Brrr…. with much of the nation caught in winter’s icy cold grip, this is a good time to remember that exposure to very cold temperatures can cause serious — even life-threatening — health consequences.
Infants, who don’t make enough body heat by shivering, and the elderly, who have a slower metabolism, are at greater risk of frostbite and hypothermia.
What is Frostbite?
Frostbite is caused by freezing, causing loss of feeling and color. It is most likely to affect the face, fingers, or toes, and can cause permanent damage. In extreme cases, it can lead to amputation of the affected areas.
First signs of frostbite include:
- a white or grayish-yellow area of skin
- skin that feels unusually firm or waxy
Medical care should be sought immediately. If that is not possible, take these steps:
- seek warm shelter
- if at all possible, do not walk on frostbitten feet or toes
- immerse affected are in warm (not hot) water
- do not message or rub affected area with snow
- warm the area using body heat — do not use heating pads, heat lamps, etc. — affected areas will be numb and can be easily burned!
What is Hypothermia?
When your body loses heat faster than it can be produced, an abnormally low body temperature results. This can affect the brain and cognitive function, making the victim particularly vulnerable. This is a serious condition and immediate medical assistance is crucial.
Someone with severe hypothermia may be unconscious and may not seem to have a pulse or to be breathing. In this case, handle the victim gently, and get emergency assistance immediately. Even if the victim appears dead, CPR should be provided. CPR should continue until the victim responds or medical aid becomes available. Some hypothermia victims who appear to be dead can be successfully resuscitated.
Warning signs of hypothermia in adults include:
- confusion/memory loss
- slurred speech
- bright red, cold skin
- very low energy
If body temperature falls below 95 degrees, this is a life-threatening emergency. Call for medical assistance immediately. If medical care is not available,
- seek warm shelter
- remove wet clothing
- warm the center of the body first using blankets and skin-to-skin contact
- drink something warm, but do not consume alcoholic beverages or give beverages to an unconscious person