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Humane Officer and Animal Rescuer Cayce Mell

Animals  (tags: abuse, AnimalCruelty, AnimalWelfare, animaladvocates, animalrights, death, slaughter, society, suffering, sadness )

- 2787 days ago -
Humane farming is a myth. From the moment those animals are taken from those trucks and forced through the slaughtering process, it is the most inhumane treatment that I've ever witnessed.

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Kit B (276)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 7:49 pm
I didn't think it was humane, who would?

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 7:59 pm
What we have learned from the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Lection 28

Iesus Releases The Rabbits And Pigeons

1. IT came to pass one day as Iesus had finished his discourse, in a place near Tiberias where there are seven wells, a certain young man brought live rabbits and pigeons, that he might have to eat with his disciples.
2. And Iesus looked on the young man with love and said to him, Thou hast a good heart and God shall give thee light, but knowest thou not that God in the beginning gave to man the fruits of the earth for food, and did not make him lower than the ox, or the horse, or the sheep, that he should kill and eat the flesh and blood of his fellow creatures.
3. Ye believe that Moses indeed commanded such creatures to be slain and offered in sacrifice and eaten, and so do ye in the Temple, but behold a greater than Moses is herein and he cometh to put away the bloody sacrifices of the law, and the feasts on them, and to restore to you the pure oblation and unbloody sacrifice as in the beginning, even the grains and fruits of the earth.
4. Of that which ye offer undo God in purity shall ye eat, but of that kind which ye offer not in purity shall ye not eat, for the hour cometh when your sacrifices and feasts of blood shall cease, and ye shall worship God with a holy worship and a pure Oblation.
5. Let these creatures therefore go free, that they may rejoice in God and bring no guilt to man. And the young man set them free, and Iesus break their cages and their bonds.
6. But lo, they feared lest they should again be taken captive, and they went not away from him, but he spake unto them and dismissed them, and they obeyed his word, and departed in gladness.

Lection 34

Love of Iesus for All Creatures.

7. AND as Jesus entered into a certain village he saw a young cat which had none to care for her, and she was hungry and cried unto him, and he took her up, and put her inside his garment, and she lay in his bosom.
8. And when he came into the village he set food and drink before the cat, and she ate and drank, and shewed thanks unto him. And he gave her unto one of his disciples, who was a widow, whose name was Lorenza, and she took care of her.
9. And some of the people said, This man careth for all creatures, are they his brothers and sisters that he should love them ? And he said unto them, Verily these are your fellow creatures of the great Household of God, yea, they are your brethren and sisters, having the same breath of life in the Eternal.
10. And whosoever careth for one of the least of these, and giveth it to eat and drink in its need, the same doeth it unto me, and whoso willingly suffereth one of these to be in want, and defendeth it not when evilly entreated, suffereth the evil as done unto me; for as ye have done in this life, so shall it be done unto you in the life to come.

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 8:01 pm
I'm not here to judge those who still eat meat. All I can do is share with you what I have learned.

Kim O (396)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 8:02 pm
There's nothing humane about sending an innocent creature to an early torturous death!!!

Monique Pouchet (236)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 8:20 pm
I agree, it's not humane.

Catherine Turley (192)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 8:36 pm
i think there are different levels of brutality, but no possible way, even on the most responsible small farm, to kill every single animal in a painless way.

fascinating additional text kathy. i'll have to go check out that site.

Lydia S (155)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 8:56 pm
Excellent Kathy, I am convinced slaughtering animals is cruel. The truth is people are so removed from what happens to get that steak to the store, They really never think about it.

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 9:25 pm
You cannot currently send a star to Monique because you have done so within the last week.

You cannot currently send a star to Catherine because you have done so within the last week.

Thank you all

Catherine I think people are going to have to wake up to the fact that it's going to be a lot harder to get into Heaven if they don't open their eyes to the suffering of God's creatures. When people start reading the Dead Sea Scrolls they are going to realize the reason the churches refuse to recognize the teachings is because there is NO PROFIT IN IT:)

Shirley S (187)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 9:27 pm
Many of us turn a blind eye & never question how the food on our table evolved.

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 9:34 pm
You cannot currently send a star to Shirley because you have done so within the last week.

Thank you Shirley, I totally agree with that statement. But I think it's because we were conditioned almost from birth to think this way. I'm really praying for change:) I'm hoping to get people to at least try to go vegetarian. I admire the vegans because they really have accomplished something. I can't get off the milk & cheese:( I don't use either that much, but I do still fall down and use them at times.

Jae A (316)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 10:15 pm
Humane ...? If that's humane,what would be inhumane... I really don't want to know.

Ness F (211)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 10:54 pm
I agree Jae!
Thank you Kathy! (( hugs ))

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 11:42 pm
You cannot currently send a star to Jae because you have done so within the last week.

You cannot currently send a star to NessTIMEOUT because you have done so within the last week.
Thanks Jae & Ness

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Thursday November 4, 2010, 11:57 pm
Now I didn't know they were farming deer & slaughtering the very young:(

For Immediate Release
October 13, 2010

Animal Liberation Front Liberates Captive Deer Population from Molalla, Oregon Deer Farm
Molalla, OR: In an anonymous communique received by the North American Animal Liberation Press Office yesterday, the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) claims to have liberated captive deer from an unnamed Molalla, Oregon deer farm. The deer on so-called "farms" are slaughtered at the youngest age possible to ensure maximum profit for the farm's owner.

The communique received reads, in full:
On the morning of October 9th, we raided a deer farm located at 32155 S Grimm Road in Molalla, OR. A large section of fencing was stripped away allowing the captive deer herd a chance to escape into the surrounding forest. The venison meat industry remains small in this country, but as long as they exploit sentient animals, they will remain a target of the ALF. For the animals enslaved, mutilated, and murdered by this society: we will be tearing down the fences to set them free. --Animal Liberation Front

Although raised in captivity, the deer remain genetically wild and fully capable of survival on their own without human intervention. A similar liberation of the entire captive deer population of GNK Deer Farm in Monterey County, California was carried out by the ALF in January 2005. In a communique taking responsibility for that action, activists stated "Our hearts go out to victims of the larger problem, the billions of lives we are unable to save - cows, chickens, pigs, mice, rats, and others - casualties of the meat, dairy, vivisection and other industries of suffering and blood. Their pain is our own."


. (0)
Friday November 5, 2010, 12:19 am
I have unfortunately been inside slaughterhouses and can tell you that the animals are not willingly walking up to the end of the kill line and sticking their necks out. These animals fight with every bit of strength they have left at the end of that kill line. They fight to get out of that kill line. They don't want to die, and they know it's coming. They see, and they know exactly what's going to happen to them. There is absolutely no truth that any process of slaughtering is humane. From the moment those animals are taken from those trucks and forced through the slaughtering process, it is the most inhumane treatment that I have ever witnessed.

Anyone who says they used to be vegetarian were never really vegetarian in the first place. A true vegetarian will never cease to be one, instead will strive to become a vegan.


Animae C (514)
Friday November 5, 2010, 12:37 am
We MUST keep educating...
You cannot currently send a star to Kathy because you have done so within the last week.

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Friday November 5, 2010, 12:49 am
I agree Sioux, thank you sweetie.
These links are government links to the CDC, they are NOT animal rights links, just so you realize that we are not the ones putting out this information. It should scare you. Prions are in all meat.

Prion Diseases

About Prion Diseases

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. They are distinguished by long incubation periods, characteristic spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss, and a failure to induce inflammatory response.

The causative agent of TSEs is believed to be a prion. A prion is an abnormal, transmissible agent that is able to induce abnormal folding of normal cellular prion proteins in the brain, leading to brain damage and the characteristics signs and symptoms of the disease. Prion diseases are usually rapidly progressive and always fatal.

A List of Prion Diseases
Listed below are the prion diseases identified to date. Click the linked diseases to go to their respective topic sites. CDC does not currently offer information here on every prion disease listed.

Human Prion Diseases

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)
Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome
Fatal Familial Insomnia
Animal Prion Diseases

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
Transmissible mink encephalopathy
Feline spongiform encephalopathy
Ungulate spongiform encephalopathy
Links to Organizations Outside CDC
National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center
(From the Division of Neuropathology, Case Western Reserve University. National CJD surveillance system established in collaboration with CDC.)

BSE/TSE Action Plan of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
The BSE/TSE Action Plan of DHHS has four major components:
• Surveillance for human disease is primarily the responsibility of CDC.
• Protection is primarily the responsibility of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
• Research is primarily the responsibility of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
• Oversight is primarily the responsibility of the Office of the Secretary of DHHS.
Press Release: HHS Launches Expanded Plan to Combat "Mad Cow Disease"
On DHHS site

The Public Health Impact of Prion Diseases
Belay E., Schonberger L. Annu. Rev. Public Health 2005;26:191-212
PDF format (198 KB/25 pages)

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies in Humans
Belay E. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1999;53:283-314
PDF format (208 KB/32 pages)

WHO Infection Control Guidelines for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies: Report of a WHO Consultation, Geneva, Switzerland, 23-26 March 1999
(From the World Health Organization)

Reference in this website to any specific commercial products, process, service, manufacturer, or company does not constitute its endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government or CDC. CDC is not responsible for the contents of any "off-site" web page referenced from this server.

Date: August 26, 2010
Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology (DHCPP)


Kathy Chadwell (354)
Friday November 5, 2010, 12:51 am
About CWD
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects North American cervids (hoofed ruminant mammals, with males characteristically having antlers). The known natural hosts of CWD are mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, and moose. CWD was first identified as a fatal wasting syndrome in captive mule deer in Colorado in the late 1960s and in the wild in 1981. It was recognized as a spongiform encephalopathy in 1978. To date, no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans has been reported.

By the mid-1990s, CWD had been diagnosed among free-ranging deer and elk in a contiguous area in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming, where the disease is now endemic. In recent years, CWD has been found in areas outside of this disease-endemic zone, including areas east of the Mississippi River in Illinois, New York, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The geographic range of diseased animals currently includes 13 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces and is likely to continue to grow. Surveillance studies of hunter-harvested animals indicate the overall prevalence of the disease in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming from 1996 to 1999 was estimated to be approximately 5% in mule deer, 2% in white-tailed deer, and

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Friday November 5, 2010, 12:54 am
That didn't all come out,, here is the rest. There is also a map at the site.

CWD can be highly transmissible within deer and elk populations. The mode of transmission is not fully understood, but evidence supports the possibility that the disease is spread through direct animal-to-animal contact or as a result of indirect exposure to prions in the environment (e.g., in contaminated feed and water sources). Several epidemiologic studies provide evidence that, to date, CWD has not been transmitted to humans. Additionally, routine surveillance has not shown any increase in the incidence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Colorado or Wyoming.

Specific studies have begun that focus on identifying human prion disease in a population that is at increased risk for exposure to potentially CWD-infected deer or elk meat. Because of the long time between exposure to CWD and the development of disease, many years of continued follow-up are required to be able to say what the risk, if any, of CWD is to humans.

To minimize their risk of exposure to CWD, hunters should consult with their state wildlife agencies to identify areas where CWD occurs and take appropriate precautions when hunting in such areas. Hunters and others should avoid eating meat from deer and elk that look sick or that test positive for CWD. Hunters who harvest deer or elk from known CWD-positive areas may wish to consider having the animal tested for CWD before consuming the meat (information about testing is available from most state wildlife agencies). Persons involved in field-dressing carcasses should wear gloves, bone-out the meat from the animal, and minimize handling of the brain and spinal cord tissues.

Better yet,,, just leave the poor souls alone:)

. (0)
Friday November 5, 2010, 2:19 am
That is amazing information Kathy. If only people would stop and question their actions.

Question #1 Why or why do we eat the animals???????

IE Ries (237)
Friday November 5, 2010, 8:25 am

I'm sure others here have noticed that any time an article or blog item is posted about animal welfare for "farmed" animals, the apologists rush in and declare that what THEY are doing is "humane" because they are eating free-ranged (insert name of animal here), or *must* consume flesh because of some esoteric, unnamed, (vague, so-called!) medical condition, and so on.

It never ceases to amaze me how people will grasp at any possible straw to justify and glaze over what's actually happening. While most of us knew all along that "humane farming" was BS cooked up by advertisers and marketers to cover industry's tracks and still "sell, sell, sell!" to people, the presence of this testimony is extremely valuable for a number of reasons.

Every time I see someone posting, "But I only eat free-ranged X!" as their justification to continue doing they know is morally indefensible by indirectly conceding they've changed the "source" to get away from the taint, I have to roll my eyes and ask why they refuse to take that little phrase to its logical extention.

Someone on a related thread yesterday pointed out that no person can be at all "farms" every minute of every day to actually see and observe what does or does not go on.

That's point #1: many "farms" which claim to be "free range" animal farms aren't always, and more to the point, the definition means different things to different people, apparently.

The USDA admits it cannot actually spot-check every operation to support "free range" claims et al, and it's the same complaint by the FDA: anyone can claim a product is "all natural" because the definitions haven't been codified and permanently established by too many goverments (national and international), so the definition of what passes as "free range" and "all natural" is open to such wide interpretation, it could include just about anything and everything, and industries and advertisers exploit this loophole to the Nth degree, telling "consumers" exactly what they want to hear to assuage their own consciences, meanwhile "producers" continue with "business as usual," brutalizing animals as a matter of course.

Point 2#: Are we the ONLY ones who have enough braincells to "remember" that even if an animal were living a life of "relative freedom" in a pasture somewhere, the fact that a human is deciding the time of death and making a profit on that transaction isn't humane? It's a form of slavery, because if one being can hold another legally as chattel and kill at will, that meets the definition of slavery. Then there's the catching of the animal, the transportation, and the murder itself - all of which are HIGHLY inhumane because those animals will still go to the same murder houses to be slaughtered and dismembered.

In summary, pulling together what others here have already pointed out, it's just blatantly ridiculous that people will continue to make the claim they "only eat free-range" (or whatever other label they can think up) animals to justify their continued consumption of other creatures, regardless of species.

Just eat eat eat, eat them all up until there are no more. Only then will they be happy, it seems.

Ramona Thompson (210)
Friday November 5, 2010, 8:28 am
As I have always said until we all stop eating meat, animals will continue to suffer.

If there are farms that do not abuse animals farms that do slaughter in a less brutal and stressful way (*though maybe that is an oxymoron), and do not allow atrocities to be committed against these poor creatures, then why should non-vegans not consider patronizing those sources instead of conklin-type and reitz-type horror farms?

All living creature suffer before they are killed whether it is swift, brutal or otherwise. So I do wonder about "*humane".

When we all eliminate meat from our diets, then so much animal suffering will end. However, there will continue to a great need for work to help the animals in other areas to be also spared from misuse, stress, brutality, injury, torture, etc.

It is good to have a difference of opinions since sometimes in considering views of others it opens up valuable new thoughts or ideas. However, it should never distract from the first priority,that of stopping animal deaths, suffering, and letting others know about animals suffering.

I am not saying that is going on here because I respect the views of those who comment here whether they are different from mine, or are the same as mine.

I have seen other sites that are not respectful of differing opinions to the point of distracting from the needs of the suffering animals.

I pray we all stop eating the animals and help stop their suffering.

Charmaine C (177)
Friday November 5, 2010, 9:19 am
The personal experience of people carry so much more weight. Cayce's experiences cannot be denied and I absolutely agree with her view that everything evolves over time and it is imperative that we change with it and adjust to new conditions and new rules. What we think we know around our food and the processes, is long gone. The world is a different place and with the population doubling in the next 30 years to 12 billion, we must change critical behaviour or we will be lost, past the point of no return. We are ALL standing in front of a window, looking through at the imminent catastrophe that is approaching at the speed of a freight train.

There was a terrible outbreak of mad cow disease in Europe, mainly in the UK, and over 4 million cows here were slaughtered in an attempt to eradicate the disease. Did people stop eating beef?? A very few did, but the rest merrily continue scoffing beef in quantity! Why did the animals contract mad cow disease?...because we fed them the soft tissue offal from diseased sheep and they became infected. If you can believe, the majority of people in this country are still in denial and say it's safe to eat meat, that there is no link between beef fed with meat offal and mad cow. At the same time pets started coming down with their own version of this prion disease and that because the cattle were used in pet food. All of us who live in countries where these diseases break out, wait, because the incubation period of this disease can be very long. You didn't need to eat meat to be vulnerable either. We haven't eaten meat since before then but before we became vegetarians we ate jello made from cows bones. Who knows what else we ate without knowing it? The list of diseases contracted from animal flesh is a long one. Why are people so resistant to changing their eating habits?

Peggy A (109)
Friday November 5, 2010, 10:35 am
Humane would be painfree and easy.There is no easy,painfree way to die in a slaughterhouse.I am so thankful I went vegetarian.

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Friday November 5, 2010, 10:51 am
We aim to educate:)

Alzheimer's-Associated Protein Shows a Greater Prion-like 'Infectiousness' Than Expected

By Jim Schnabel
October 22, 2010
Tiny clusters of amyloid-beta (A-beta), long believed to trigger Alzheimer’s disease, are “infectious” enough that they can spread into the brain from the body, according to a new study that appeared online in Science on Oct. 21.

The finding suggests that in principle, Alzheimer’s could spread like an infectious disease—although in practice, it is probably far too weakly infectious ever to do so. The study’s main significance is that it highlights and strengthens a new theory for the origin of many neurodegenerative diseases: the proliferation and spread of sticky clusters of proteins that somehow evade the brain’s cleanup mechanisms and trigger the deaths of neurons.

“We are working on understanding the mechanism and trying to do the same experiments with other protein aggregates,” says Mathias Jucker, a professor of cellular neurology at the University of Tübingen in Germany, and senior author of the study.

The amyloid theory
Most proteins in our bodies harbor small segments with a peculiar self-complementary stickiness, which enables two copies of such a segment to bind very tightly together. These self-sticky segments may reflect a primordial self-assembling capacity that a typical protein no longer needs. Whatever their origin, most such segments now are safely hidden or inaccessible amid the complex folds of their host proteins.

A few proteins, however, have relatively simple and unstable structures, and thus appear to require very little deformation before their self-sticky segments become sufficiently exposed. When this deformation occurs, for example due to encounters with reactive oxygen molecules during periods of inflammation or cellular stress, the sticky segments can start to bind to their counterparts on other copies of the same protein. It appears that when two or more copies of a protein have bound together in this way, they start to deform even normal copies of that protein, causing them to join the growing cluster.

Eventually, the cluster turns into a long, insoluble stack of these corrupted proteins, and often wraps around other such stacks. Under a microscope, these stacks have a fibrous, thread-like appearance, and are known as amyloid fibrils. As the stacks lengthen, they eventually break into smaller pieces; they may also be cut into small segments by cleanup processes within cells. Each of these small pieces can then seed the growth of a new fibril.

Amyloid fibrils are found in people with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, type 2 diabetes, and a host of other diseases, many of them involving the degeneration of neurons. The proteins that form amyloid fibrils in these diseases include A-beta, tau, alpha-synuclein, and prion protein.

In the past several years, researchers have been trying to zero in on the most toxic, disease-related clusters involved in this process (see “Amyloid-Beta ‘Oligomers’ May Be Link to Alzheimer’s Dementia”). But they also have been uncovering evidence that this entire process, with all its byproducts, can spread in an infection-like manner—and not just for the notorious prion diseases, which were first discovered among brain-eating cannibal tribes in New Guinea.

In 2008, for example, researchers reported that alpha-synuclein aggregates had spread from Parkinson’s disease-affected brain tissue into more youthful transplanted brain cells. The following year brought evidence that clusters of tau proteins, which have long been implicated in the later stages of Alzheimer’s, could spread from outside cells into cellular interiors, and could even proliferate when injected into the brains of mice. (See “Researchers Eye Role of ‘Infectious’ Proteins in Neurodegenerative Disease”.)

Infectious A-Beta
There also has been evidence that clusters of A-beta, widely considered the likely triggers of Alzheimer’s, can spread infectiously. Jucker and his colleagues reported in 2006 that they could create amyloid deposits in the brains and cerebral blood vessels of mice by injecting, into their brains, diseased neural tissues from Alzheimer’s patients or from aged mice with Alzheimer’s-like A-beta deposits—and that anti-A-beta antibodies could block this transmission.

In the new study, the researchers showed that they could transmit this Alzheimer’s-like condition merely by injecting A-beta-containing brain material from aged “Alzheimer’s mice” into the bodies of much younger and healthier mice. By comparison with a direct brain injection, this method took months longer—about seven months in all—to effectively transmit the “amyloidosis” condition, and also required 1,000 times the volume of injected brain material.

This body-to-brain spread isn’t likely to be occurring in actual cases of Alzheimer’s. But it shows in a striking way that disease-linked forms of A-beta can spread like prions, if much less efficiently. Marc Diamond, a neurologist at the University of Washington at St. Louis who has done much-cited work in this area, calls the study “a proof of concept that an amyloid protein other than prion protein can get into the brain from the periphery.”

“I think it should concern laboratory personnel who handle fresh brain material, and in particular people like us who try to isolate, concentrate and analyze A-beta from the brain,” says Jucker. “We have made a significant investment in increasing safety precautions in our lab.”

Further work will be required to determine precisely how A-beta clusters can cross from the body into the brain. Diamond suggests that the first stop, as for infectious prions, might be in amyloid-devouring cells of the immune system. Jucker hints that A-beta is carried by such cells across the blood-brain barrier in cerebral vessels: “My guess,” he says, “is that it crosses via the blood and cellular blood components.”

Kathy Chadwell (354)
Friday November 5, 2010, 10:53 am

Prion Diseases
MicrobiologyBytes: Latest Updates

Just as nucleic acids can carry out enzymatic reactions, proteins can be genes. Reed Wickner.

This document describes infectious agents which (almost certainly) do not have a nucleic acid genome. It seems that a protein alone is the infectious agent. The infectious agent has been called a prion. A prion has been defined as "small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids". The discovery that proteins alone can transmit an infectious disease has come as a considerable surprise to the scientific community.
Prion diseases are often called spongiform encephalopathies because of the post mortem appearance of the brain with large vacuoles in the cortex and cerebellum. Probably most mammalian species develop these diseases. Specific examples include:
Scrapie: sheep
TME (transmissible mink encephalopathy): mink
CWD (chronic wasting disease): muledeer, elk
BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy): cows
The Expanding Universe of Prion Diseases

The diseases are characterised by loss of motor control, dementia, paralysis wasting and eventually death, typically following pneumonia. Fatal Familial Insomnia presents with an untreatable insomnia and dysautonomia. Details of pathogenesis are largely unknown.

Visible end results at post-mortem are non-inflammatory lesions, vacuoles, amyloid protein deposits and astrogliosis.

GSS is distinct from CJD, it occurs typically in the 4th-5th decade, characterised by cerebellar ataxia and concomitant motor problems, dementia less common and disease course lasts several years to death. (Originally thought to be familial, but now known to occur sporadically as well).
CJD typically occurs a decade later has cerebral involvement so dementia is more common and patient seldom survives a year (originally thought to be sporadic, but now known to be familial as well).
FFI pathology is characterised by severe selective atrophy of the thalamus.
Alpers syndrome is the name given to prion diseases in infants.

Scrapie was the first example of this type of disease to be noticed and has been known about for many hundreds of years. There are two possible methods of transmission in sheep:

Infection of pasture with placental tissue carrying the agent followed by ingestion,or direct sheep-lamb transmission i.e. an acquired infection.
Parry showed considerable foresight by suggesting that it is not normally an infectious disease at all but a genetic disorder. He further suggested that selective breeding would get rid of the disease.

Humans might be infected by prions in 2 ways:
Acquired infection (diet and following medical procedures such as surgery, growth hormone injections, corneal transplants) i.e. infectious agent implicated.
Apparent hereditary mendelian transmission where it is an autosomal and dominant trait. This is not prima facie consistent with an infectious agent.
This is one of the features that single out prion diseases for particular attention. They are both infectious and hereditary diseases (?see below). They are also sporadic, in the sense that there are also cases in which there is no known risk factor although it seems likely that infection was acquired in one of the two ways listed above.

Kuru is the condition which first brought prion diseases to prominence in the 1950s. Found in geographically isolated tribes in the Fore highlands of New Guinea. Established that ingesting brain tissue of dead relatives for religious reasons was likely to be the route of transmission. They ground up the brain into a pale grey soup, heated it and ate it. Clinically, the disease resembles CJD. Other tribes in the vicinity with same religious habit did not develop the disease. It is speculated that at some point in the past a tribe member developed CJD, and as brain tissue is highly infectious this allowed the disease to spread. Afflicted tribes were encouraged not to ingest brain tissue and the incidence of disease rapidly declined and is now almost unknown.

The Trembling Mountain: A Personal Account of Kuru, Cannibals, and Mad Cow Disease
Robert Klitzman.
Working for Nobel Prize-winner Carleton Gajdusek, Klitzman lived amid the Fore, a previously cannibalistic tribe in some of the most remote parts of the country. Their community had been devastated by kuru, a deadly and heartbreaking neurological disease, spread by the ritual consumption of deceased relatives (including brain matter). Over the course of the narrative, the young Klitzman interviews stricken individuals, comes to grips with hugely divergent cultures and comes of age himself. (

Evidence suggests that a prion is a modified form of a normal cellular protein known as PrPc (for cellular), a normal host protein encoded by a single exon of a single copy gene. This protein is found predominantly on the surface of neurones attached by a glycoinositol phospholipid anchor, and is protease sensitive. Thought to be involved in synaptic function.
The modified form of PrPc which may cause disease i.e. the prion is known as PrPsc (for scrapie) which is relatively resistant to proteases and accumulates in cytoplasmic vesicles of diseased individuals.

It has been proposed that PrPsc when introduced into a normal cell causes the conversion of PrPc into PrPsc. The exact nature of the process is unknown but it could involve a chemical or conformational modification.

Fatal Protein: The Story of CJD, BSE and Other Prion Diseases
Rosalind Ridley, Harry Baker.
A clear and authoritative survey of the prion diseases, designed mainly for the non-specialist. It deals with the history of scrapie in sheep, the spread of kuru through cannibalism in Papua New Guinea, and the BSE epidemic in Britain - "mad cow disease" - which claimed over 170,000 cattle and threatened the rest of Europe. The authors present a detailed description of the human prion diseases, and examine the evidence that the new variant of the Creutzfeld-Jakob disease results from eating infected by BSE. At the heart of this book lies a discussion of the still controversial idea that the infectious agent in prion diseases is a normal brain protein which takes on abnormal, mutant shape, the so-called "prion theory". (


Kathy Chadwell (354)
Friday November 5, 2010, 11:05 am
Charmaine made a good point about mad cow disease and the UK. I did a story back in 2008 about the Case of Mad Horse Disease. Many switched to eating horses, which only increased my fight. Many of the old links are gone:( but I did copy some to the story. Case in point, horse meat will also kill you.

Today I was trying to look up the evidence of horses having prion
disease and funny to find that some Germans switched from cow meat to
horse meat when England had the Queniborough in Leicester CJD cluster
where 5 young people died.


Evelyn B (79)
Friday November 5, 2010, 5:28 pm
Noted, Tks..

offline away busy sorry (63)
Friday November 5, 2010, 7:34 pm
noted that's is not even a farm is a slaughter house were they massacre animals.

Lars Pardo (68)
Friday November 5, 2010, 10:31 pm

unless the poor creature agreed to his death, any taking of life cannot be defined as humane

Maria p (151)
Saturday November 6, 2010, 5:05 am
I hate eating meat!!!!!!!!!

Past Member (0)
Monday November 8, 2010, 2:40 am
Noted Kathy, thanx!
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