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What Happens to Animals During a Forest Fire?

What Happens to Animals During a Forest Fire?

By now you have likely heard about the massive and out-of-control forest fire currently raging around Yosemite National Park in California. I not only heard about it last week, I encountered the beast right after it exploded like an angry fire-breathing dragon bent on mass destruction.

My family was on our way to the Berkeley Tuolumne Family Camp, just outside the West Gate of Yosemite for a wonderful week of old fashioned summer camp fun when we were stopped by park rangers: “No traffic is going through the West Gate due to a fire that suddenly exploded from 50 acres to 800 and jumped the highway.”

At that point, we had no doubt the fire was not only quickly growing, but also dangerously close, as the darkened smokey afternoon sky was now raining ash upon our car. Turning around was obviously the only option. Silently, I fretted over the fate of our beloved camp, a historic camp that many California families refer to as their “favorite place on earth.”

After a 12-hour drive, I was lamenting the fact that we were only 20 minutes away from Tuolumne Family Camp and yet so far, now that a blazing fire stood between us and a week of fun, when my youngest daughter exclaimed in a very worried voice, “But Mama, where will all of the forest animals go?”

My two daughters are always worried about the welfare of animals and Ella’s question jerked me back to the present. I told her that animals have much better eyes, ears and noses than we do and when they sensed the danger they quickly fled to safety. That is what I guessed to be true anyhow, and it seemed like the best thing to say to a now very anxious 7-year old child watching ash and smoke swirl around us.

But silently again, I wondered, where DO all of the animals go? Are they able to escape or do firefighters find gruesome carcass after carcass as they themselves chase the fire “mopping” up any hot spots that could flare up again. I could not recall hearing such stories, so I placed my bet on the animals’ evolved instinct to flee fire long before real danger presents itself.

As soon as I had internet access again, I looked up my daughter’s question. My answer was fortunately quite accurate: in the aftermath of a forest fire surprisingly few animals are found dead. Animals, whether feathered, furred or scaled have memory of fire embedded in their limbic brains. The first hint of smoke, the first whoosh of dry grass going up in flames or the popping of wood are easily registered by wild animals at great distances, so rarely are they completely caught off guard and thus they have plenty of time to flee. The most vulnerable, of course, are the old, the very young and the sick or injured. Those that can flee by wing, foot, hooves or slither, do so, while others not so fast or just too small, burrow underground and wait for the impending disaster to pass overhead.

Case in point: In 1988, Yellowstone National Park infamously went up in flames – and so much so, that for the first time in the park’s history, the entire park was shut down. Speculation went as wild as the fire as to what would happen to the park animals. Many anticipated a scorched landscape littered with charred carcasses.

Yet, despite months of raging fire through the park, in the end the flames and smoke claimed very few animals. Surveys post-fire revealed that of 40,000 – 50,000 elk in the park, only 345 were found dead, a very small percentage of the overall population. Additionally, the survey noted that 36 mule deer, 6 black bears, 12 moose, 9 bison and 1 grizzly succumbed to the 1988 fire, and while sad, it is important to note that the vast majority of large animals survived. Rodents and other small animals had the highest mortality rates due to their small size, but still the fatality numbers were still much lower than one might expect. About one hundred fish were discovered dead, but their deaths were blamed on fire retardant water contamination rather than the fire itself.

Animals, forests and forest fires are all part of a natural healthy cycle – and in fact many plants and animals depend on naturally occurring wildfire to flourish. For example, many pine tree require the intense heat of a forest fire to open their cones and release their seeds. No fire, no new trees. The Red Cockaded Woodpecker, the Swainson’s Warbler, many types of quail, foxes, bears, squirrels and other animals depend on fire to keep undergrowth in check. Consequently, all forest-dwelling plants and animals have co-evoloved with the inevitable fires and have found ways to adapt.

So do animals need our help escaping from wildfires? “Not really,” says Mike McMillan with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

But, he adds, “It is up to all of us to take care of our precious public lands, and the amazing creatures that live there.”

 

 

 

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Cherise Udell

Cherise Udell is a mom, clean air advocate, anthropologist and feline aficionado with the nomadic habit of taking spontaneous sojourns to unusual destinations. Before her adventures in motherhood, she was an intrepid Amazon jungle guide equipped with a pair of sturdy wellingtons and a 24-inch machete, as well as a volunteer at a rainforest animal rescue center.

161 comments

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5:48AM PDT on May 20, 2014

To Elaine K.: Your comment sounds so dire, yet I am sure it is inaccurate and not so dire.

Huge forest fires are nothing new, and isn't it possible that these huge fires are completely natural, burning off excess fuels during natural droughts?

While it is true that huge fires make their own weather and wind that can further add to the fire's growth, the effects are very temporary and local. The real factor is not the fire but the sun. The huge amounts of wildfire heat, are quickly lost to outer space the same day. The heat and wind also helps dry nearby vegetation preparing it to catch fire from flying flaming embers, helping the fire advance and grow in size, but this effect is very temporary. It is not a climate-changing phenomenon. The atmosphere has practically unlimited oxygen, so oxygen depletion does little but somewhat limit the speed that the fire can grow. Winds created by convention currents caused by the heat, help keep sucking in new oxygen so that the monster fire can continue to grow, almost as if it was alive.

I really do not think there is much need to put out forest fires before they get big, out in remote wilderness territories not in need of wildfire suppression. Humans really do not need to "control" everything, nor do I think that nature worries about some forest fires sometimes growing huge. Rather, there is just too much fuel, and forests will probably burn sooner or later, because wildfire is a part of the natural ecology. Human lives should

11:30AM PST on Nov 29, 2013

But what about the baby birds in the nests? Or the baby squirrels in their nests? What happens to them? They can't get away.....a lot of the little creatures DO suffer.

9:42AM PDT on Oct 8, 2013

thank you for posting this!!

6:53AM PDT on Sep 6, 2013

It's also up to us to make sure they have protected natural areas to flee to!!!

7:19AM PDT on Sep 5, 2013

thanks for sharing :)

9:22AM PDT on Sep 4, 2013

Thank Yo Cherise for sharing this article.Animals can smell smoke from miles away. One animal dying in a forest fire that was started by a human is tragic, if is lightening, there is not much we could do, but I feel the animals know this is a sign to be on the lookout.

7:12AM PDT on Sep 3, 2013

Animals can be so clever, thanks for sharing

5:34PM PDT on Sep 2, 2013

You are welcome Kay, Bob and others. : )

4:37AM PDT on Sep 2, 2013

Animals are smart enough to detect danger far in advance before humans and they escape.

2:49PM PDT on Sep 1, 2013

Thank you Cherise, for a very educational article, and thanks to the over 150 care 2 members, who commented on the subject. It was enjoyable reading all the comments.

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Disclaimer: The views expressed above are solely those of the author and may not reflect those of
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people are talking

What a beautiful story , I am glad Cleo is one happy cat again :) thanks

Thanks for posting this.

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