Animals can paint and make sculptures. But is it art?
In a 2006 article, Gisela Kaplan, Ph.D. and Lesley J. Rogers, D.Phil., D.Sc. considered this question very carefully, by considering how animals perceive colors (elephants only see two pigments; we can see three) and whether they feel any pleasure from looking at their creations.
That is, Kaplan and Rogers sought to consider animals’ creations with paint and other materials from their perspective. To us humans, the paintings of elephants may resemble abstract art but to assume the elephant thinks the same overlooks their very different anatomy, physiology and more. Plus, we do not know if animals in their natural environment produce art.
Nonetheless, studying animals’ artwork certainly shows that many are capable of more complex behaviors than had previously been thought. Kaplan and Rogers also note that a better understanding of animals’ aesthetic sense and abilities can have implications for animal welfare:
… might realize that sounds and colors matter as much as structures in the way housing for animals is organized, whether in zoos, research facilities, or other human settings, and that we should have a much broader perspective on the types of activities we make available to these animals. Ultimately, ﬁnding that some animals share a sense of aesthetics—as humans use the term—might well change our sensitivities and attitudes to animals overall, offering further evidence to dismantle the outworn claim that animals are “just” animals.
Here are five animals who make what we humans consider art.
There have been numerous reports of primates in captivity painting. But not only have the gorillas Koko and Michael painted, they have also been able to explain what they have painted as they learned to sign: Koko painted what looked like a bird with wings (albeit too many) and signed that she had painted a bird.
A chimpanzee, Moja, also signed that she had painted a bird.
Video uploaded by J. Patrick Malone/YouTube
Seals in captivity have been taught to paint and use colors. But as Kaplan and Rogers point out, they are colorblind. The cells of their retinas contain only green cones, so they can only see green. It is not clear why or how they choose different colors of paint.
While not related to seals, whales and dolphins (who have also been known to paint in captivity) have the same monochromatic vision. Kaplan and Rogers say that it is “likely to have evolved for life in the sea.”
Video uploaded by NewEnglandAquarium/YouTube
Not only are there bovine artists, NPR reports, but they use a quite unusual medium, 50-pound cubes of salt that are about a foot long per side.
Ranchers give the salt cubes to cows as nutritional supplements. A few years ago, Whit Deschner of Baker, Oregon, observed that the cubes, once licked over, had an array of grooves and curves that left them resembling “vertebrae from prehistoric creatures” while others appeared to be “windswept sandstone formations you might see in canyon country.” He accordingly dreamed up the idea — a crazy one, others at first thought — of the “Great Salt Lick Contest.”
While most were initially dubious about the idea, the contest has become a community effort to raise funds for research on Parkinson’s disease, which Deschner himself has. The salt lick creations are auctioned off, with most selling for $200 or $300; the highest price tag ever was $1,000. Overall, more than $30,000 has been raised from “Deschner’s folly.”
Video uploaded by holsteincowboy/YouTube
It is not entirely surprising that elephants can paint with a brush or their trunk as, in captivity, they indeed use a range of tools. Just as humans paint in a myriad of unique ways, different elephants have different painting styles, the result of individual elephants moving their trunks in different ways, say Kaplan and Rogers.
While elephants paint in a number of colors, they can only see two pigments, bluish-violet colors and yellowish-red ones, an adaption possibly enabling them to have better vision at night.
Video uploaded by Oregon Zoo/YouTube
Bowerbirds have been seen selecting objects for their shape and color and then arranging them in their bowers in what (to humans) seems a deliberately artistic ordering. Satin bowerbirds even paint their bowers with paint made from their saliva and plant extracts.
The Bowerbird is the only creature noted here who has been observed creating art in the wild and not in captivity. However, the question remains: Are animals in the wild actually being artistic? Or do animals only create art in zoos and water parks because they have nothing better to do?
What do you think: Are the paintings of elephants and seals, the drawings of chimpanzees and gorillas, the salt sculptures of cows and the trinket-filled bowers of bowerbirds “art”?
Video uploaded by DaelwynRaeala/YouTube
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