIN.

Your wonderment is true, more true than any statement made with regard to American Indians vs US Government... then there is a Mexican uprising coming along fine, gangs from here to every where, WE The People in this nation have card carring KKK memgbers; Arien Brotherhoods, Crypts, Bloods, Mafia of all flavors... even a US President making war in another country reaking havoc on other's cultures that dominoe to the next county/culture...

We are not a sweet happy country! By no means. Then, I have always felt the 'young-ness' of this country, WHEN "THEY" ACT BARBARIC.

All this rage is inside the boundaries of this United States that will errupt to another civil war. All of this has to stop.

Minorities can see the big picture - always have. Greed on a deed.

There are some many many wonderful ways to protect children. Stop homeless. Feed every person, but "THEY" are blinded by the bling!


Dixie, re John Two-Hawk's words
13 years ago
I hear you- and well-said, too! I just wanted to make sure that John Two-Hawks gets the credit for what he said, not me, lol... you wrote: "All this rage is inside the boundaries of this United States that will errupt to another civil war. All of this has to stop. Minorities can see the big picture - always have. Greed on a deed. There are some many many wonderful ways to protect children. Stop homeless. Feed every person, but "THEY" are blinded by the bling!" Hear, hear! Enough with the "bling"!
Rez Assistance Programs
13 years ago Directory of Native American Assistance Programs for South Dakota Reservations httå:// Seven Fires Foundation Bandon, Oregon; Reno, Nevada; Seattle, Washington Tammy Van, Director Numerous Lakota projects and assistance programs including Lakota Project l & II Friends of Pine Ridge Reservation Kyle, South Dakota Marilyn Pourier Runs scholarship, books, school, and fuel assistance programs for Pine Ridge. Also supports numerous other reservation assistance programs. Native Indian Heritage Organization 501(c)3 Non-Profit through Wisdom Keepers, Inc. Rosebud, South Dakota Bernadette-Sharyle Stover Numerous assistance programs for the Rosebud Reservation. Indigenous Children of the Americas Los Angeles, California Linda Sixfeathers Numerous assistance programs for Pine Ridge children. Billy Mills Foundation 2550 Huntington Avenue, Suite #200 Alexandria, VA 22303-1499 703-317-9881 Fax: 703-317-9690 Winter In Pine Ridge Connecticut Christine Numerous assistance programs on Pine Ridge. Also supports other organizations' assistance programs. Lakota Aid East Devon, England Registered British Non-Profit Brenda Alpin, Director Assistance programs for Pine Ridge including heat assistance and travel as well as an ambulance project. Link Center Foundation 501(c)3 Non-Profit through the National Heritage Foundation ( Longmont, Colorado Audrey Link, Director Heat Assistance program for the reservations of South Dakota; in process of developing a program for employment-development and self-employment initiatives, and a supporter of numerous assistance programs on Pine Ridge and elsewhere. Jeanne Chadwick, Publisher, Editor and Webmaster, publisher My Two Beads Worth is an American Indian/First Nations/Indigenous, non-profit news enzine, providing news reports and many other special features online since 2000. Also a supporter of other organizations' assistance programs for reservations throughout the continental US. NDN News Eagle Butte, South Dakota Tamra Brennan, Editor and Director Internet News on Native American Issues and Causes. Supporter of other organizations' NA assistance programs. Native Village Ohio 501(c)3 Non-Proft through the National Heritage Foundation ( Gina Boltz, Director and Editor NA Internet News and award-winning educational resource website for Native youth, teens, adults, families, educators, and schools. Also, a supporter of other organizations' assistance and/or educational programs throughout North America. Pathways to Spirit, Inc Fort Collins, Colorado Carmeen Klausner, Director Numerous assistance programs for Pine Ridge and Rosebud including clothing, heat, mobile homes, and a new children's library and museum for the Porcupine District of Pine Ridge Web of Life Enterprises, Inc. Sterling, Kansas J. Porter Selman Works to raise funds and good for numerous Rosebud programs. Then, channels the funds and goods through NIHO (Native Indian Heritage Organization Wambli Ho, Voice of the Eagles Wambli Ho News Brighton, Colorado Colorado Non-Profit (no 510(c)3 yet) Stephanie M. Schwartz, Volunteer Editor or NA Internet News organization with an annual toy drive for the Porcupine District of Pine Ridge. Also, a supporter of other organizations' assistance programs for Pine Ridge. If you are aware of any other assistance programs that help with funding for heating, elders or other assistance programs on the reservations, please email me details and info. A special thank you to everyone that contributed to the beginning stages of this list! *fair use for humanitarian networking* *Thank you to Native American Issues and Causes and to Tamra (Wolf Lady) of
Teachers without Borders, Navajo
12 years ago Navajo Reservation Teachers Without Borders is developing a relationship with the Window Rock School District, along with partners Jhai Foundation, Intel, and Cisco Systems to support teacher training and community development. The Window Rock School District exemplifies a deep commitment to, and education for, all students. Educators at all levels have rallied in concrete ways under the banner of exemplary curriculum, instruction, and assessment; eexemplary student performance; exemplary staff performance; strong parental and community relations; safe and efficient school environments; and efficient and effective learning operations. Winrock innovates in education, respects and celebrates culture, and thinks deeply about human welfare within its community and beyond its borders. Teachers Without Borders seeks to serve the Window Rock School District, on its own terms.
Thanks, Leagh!
12 years ago
I appreciate the link to this resource
12 years ago

I'd like to rent a pad on a reservation.  Like the Lakota Chief said in the movie "Lakota Woman", "we are the landlords on this continent, it's time to collect the rent".  Only thing you get from the white man is a cockroach infested noisy rental with air conditioning, heating and applicances breaking down all the time, uninhabitable.  I would never rent from the white man again, give me a Malcolm X video speech anyday.


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