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There’s a Better Way to Protect Our Ocean Ecosystems

There’s a Better Way to Protect Our Ocean Ecosystems

This is a guest post from Lee Crockett, director of U.S. Oceans at The Pew Charitable Trusts.

Over the past 30 years, we’ve made tremendous scientific gains in understanding how marine ecosystems work while monitoring the impacts of fishing and other extractive activities on the health of our oceans. What’s more, the application of new science, along with critical reforms of key laws and regulations, is leading to more effective policies to manage America’s ocean fisheries.

Because of these improvements, we are making progress toward ending overfishing in U.S. ocean waters and have one of the most advanced marine resource management programs in the world. Success stories, as I’ve detailed in previous articles, span our coasts. Atlantic sea scallop, Gulf of Mexico red grouper and Pacific lingcod are just a few examples of once-depleted U.S. fish populations that have been rebuilt.

Yet too often, federal managers and policymakers approach these issues by considering only one species at a time, rather than looking at the big picture. This approach fails to make use of a wealth of knowledge that scientists have gained in recent decades. We now know, for instance, that fishing for one species can affect the larger marine food web, and as the International Panel on Climate Change reported this week, rising temperatures are another pressure affecting the health of fish populations and their habitats.

We can and must do better. It’s time that decision-makers and federal fisheries managers pursue broader policy solutions that will not only help restore individual species but also promote healthy and robust marine ecosystems—an approach known within scientific circles as ecosystem-based fisheries management.

This will require an array of integrated tools and policies that:

  • Keep forage fish populations abundant enough to support the larger fish, marine mammals, birds and other ocean wildlife that depend on them as a food source.
  • Protect the habitats that fish depend on for shelter, reproduction and growth.
  • Reduce the incidental catch of nontarget species, a problem known as bycatch.
  • Reverse the mindset of “fish first, ask questions later.”
  • Ensure that fishery management decisions are guided by ecosystem plans instead of on a single species of fish without regard to the health of other species, their common habitat, or impacts on the broader marine environment.

It will also require support from our nation’s leaders to continue the scientific research we need to develop an even better understanding of how fish species relate to one another and to their surrounding marine ecosystems. This will help ensure that management decisions for U.S. fisheries are based on science, not regional or partisan politics, and promote the restoration and maintenance of healthy and resilient ocean ecosystems.

In the coming year, a number of important policy decisions could have a profound impact on the future direction of U.S. fisheries management. They will include a national debate on congressional reauthorization of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, our nation’s primary fisheries law; revisions of national rules that guide fisheries management; and changes to important regional policies that are currently under consideration in fisheries management councils around the country.

To help inform these discussions, I’m kicking off a special series of articles, titled “The ABCs of Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management.” It will explore, as the title suggests, the benefits of a broader fisheries management approach that considers the health of marine ecosystems as a whole. I’ll conclude by taking a closer look at upcoming fishery policy debates worth watching as 2014 unfolds, and exploring the potential stakes for those who depend upon healthy and vibrant ocean ecosystems as a source of commerce, sustenance and recreation.

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70 comments

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10:47AM PDT on Jul 2, 2014

Now there is a man with brains. We need to listen and learn.

12:22PM PDT on May 2, 2014

The sentiment is well placed, and the action plans have clearly made measurable difference by increasing fish species populations, however, the real threat comes from the rising acidity which is slowly destroying the foundation of the ocean food chain. Unless there is some way to reverse this and counteract the extra acidity the primary part of the food chain will be destroyed and all the fish we have come to rely on for food will starve, and then those dependent on a fish diet will also starve, including many other species beside humans. We need to fix this before our ocean becomes a toxic waste, and and fish dependent species extinct. All Seabirds, Bears, Seals, Penguins, Whales and Dolphins will become extinct to name just a few on a long list. The plans for Project Persephony have already been created, a generational starship built to house 2000 people and take them to the nearest habitable planet in case of global catastrophe. What does this say about the chances of life surviving on this planet?

12:13PM PDT on Apr 14, 2014

Our oceans belong to all of us. Caring for them is fundamental. Respecting their wildlife is paramount.

7:14AM PDT on Apr 14, 2014

lol - typo

7:14AM PDT on Apr 14, 2014

thankypou

9:11PM PDT on Apr 13, 2014

thanks

6:25AM PDT on Apr 11, 2014

Well said Natasha S! Sadly I don't see much chance of improvement. The oceans are warming, they are turning more acidic - how are we going to change this? Also look at pollution - especially from plastics let alone from waste and oil from huge ships etc. It's a dire situation.

12:03AM PDT on Apr 11, 2014

Thank you.

10:32PM PDT on Apr 10, 2014

Factory farm pollution is the primary source of damage to coastal waters in North and South America, Europe, and Asia. Scientists report that over sixty percent of the coastal waters in the United States are moderately to severely degraded from factory farm nutrient pollution. This pollution creates oxygen-depleted dead zones, which are huge areas of ocean devoid of aquatic life.

The World Conservation Union lists over 1,000 different fish species that are threatened or endangered. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimate, over 60 percent of the world's fish species are either fully exploited or depleted. Commercial fish populations of cod, hake, haddock, and flounder have fallen by as much as 95 percent in the north Atlantic.

Half of all fresh water worldwide is used for thirsty livestock. Producing eight ounces of beef requires an unimaginable 25,000 liters of water, or the water necessary for one pound of steak equals the water consumption of the average household for a year.

According to the editors of World Watch, July/August 2004:

"The human appetite for animal flesh is a driving force behind virtually every major category of environmental damage now threatening the human future -- deforestization, topsoil erosion, fresh water scarcity, air and water pollution, climate change, biodiversity loss, social injustice, the destabilization of communities and the spread of disease."

5:32AM PDT on Apr 10, 2014

Act now instead of just thinking

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