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Things Are Getting Worse for Women in Science and Engineering Jobs

Things Are Getting Worse for Women in Science and Engineering Jobs

Written by Tara Culp-Ressler

Despite making up about half of the workforce overall, only about a quarter of workers in science, technology, engineering and math fields — otherwise known as STEM — were women in 2011, according to a new report from the Census Bureau. Worse, women’s progress in breaking into these fields has slowed down in recent decades. After growing since the 1970s, it has tapered off since 1990, with most of the growth for women under 40 happening between the 70s and 90s. Women’s share of computer jobs, which make up half of all STEM employment, has actually fallen since 1990. In 2011, women were 47 percent of mathematical workers, 41 percent of life and physical scientists, 27 percent of computer professionals and 13 percent of engineers while making up 61 percent of social scientists.

While women are underrepresented among those who get STEM degrees — they are 53 percent of all college graduates but just 41 percent of those graduating from science and engineering programs — even those who do get degrees are less likely to end up in these jobs. As the report notes, “Among science and engineering graduates, men are employed in a STEM occupation at twice the rate of women” — 31 percent versus just 15 percent for women.

Women with these degrees are also more likely to be out of the workforce. Nearly 1 in 5 women with a science or engineering degree are out of the labor force, compared to less than 1 in 10 male graduates. This may have something to do with the strain of caring for a family and getting ahead, given that women are still considered to be the default caretakers. Women who are in STEM are less likely to have children at home than men: 62 percent of women had no children, compared to 57 percent of men. Children may not be getting in men’s way.

The women who stick it out in these jobs can also expect to be paid less. Women with a science or engineering degree working full-time make $58,000 a year compared to $85,000 for men. The gap narrows for those who work in a STEM job, but it doesn’t disappear. Women who work in STEM make $75,100 while men make $91,000.

People of color don’t fare any better in the STEM field. While black workers make up 11 percent of the overall workforce, they are just 6 percent of STEM workers. Hispanics similarly make up 15 percent of the workforce but 7 percent of STEM jobs. White workers, on the other hand, hold 71 percent of STEM jobs even though they make up 67 percent of the workforce. White STEM workers make $88,400, while blacks make $75,000 and Hispanics make $77,300.

Women still struggle to enter many fields that have historically been dominated by men. In economics, for instance, they are just 12 percent of full professors. In finance, they make up just 20 percent of executive officers and less than a quarter of senior officers. Despite big gains, women are still just a third of the country’s lawyers and doctors.

The pay gap follows them even when they enter these fields, which often pay more. Female doctors make $50,000 less than male ones. The top six jobs with the biggest pay gaps are in finance. Women make less than men straight out of college and no matter what job or industry they enter.

This post was originally published in ThinkProgress

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Photo credits: Thinkstock

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11:00PM PDT on Sep 20, 2013

"Children may not be getting in men’s way."

What a stupid comment- they never do. Men do not get pregnant nor nurse.

10:37PM PDT on Sep 20, 2013

From what I can tell, STEM does not include work in medicine. If so, below is my reasoning on why women seem to be shunning STEM.

To me, it seems that women are often more interested in job security than men are. If a woman has a good scientific mind, she might consider an M. D. a better investment, because M. D.'s are rarely laid off, and people in STEM occupations often are. An engineer told me that he would never encourage his children to become engineers, and the reason was lack of job security.

If the United States wants people to go into STEM occupations, we should consider items such as job security, wages, benefits, ...

11:29AM PDT on Sep 17, 2013

t

3:54AM PDT on Sep 16, 2013

Neil DeGrasse Tyson for President in 2016!!

3:31AM PDT on Sep 16, 2013

I have about 8 different doctors for one reason or another. Almost all of them are female. They don't seem to have any problem with the long hours or with their brains, as implied in one comment.

Women are all over the workforce doing their jobs. I can't see a reason that they shouldn't be paid the same for the same job, or why wages should be based on skin color either.

My daughter-in-law is going to be a navigator in the military, they are in the space program, women can do about anything they want, just like men.

3:18AM PDT on Sep 16, 2013

Thank you for sharing.

3:08AM PDT on Sep 16, 2013

Thanks for sharing.

7:34AM PDT on Sep 15, 2013

It's still a man's world. And as jobs become even more scarce with population expansion in the USA, women will find it even more difficult.

7:24AM PDT on Sep 15, 2013

By limiting female in the work force, we are limiting our own progress.

5:09AM PDT on Sep 15, 2013

Thank you Think Progress, for Sharing this!

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