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For LGBTs, Becoming a Refugee Doesn’t Mean They’re Safe

For LGBTs, Becoming a Refugee Doesn’t Mean They’re Safe

When someone becomes a refugee, they often find themselves vulnerable to a multitude of human rights abuses they might otherwise be shielded from. Often forced to travel through dangerous territory to makeshift camps, sexual assault and exploitation is, sadly, a common occurrence.

However, for LGBT individuals forced to migrate, situations can go from bad to worse the moment they are recognized or spotted as ‘different.’ Many individuals are subject to assault on multiple levels, facing political violence from their homeland, domestic violence from their families and assault, torture and exploitation from governments and police.

A report by ORAM (The Organization for Refugee Asylum & Migration) studied three different countries dealing with LGBTI refugees and migration. The countries, South Africa, Mexico and Uganda, all range considerably on their dealings with LGBT laws and protections.

For instance, South Africa was the first country in the southern hemisphere to introduce protections for LGBTI individuals, and has multiple agencies in place to address the needs of their communities. Mexico, which legalized same sex marriage in 2010, and instituted anit-discrimination laws against LGBTI individuals in 2011, also has a decent track record. Uganda, on the other hand, acts as a balancing point to the study, with the anti-Homosexuality Bill passing earlier this year instituting harsh penalties on anybody participating in or promoting ‘homosexual acts.’

However, despite excellent legal protections in two out of three countries, it was widely reported that LGBTI individuals in refugee camps faced a multitude of dangers. Discrimination, lack of police protection and harassment was found to be prevalent in all three countries.

Out of all the countries, LGBT refugees in Uganda often faced the most severe restrictions. Once one is identified as LGBT, police brutality, torture and extortion is startlingly common. Many LGBT refugees have had to spend a considerable portion of their time relocating to safe houses (occasionally on a nightly basis) to evade this harassment.

In Mexico, respondents noted more positive interactions with authorities. However, extortion and verbal abuse was a common element. For some, sexual exploitation becomes part and parcel to their own protection, with one transwoman reporting that she commonly had to use sex as a bartering tool for protection from police.

In South Africa, although very few reported violence, many reported discrimination, extortion and arbitrary arrest in which bribery played a prevalent role. Another issue that faces LGBT refugees in South Africa is that although there are plenty of spaces for the queer community, xenophobia regarding foreigners mean that they are often excluded. This makes the issues for LGBT refugees in South Africa as much about prejudice as homophobia.

For all three countries, an oppressive atmosphere seems to exist. An LGBT refugee, new to the land, culture and usually arriving with minimal assets, must struggle even harder to survive. ORAM has set up a point by point method for NGOs and governments to deal with the unique issues that LGBT refugees face.

Part of a solution for the discrimination starts inside the refugee projects themselves. The US Department of the State, UNHCR and various NGOs should institute training programs so workers can more effectively identify and protect those individuals who are more likely to face sexual abuse, discrimination and harassment. Partnering with LGBT friendly groups would also help secure avenues for those searching for a community in their new country.

Furthermore, networks for LGBT refugees would help stem the isolation and vulnerability that face such communities. Creating an information sharing network, including stories on which living situations are the best, the most dangerous, a list of advocates and help lines could go a long way in ensuring these people can maximize their options during the refugee process.

Refugees make up some of the most vulnerable populations in the world today, and for those in the unique subset of the LGBTI community, issues can intensify considerably. It is up to the global community, and its advocates, to ensure protection for these individuals, understanding that the violence and exploitation they face come not only from those employed to protect them, but from their peers as well.

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69 comments

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5:11PM PDT on Aug 16, 2014

No one is ever promised "safe"

3:22PM PDT on May 10, 2014

Thanks for sharing .

8:58AM PDT on May 7, 2014

Thanks for posting

8:28PM PDT on May 6, 2014

Thanks for sharing.

5:08PM PDT on May 6, 2014

I can't wait for the usual suspect homophobic trolls show up and start bashing gays on this thread.

The behavior toward these people both here at home and globally is a shame on every level.

10:16PM PDT on May 5, 2014

Very distressing situation. People will have to consider the choice to stay and fight injustice with all their might in their homelands where they have the natural and moral right to lead a decent life. This is not to mean they have no natural rights as foreigners, but needless to say, if you are going to lead a terrible life elsewhere maybe trying to make the changes at home is a better option.

7:43PM PDT on May 5, 2014

Thanks for the post.

7:25PM PDT on May 5, 2014

I'm not sure being refugeed out of a danger zone has ever meant absolute safety for ANYONE. Refugee camps are often tent cities, and safety is limited to the strength of the fabric. Refugees may have to walk to communal bathrooms, toilets, water sources, and food pick-up sites -- and this assumes those facilities actually exist. They expose themselves to attack on the way there, while in the facility, and when returning to their own camp site, especially if they are carrying food in place where food is in short supply. Sexual aggression is not uncommon in camps, nor is simple violence. Fights erupt over space, over possession of everyday items like dishes and silverware.

A Hmong lady who had been in refugee camps for years told me how bitter people became in the camps, how they began to view each other as enemies, and how the boys, as they reached their teen years, began to form gangs that fought over territory and access to such amenities as did exist. It did not sound like a good life.

7:09PM PDT on May 5, 2014

Matt P. - Six and a half dozen of the other...

6:31PM PDT on May 5, 2014

ANNE M~ sex and sexuality are very different things, nice judgment from your able~istic heteronormative cisgendered privileged status and position !! by the way its YOU (CIS/HETNORM) ppl who are obsessed with our (LGBTIQ) bodies/lives/genitals!!!

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