Guatemalan Art Goes Global
By Jennifer Brookland
The vertiginous drive to the villages of the Guatemalan highlands starts with a mountain climb, followed by trails of gnawed and pocked dirt roads that become barely passable in the rain. In one indigenous community tucked into the hillside, a flight of steep stairs drops to a house that gets electricity just a few hours a day.
In one of the poorest areas of Guatemala, most of the women who make handicrafts here have never left their communities. They use the natural resources of their villages — pine needles and palm fronds, for example — to create the same beautiful and functional products that their grandmothers did. They used to sell these hand-made crafts, such as intricately woven traditional shirts called huipils and little dolls with smiling thread mouths, on the roadside.
But this year, their crafts, and a few of the women who helped make them, are going a lot farther. Past the Guatemalan tourist town of Antigua and some 3,000 miles away to one of the trend capitals of the world: New York City.
“They love the idea and just to think that their stuff is going to New York. It’s like ‘whoa.’ They can’t believe it,” says Siggy Bataille Holbik, the owner of craft shop Casa de los Gigantes in Antigua, Guatemala. (Click here to a watch a short video about these artisans)
Holbik was manning one of two tables laden with the women’s handmade items at New York’s International Gift Fair, trying to interest buyers that could take the crafts from roadside to Rodeo Drive. She hoped the crafts would pull in at least a few orders.
“Let’s go steady and make sure we got two happy customers and next year two more,” she says, the pop of her red drop earrings contrasting with a woven necklace of black and white flowers. “Little by little. It’s handmade. It’s one product at a time.”
A lot of artisans, a little profit
Guatemala as a whole has been upping its exports, which in 2011 brought in more than $10 billion. But traditional handicrafts from the highlands have remained largely sequestered in the little towns they’re made in, sometimes hitching rides out in the backpacks of college students on spring break or backpacking nature-lovers who came to visit Lake Atitlan.
Tourists to Guatemala rarely bought the time-intensive huipils, and local customers were not appreciative of the rich traditions and history woven into crafts that were sometimes so unique they revealed which village the artisan who made them was born in.
When Counterpart International took stock of the sector in 2006, the international development organization realized these local artisans were at the mercy of competition based on price, not quality. Women might sell two blouses at the local market and come home with just one dollar. Few of them were benefitting from Guatemala’s rise in the international export market, or the increased tourism to the region.
There are over a million handicraft producers in Guatemala, more than 75 percent of whom are women.
By improving and distinguishing their crafts and linking them up with bigger markets, Counterpart could help the women increase their income, and improve their lives.
Traditional skills meet trendy design
Prospects for expansion were minimal with the crafts they were producing. No one wanted to buy the same typical products — easily recognizable as Guatemalan but low quality and uninspiring. How could women who had never left their poor communities guess what people hundreds, even thousands of miles away would want to buy?
“The artisan knows what to do, but he doesn’t know the fashion in another country or what is in another country, what other countries need in terms of products,” says Holbik.
With funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development, Counterpart launched the Community Tourism Alliance project, and sent a technical expert on visits to 20 artisan groups. He selected three of them to produce products for an umbrella brand called Wakami.
Under Wakami, industrial designers analyze current market trends and marry them with the existing strengths of the artisan groups to create new product lines destined, they hope, for profitability.
“Wakami design and innovation is our best weapon,” said Wendy Hernandez, who designs new products for local partner Comunidades de la Tierra and trains community women to execute them.
The products are then sent to tourist shops in Guatemala, like Holbik’s Casa de los Gigantes, or exported internationally. These days, they’re finding a market that is more environmentally-conscious, and one that puts a premium on a “handmade” label.
For the new value chain to work, the women had to make a few changes to their generations-old processes. Some were hesitant at first.
“I won’t be able to do it. I don’t know how to do it, Wendy,” Hernandez remembered some of the women told her.
Husbands pushed back too, unhappy about the prospect of their wives working. They thought it would take them away from their fields and homes, and the duties considered mandatory for women in Guatemala, a country where male dominance — and violence — is ingrained and systematic.
When the women found they were able to take work home with them and continue to perform household chores and care for children, the arrangement seemed like a boon for the whole family.
And the work, while grander in scope, still connected them to the past and their culture.
“Handicrafts are something directly connected with the culture,” says Aida Fernandez, executive coordinator for exports at Guatemala’s Exporters Association Artisan and Craft Commission. “Without a doubt, for those living in more rural areas it is something they feel close to. It is something that they can pass on to their children.”
Modern products open doors to new markets
Their experience producing handicrafts made it easy for them to transfer those skills to new products that are more marketable: cases for computers, iPods and cell phones, cosmetic bags, and dishware.
“We are not calling them handicrafts anymore,” says Counterpart’s Guatemala country director Rony Mejia. “We are calling them handmade gifts and décor items because that is what they are really.”
Counterpart partnered with local groups like Grupos Gestores (Management Groups) and Comunidades de la Tierra to train the artisans on strategic business planning, quality control, group governance and management. They received a four-month course on using sewing machines, designing clothing from patterns, and marketing their products in the local area. They started buying more supplies in the capital to guarantee high quality, and ensure everything was lead-free. They also learned how to make their products more standardized, by using precise measurements instead of eyeballing it, for example.
The increased quality, and mindfulness about what designs consumers want, is bringing these traditional methods into the modern world; Holbick sells the women’s crafts in Guatemala’s WalMart stores during the company’s annual month-long craft fair.
“We are bringing these products that we designed that are usually for the outside. Why not sell them within the country?” says Holbik. “We have people who understand immediately the product because it’s close to their tradition, except they got a modern twist!”
Women who decorated plastic bags were previously happy to sell three bags a week. Holbick loaded an entire flatbed truck with their bags and drove it to Wal-Mart. Three days later, the truck came back empty, ready for another load.
From the roadside of San Francisco el Alto to the largest tourist town in Guatemala and now to markets in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and even Europe, Australia, and parts of Asia, the increased sales reflect the success of the new value chain these rural women have become a part of.
View this short video and others at Counterpart International’s multimedia page. Click here.