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Why Do Women Become Terrorists?

Why Do Women Become Terrorists?

On December 29 and 30, 2013, two suicide bombings occurred in the city of Volograd, Russia, killing 34 people, along with injuring 62 others. In the immediate days after the attack, several hundred were detained in efforts to find connections to the suspected bombers. Believed to be the work of anti-Moscow separatists, immediate reports were blaming the attacks on suspected “black widows” – women who have lost husbands or loved ones at the hands of Russian authorities. While the bombers have not been identified, Russian authorities now believe it was done by two men who entered the country from the North Caucasus, the latest in the ongoing Chechnya conflict.

The initial focus on women brought back memories of previous attacks in recent Russian history. The first so-called Black Widow attack occurred in 2000 when Kava Barayeva drove a truck of explosives into a building with Russian special forces, killing 27 people. In October 2002, Chechen militants held hostage 700 people attending a performance at the Moscow Dubrovka theater in Nord-Ost. The world watched the event unfold, culminating with Russian forces storming the theater after releasing an unknown gas, killing 129 hostages. Among the 41 militants killed, 19 were women.

While women have always been a part of conflicts, the increased presence of women in deadly attacks has alarmed many. The simple mention of the world terrorist generally brings images of men inciting terror into their targets. When the perpetrator takes on a female form, questions regarding their actions have led experts to unexpected answers.

Anat Berko is an authority on terrorism from Israel and a researcher for the National Security Council. She spent 15 years interviewing convicted Palestinian terrorists in Israeli jails. Her findings are detailed in her book “The Smarter Bomb: Women and Children as Suicide Bombers.” She attributes women’s vulnerability to recruitment for suicide attacks to cultural traditions in Muslim society. Cultural attitudes toward women influence how and why terrorists groups use women. With strict rules governing their movements and interactions in public, these groups see women as a useful tool for suicide bombings as they are less likely to raise suspicions.

Berko’s book claims that taboos around sex govern much of the recruitment and eventual participation. She reports that women admitted in interviews that guilt around sexual desires and dreams of sex in paradise are enticing. Sexual exploitation is a common tool used by men handlers, who use the resulting shame to intimidate women into carrying out attacks. She also points out that female bombers are not held in the same regard as their male counterparts, as their effectiveness is deemed a threat to the cultural norm of male dominance in Arab society.

In the end, however, Berko says these are desperate women feeling trapped by the circumstances of conflict and their daily lives. Poverty and otherwise desperate conditions make many Palestinians vulnerable to promises of happiness in paradise. For many of these women, it’s a way to escape.

The theme of desperation was also found in Cindy Ness’ 2008 book “Female Terrorism and Militancy: Agency, Utility, and Organization.” In a chapter focusing on the attacks by Chechen women, she claims that many women suffer from post-traumatic symptoms resulting from the long-standing conflict with Russia. Female suicide bombers were identified as suffering from depression, guilt and aggression, among several other things. The single most common identifier was feelings of social alienation and isolation.

It is not unreasonable to assume that these women, like men, support the causes they are fighting. The second Black Widow attack by Chechen Elza Gazuyeva in November 2001 was a direct target on the men she blamed for her husband’s death. Nevertheless, it is surprising to many when women take their support to the extreme of carrying out a suicide bombing.

While their numbers remain small, these recent examinations into this relatively secretive world have shown that the circumstances and motives that cause women to become terrorists are profoundly different than their male counterparts.

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116 comments

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4:10AM PST on Feb 17, 2014

Nikolas K. why not blame the father too!?
We all make our choices.

4:21AM PST on Jan 21, 2014

I don't understand why any one would become a terrorist. I can't understand why any one would want to kill other people, especially innocent ones.

8:26AM PST on Jan 14, 2014

I think the title is a bit.. slightly sexist in itself. Why do WOMEN become terrorists it says. Why for the same reasons anyone men or women would go bad and become terrorists.

7:53AM PST on Jan 14, 2014

Thanks for the read..

12:34AM PST on Jan 14, 2014

Men and Women become terrorists to learn the lessons of their Karma and it probably stems from their mothers who failed to bring them into the world with Love and nurturing them in peace and harmony but intead teaching them its ok to become a killer to force their beliefs on others as this is the mantra of the state they grew up in. This mantra of hatred is promoted by the elements who will total control over humanity and s the saying goes. All roads lead to Rome.. hmm is this not where the international bankers meet to plan their anarchy in a place called Church of Rome, this has nothing to do with religion but controls all religions on this planet.

6:20AM PST on Jan 13, 2014

Could it be the same reason men become terrorists...
Lives are destroyed, families ripped apart, atrocities committed.
Then some charismatic leader enters into your life...
Promises of food shelter peace and vengeance.
However if you think this is anomaly, think again women are equally violent

6:17AM PST on Jan 13, 2014

thanks.

4:51AM PST on Jan 13, 2014

noted

2:40PM PST on Jan 12, 2014

I am against anyone becoming a terrorist

6:54AM PST on Jan 12, 2014

Thank you.

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