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Clean Fuel Could be Made from Sunlight

Clean Fuel Could be Made from Sunlight

Dr. Sossina Haile and her colleagues at CalTech have created a solar-powered reactor that can produce clean hydrogen gas, methane, or syngas which is a precursor to hydrocarbon fuels. This reactor type is known as thermochemical, because it uses solar power to create heat, and the heating and cooling of a type of metal oxide inside called ceria is the basic process which creates fuel. Their prototype uses a large quartz window about two feet tall as a magnifying glass to concentrate sunlight into a cavity inside the reactor. Inside the reactor is a cylinder lined with ceria, which is a common material also found in self-cleaning ovens.

When cool, ceria absorbs oxygen, and sheds CO2 and H2O molecules which can be pumped into the reactor to make hydrogen gas for hydrogen fuel cells. It also sheds CO which can be combined with hydrogen gas to make liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Additionally, the process can be tweaked to make methane. These plants in turn generate more CO2, and H2O as byproducts which can be captured and re-used in the their reactor to create more fuel. When it is heated, ceria releases oxygen. This cycle of “inhaling” and “exhaling” oxygen by raising and lowering its temperature can be repeated over and over in order to make fuel.

Also, their thermochemical reactor might be employed at coal-burning power plants to capture their CO2, and use it to make fuel for vehicles. Such an application might be very helpful for the short-term considering the widespread use of coal for producing electricity, in terms of reducing climate change emissions. However, burning coal also produces air pollution detrimental to people and wildlife. A report from last year said over 13,000 premature deaths per year in the United States have been linked to air pollution from power plants. Acid rain is a direct result of burning fossil fuels in power plants.

So for the long-term for both public health and environmental reasons, it may be better to use the thermochemical reactor for creating hydrogen gas to run fuel cells, whether they are in buildings or someday even in vehicles. Another more environmentally-friendly application might be at solar power plants, where some of the heat generated by concentrated solar technology could be used by her reactor to create fuel, which could then be used to run electrical generators at night, when solar power is not available.

Image Credit: SolarNovus

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Read more: Do Good, Green, Life, Transportation,

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42 comments

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9:40PM PDT on Oct 3, 2011

Noted.

5:36AM PST on Feb 6, 2011

thoinx

11:33PM PST on Jan 31, 2011

@Quanta Kiran This concept works the same way plants photosynthsis... Plants at night generate CO2 but store it to later use as it needs. Thats why burning tree can generate so much pollution but what the plant does is break down the CO2 into carbon and oxgen. It uses the carbon for cell growth and the oxgen gets released out into the air.

This idea is wonderful as the by product carbon can be used for many many things. However itll be a few more years before this idea is ready as its currently very inefficent.

12:02PM PST on Jan 30, 2011

One thing that is known for sure.
Solar Power: Source of Endless Energy

4:18AM PST on Jan 27, 2011

I certainly will look into this, solar generated power, yes I like it.

7:28AM PST on Jan 25, 2011

Sounds interesting. now it comes down to practicality. the ability to produce and use them in a cost efficent way

8:15PM PST on Jan 24, 2011

Give it a chance and time to develop it sounds good. All IDEAS THAT GET US OFF OIL, COAL OR NUCLAER ARE GREAT IN MY BOOK!

12:44PM PST on Jan 24, 2011

I love all of the brilliant new ideas. Power to the People

9:23AM PST on Jan 23, 2011

nice.very nice.i think the solarpower will be the winner.in diifferent ways...

2:47AM PST on Jan 23, 2011

"When cool, ceria absorbs oxygen, and sheds CO2 and H2O molecules which can be pumped into the reactor to make hydrogen gas for hydrogen fuel cells. It also sheds CO which can be combined with hydrogen gas to make liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Additionally, the process can be tweaked to make methane. These plants in turn generate more CO2, and H2O as byproducts which can be captured and re-used in the their reactor to create more fuel. "

absorb oxygen and make more greenhouse gases? doesn't anyone think this is bad? why can't we use gas capture methods and then turn it into fuel?

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