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World's Oldest Person Dies at 114

Society & Culture  (tags: japan, worlds oldest person, dead )

- 3963 days ago -
THE world's oldest person, a Japanese woman who counted eating well and getting rest as her hobbies, has died aged 114, a news report says. Yone Minagawa, a widow who lived in a nursing home but was still sprightly late in life, died "of old age" yeste

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Shar KC (8)
Monday August 13, 2007, 2:03 pm
A link on world life expectancy

Shar KC (8)
Monday August 13, 2007, 2:05 pm
another link
US is No 38!!!

Jaclin S (230)
Monday August 13, 2007, 4:05 pm
That is a great age.
Love & Light

One Love (130)
Tuesday August 14, 2007, 12:59 pm
Increasing Maximum Life Span


The oldest-ever person was Jeanne Calment, a French woman who lived for 122 years and 164 days. Maximum life span for humans has remained about 115−120 all through known history, despite steady improvements in life expectancy.

In ancient Rome average life span was 22 years although there is no shortage of ancient historical figures that can be reliably said to have lived to 80. By the mid−1800s the typical North American lived to be 40. Today, people in the most developed countries have an average life span of about 80. Reduction of infant mortality has accounted for most of this increased average longevity, but since the 1960s mortality rates among those over 80 years has been decreasing by about 1.5% per year.

Advances in medicine, calorie restriction with adequate nutrition, or other interventions are said to have slowed the aging process, but (see below) have not been proven to extend the maximum human life span.

Increasing Mean and Maximum Life Span

Currently, the only (non-transgenic) method of increasing maximum life span that is recognized by biogerontologists is calorie restriction with adequate nutrition. However, this is true only if we use definition 2 of maximum life span, as caloric restriction has not yet been shown to break mammalian world records for longevity. Rats, mice and hamsters experience maximum life span extension from a diet which contains 40−60% of the calories (but all of the required nutrients) which the animals consume when they can eat as much as they want. Mean life span is increased 65% and maximum life span is increased 50%, when calorie restriction is begun just before puberty.

Mean Life Span and Antioxidents

Mammals fed anti-oxidants show up to a 30% increase in mean life span, but no increase in maximum life span. Antioxidants are most valuable for animals that are cancer-prone, or subjected to radiation or chemical toxins. There are evidently homeostatic mechanisms in cells that govern the amount of allowable antioxidant activity. Many life-extensionists have dismissed the value of antioxidants simply because they have not been shown to increase maximum life span, but such a view neglects the significance of an extended mean life span.

Many transgenic species of mice have been created which have maximum life span greater than that of wild-type or laboratory mice, including Ames dwarf mice, Snell dwarf mice, mice with increased mitochondrial catalase, and others.

Some biomedical gerontologists (gerontologists who search for ways to extend maximum life span) believe that biomedical molecular engineering can someday extend maximum lifespan and even bring about rejuvenation.

One such researcher is Aubrey de Grey, who calls his project to reverse the damage we call aging SENS (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence). Dr. de Grey has established the The Methuselah Mouse Prize to award money to researchers who can extend the maximum life span of mice.

Research data concerning maximum life span

* A comparison of the heart mitochondria in rats (4-year maximum life span) and pigeons (35-year maximum life span) showed that pigeon mitochondria leak fewer free-radicals than rat mitochondria, despite the fact that both animals have similar metabolic rate and cardiac output
* For mammals there is a direct relationship between mitochondrial membrane saturation and maximum life span
* Studies of the liver lipids of mammals and a bird (pigeon) show an inverse relationship between maximum life span and number of double bonds
* Selected species of birds and mammals show an inverse relationship between telomere rate of change (shortening) and maximum life span
* Maximum life span correlates negatively with antioxidant enzyme levels and correlates positively with lower rate of free-radicals production and higher rate of DNA repair
* Females express both more Mn−SOD and more glutathione peroxidase antioxidant enzymes than males, and this has been suggested to be the reason females live longer than males in mammalian species
* The maximum life span of transgenic mice has been extended about 20% by overexpression of human catalase targeted to mitochondria
* A comparison of 7 non-primate mammals (mouse, hamster, rat, guinea-pig, rabbit, pig and cow) showed that the rate of mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in heart and kidney were inversely correlated with maximum life span
* A study of 8 non-primate mammals showed a direct correlation between maximum life span and oxidative damage to mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) in heart & brain
* A study of several species of mammals and a bird (pigeon) indicated a linear relationship between oxidative damage to protein and maximum life span
* There is a direct correlation between DNA repair and maximum life span for mammalian species
* Drosophila (fruit-flies) bred for 15 generations by only using eggs that were laid toward the end of reproductive life achieved maximum life spans 30% greater than that of controls
* Overexpression of the enzyme which synthesizes glutathione in long-lived transgenic Drosophila (fruit-flies) extended maximum lifespan by nearly 50%
* A mutation in the age−1 gene of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans inceased mean life span 65% and maximum life span 110%
* Fat-specific Insulin Receptor KnockOut (FIRKO) mice have reduced fat mass, normal calorie intake and an increased maximum life span of 18%
* The capacity of mammalian species to detoxify the carcinogenic chemical benzo(a)pyrene to a water-soluble form also correlates well with maximum life span

One Love (130)
Tuesday August 14, 2007, 1:11 pm
Here's a lay person's explanation of longevity.

Currently, the only (non-transgenic) method of increasing maximum life span that is recognized by biogerontologists is calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

Fat is not ugly on the outside, it's ugly on the inside.

Fat serves as a useful buffer towards a host of diseases. When a particular substance, whether chemical or biotic -- reaches unsafe levels in the bloodstream, the body can effectively dilute -- or at least maintain equilibrium of -- the offending substances by storing it in new fat tissue. This helps to protect vital organs, until such time as the offending substances can be metabolized and/or removed from the body by such means as excretion, urination, accidental or intentional bloodletting, sebum excretion, and hair growth.

But most people just let it accumulate and then take a pill for the disease, that then produces side-effects, so they take another pill, ad infinitum...
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