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How to Build a Wood Stove Fire

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How to Build a Wood Stove Fire

by KMS Woodworks for Networx.com

The key to using a wood stove efficiently is to build a hot fire. Isn’t all fire hot? Yes, but not hot enough. Modern wood stoves can have burn efficiencies of 75 to 90 percent. These higher efficiencies are due to “secondary burns.” A secondary burn is where the hydrocarbons in the smoke are re-ignited before leaving the stove, thereby reducing emissions and releasing more heat. For this to occur, a hot fire of 10001200 degrees F is required. Hot fires also reduce the build up of creosote in the stove and chimney pipe.

How Wood Burns

Rather than explaining advanced physics and principles of thermodynamics here, I’ll share what I have learned from a lifetime of using wood stoves:

Contrary to what most people believe, the wood itself does not burn, but rather the combustible gasses that are released from the wood when it is heated. If you watch closely, you can see little “jets” of gas form on the ends of logs. These resemble minute blowtorches, and the heat from this burning gas releases more gas and keeps the fire going. The key to building a fire with plenty of combustible gas is to start it with ample kindling. Kindling is simply smaller bits of firewood. Smaller bits allow more air contact, and thus faster combustion. A good pile of kindling will get the stove heated quickly, and then allow larger logs to start burning faster.

Well-Seasoned Wood

Before wood will burn cleanly, the moisture needs to be removed (by drying) or driven off (by burning). If your wood is hissing or you can see bubbles forming on the log ends, your wood is not completely dry and its burning will be inefficient. This moisture and unburned “gas” can cause a smoky fire and lead to creosote build up. A lot of the beetle-kill firewood that is being harvested has been dead standing for some time and is pretty much ready to go. If you cut living timber, the rule of thumb is to season (dry) it for about a year prior to use. Obviously split wood will dry more quickly than “rounds,” as more surface area is exposed to the air.

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40 comments

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12:02PM PDT on Jun 5, 2013

I lost my home because my neighbor followed stupid advice like this article. Here is some better advice:

DO NOT BURN WOOD.

It ruins other peoples lives.

And wood smoke is more toxic than cigarette smoke and causes death and diseases such as lung cancer, throat cancer, mouth cancer, cardiac arrest, stroke, emphysema, COPD, asthma.

In NSW, Australia it was calculated that the annual cost to the community if $2000 for each fire.

One every level such as neighborhood relations, pollution, health and cost to the community wood burning should be immediately banned.

SUPPORT THE BANNING OF WOOD BURNERS,

6:14AM PDT on Jun 5, 2013

CANCER
http://davisvanguard.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3780%3Awood-smoke-causes-canceranother-nail-in-the-wood-burning-coffin&catid=53%3Aland-useopen-space&Itemid=86

4:16PM PDT on Mar 16, 2013

Everyone should know that The American Lung Association "strongly recommends using cleaner, less toxic sources of heat. Converting a wood-burning fireplace or stove to use either natural gas or propane will eliminate exposure to the dangerous toxins wood burning generates including dioxin, arsenic and formaldehyde” see http://www.lungusa.org/press-room/press-releases/cleaner-alternatives-for-winter-heat.html

Old wood stoves and fireplaces create as much pollution as one thousand cars - http://www.grreporter.info/en/fireplace_pollutes_air_much_1000_cars/8814

So, even though newer ones might be 70% to 90% cleaner, that means they still create as much pollution as 100 to 300 cars.

The Citizens for Environmental Health Website asks: "Why is wood smoke, a serious and deadly toxic carcinogenic neighbourhood pollutant, allowed? The answer: “Because people don’t know!” http://www.citizensfeh.com/sustainability_community.html

This website notes that the stove manufacturers are allowed to test and certify their own stoves and that independent testing found dioxin levels were 400 times higher than claimed.

My question to all readers of this blog is: Do you now that even if you follow the instructions to the letter and operate you stove as perfectly as in the lab tests, you will still cause as much pollution per year as 100 cars, and be the major source of toxic chemicals called PAH that a World Health Organisation review of air pollution and healt

2:36AM PST on Jan 31, 2013

Very informative post! Wood stoves can be best choice of winter if they are properly used and managed. They are cheap than other home heating devices as they utilize woods that is why this feature makes these appliances the best heating devices.

6:33AM PST on Feb 4, 2012

Interesting and helpful article - thanks for posting.

11:28AM PST on Feb 3, 2012

Thank you for writing this and sharing the information. I never understood why it is advisable to leave at two inches of ashes. Thank you for the explanation- I kinda thought this. This is very helpful- I use a air tight woodstove to heat my place.

6:57PM PST on Dec 17, 2010

So true!

4:48AM PST on Dec 13, 2010

Thanks for sharing.

9:13PM PST on Dec 11, 2010

Excellent article... I wish I had these guidelines when I moved into my log cabin and began heating with wood as a novice.

6:35PM PST on Dec 11, 2010

i wish i had a fireplace...

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