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Biochar Cookstoves Boost Health for People and Crops


Green Lifestyle  (tags: world, HumanRights, death, ethics, 'HUMANRIGHTS!', africa, asia, middle-east, goodnews, environment, health, green, protection, Sustainabililty, sustainable, technology, society, home, food, eco-friendly, CoolStuff, CO2emissions, energy )

JL
- 597 days ago - news.nationalgeographic.com
Cookstoves that burn cleaner can help fight this epidemic, but they can do even more than that when configured to produce biochar, a dark, fine-grained residue that can become a prized asset for rural communities.



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JL A. (275)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 11:55 am

Biochar Cookstoves Boost Health for People and Crops
A biochar cookstove.

Cookstoves that can produce biochar, like the one pictured above in western Kenya, can be a key tool in fighting respiratory disease and boosting agricultural production.

Photograph courtesy ACON

Stacey Schultz

For National Geographic News

Published January 29, 2013

Like many of her neighbors in Amubri, an indigenous community at the southern tip of Costa Rica, Gloria Torress Buitrago relied for years on a fogón for cooking. The traditional open-fire stove is common in Amubri (map), and so are the dire health effects. "It was hard to look around and just breathe without feeling the smoke burning the eyes or throat," Buitrago said. One cousin suffered from asthma, and everyone in her family was constantly tearing up from the wood fire's smoke.

Buitrago was just one of three billion people worldwide who rely on such open-fire cookstoves. A recent global health study found that the fumes from those stoves was the largest environmental health threat in the world today, killing 3.5 million people a year—more deaths than caused by malaria and HIV/AIDS combined. (See related blog post: "Cookstove Smoke Is 'Largest Environmental Threat,' Global Health Study Finds.") Cookstoves that burn cleaner can help fight this epidemic, but they can do even more than that when configured to produce biochar, a dark, fine-grained residue that can become a prized asset for rural communities.

In regions as diverse as the high mountain valleys of Costa Rica and the agricultural fields of western Kenya, biochar cookstoves are being used to simultaneously clear the air and enrich the soil. Biochar, a type of charcoal produced when biomass burns in an oxygen-free environment, can boost water and nutrients in dry, depleted soil while serving as a vehicle for burying the carbon that contributes to global warming.

Breathing Easier

Groups like Seattle, Washington-based SeaChar, the recipient of a $72,000 grant from National Geographic's Great Energy Challenge initiative, have been testing new variations on clean cookstoves. SeaChar's Estufa Finca ("Farm Stove" in Spanish) burns biomass cleanly while turning it into biochar. It's not a fancy apparatus: Fashioned from local materials, its components include a five-gallon steel paint bucket, some corrugated steel roofing material, and half of a one-gallon tomato sauce can.

Gloria Torres Buitrago's family is one of 110 households that acquired one of the stoves last year through SeaChar's Estufa Finca program in Costa Rica's Talamanca region. Buitrago says the stove has relieved not only the smoke problem in her home, but also the effort required to keep fires burning. "The time and money it takes to get wood has been reduced a lot," Buitrago said in an interview with a SeaChar staff member, who then translated and emailed her responses. "This time can be used to share with family or just do other things in the garden." (See related story: "Protecting Health and the Planet With Clean Cookstoves.")

In addition to wood, the stove burns garden debris, dried animal dung, and food material such as dried corncobs and coconut husks. A family cooking a pot of beans will use 40 percent less wood with the Estufa Finca than with an open-fire stove, said SeaChar President Art Donnelly, who designed the stove. "Those are trees you do not have to cut down."

Donnelly said tests conducted by SeaChar show a significant reduction in exposure to harmful smoke. "In laboratory testing, these stoves reduced particulate matter emissions by 92 percent and the carbon monoxide emissions by 87 percent as compared to an open cooking fire," he said in an email. "These two are the big drivers of respiratory disease."

Another grantee of the Great Energy Challenge, the African Christians Organization Network (ACON), has been working since 2004 with local farmers to reduce deforestation and improve soil conditions in western Kenya. Introducing innovative cookstoves to local families is part of that effort, and ACON's Salim Mayeki Shaban said that feedback on the stoves has been positive.

"[Women] reported that the reduction of smoke in the house decreased irritation of their and their children's eyes, runny noses, coughing, chest discomfort, and difficulties in breathing, along with cost savings due to fewer hospital visits," Shaban said in an email.

Table-to-Farm Cooking

In Costa Rica, Donnelly said, many local families initially expressed interest in the new stove because it is smoke-free. "The real hook though, is the biochar," he said.

SeaChar offers a biochar buyback program, through which households can earn an extra $15-20 per month by selling the biochar produced by their cookstoves. Currently 22 households regularly participate in the program, and SeaChar has collected 273 feed sacks of biochar, paying families about $5 per sack.

The biochar is buried in the ground for research and demonstration projects, and used at locations such as cacao farms, large organic nurseries, and school garden projects, according to Donnelly.

A recent field study in Costa Rica on the effects of adding biochar and chicken manure to soil showed an increased crop yield of cacao. Juliano Hojah da Silva, a second-year graduate student at the Center for Tropical Agricultural Investigation and Education (CATIE) who led the study, said in an email that the biochar improved the soil's chemical and physical quality.

"All the applications made of biochar increased total soil carbon amounts, as well as soil organic matter, gains which were stable even after one year of implementation," Hojah da Silva said. "These gains are expected to be a persistent beneficial long-term effect." SeaChar will continue to study the effects of biochar on soil in the coming year, Donnelly said.

ACON also has observed benefits for crops treated with biochar. In 2009, it trained farmers in the use of biochar as a soil supplement to help with water and nutrient retention in the western Kenya region of Bungoma (map), which often experiences periods of drought. In subsequent field trials, ACON found that vegetable and cereal crops fared better in plots that were fertilized with biochar and a 15 percent solution of human urine.

In the process of researching biochar, ACON also has found a way to target an aquatic pest while easing resource strain on forests. The group harvests water hyacinth, an invasive species in nearby Lake Victoria that can be dried and converted into fuel briquettes for the cookstoves.

Buried Treasure?

Biochar enthusiasts say that in addition to helping boost crop production, it can be a powerful tool to fight global warming. The International Biochar Initiative, a nonprofit organization that promotes biochar applications, estimates that biochar could help store 2.2 gigatons of carbon annually by 2050.

Kurt Spokas, a research soil scientist with the USDA Agricultural Research Service in St. Paul, Minnesota, agrees that biochar can reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and he says there is scientific evidence that the carbon remains stable in the soil. "The difficulty is in extrapolating to the future," he said.

Projecting carbon sequestration over the long term, especially to the levels of multiple gigatons, would require infrastructure that is not currently in place, Spokas said. "In order to get to that scale, we would have to have industrial plants that are converting biomass into the biochar," he said. "When you look at those numbers, it's scientifically, technologically feasible, but we just don't have that type of infrastructure developed yet."

Spokas noted that the production of charcoal has historically evoked an economic conflict over its value as both a fuel and a soil enhancer. "The cookstoves are a very good model of a system where biochar can work," he says. "They need to burn biomass to produce energy for cooking, so they are not trying to wedge into a new economic scheme. Instead, they are modifying the stoves to simultaneously cook food and produce biochar for soil application."

In the coming year, SeaChar and ACON both plan to expand their projects. SeaChar is developing an Urban Stove for use in homeless encampments in the Seattle area, and is working to educate local farmers, gardeners, landscapers, and kids on the benefits of biochar. ACON's Shaban hopes to scale up his program to other parts of Kenya and to other regions around the world.

While some environmental benefits of biochar stoves may take time to materialize, the health impact remains immediate for the home cooks, so many of them women with children nearby, who finally can prepare meals without suffering devastating health consequences. (See related blog post: "Time to Clear the Smoke.") "The difference that a smoke-free stove makes in the household is very evident," said Gloria Torress Buitrago. "It is even better for the cook."

This story is part of a special series that explores energy issues. For more, visit The Great Energy Challenge.
 

Angelika R. (143)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 2:02 pm
Such a great and yet so simple solution to tackle a problem!
" A recent global health study found that the fumes from those stoves was the largest environmental health threat in the world today, killing 3.5 million people a year—more deaths than caused by malaria and HIV/AIDS combined." This is so alarming and makes me wonder why it TOOK SO LONG to discover and do something about it! Reminds me of our click-to-donate clean cooking cause.
 

JL A. (275)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 3:46 pm
Excellent observations Angelika!You cannot currently send a star to Angelika because you have done so within the last week.
 

Terry V. (30)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 6:02 pm
Many thanks and shared!
 

JL A. (275)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 6:06 pm
You cannot currently send a star to Terry because you have done so within the last week.
 

Dave C. (214)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 6:09 pm
good ideas, good for health, good for the world. thanks for sharing.
 

Sandra Patterson (60)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 6:46 pm
noted and shared,thanks
 

JL A. (275)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 6:47 pm
You cannot currently send a star to Dave because you have done so within the last week.
 

Robby R. (15)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 7:12 pm
TY
 

JL A. (275)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 7:57 pm
You're welcome Robby
 

Michael Kirkby (85)
Friday February 1, 2013, 10:04 am
Certainly beats cement. Could we possibly replace the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer button with this? Just a thought....
 

JL A. (275)
Friday February 1, 2013, 11:07 am
You cannot currently send a star to Michael because you have done so within the last week.
 

Erich Knight (0)
Saturday February 2, 2013, 12:53 am
. All the projects going on comprise roughly 3000 Biochar using households from Cameroon to Kenya.
Here is a recent survey of over 360 Biochar using households in Kenya, sponsored by the African Christian Organization Network which is planning to train 6000 farmers. They report increased crop yields between 20 and 40%, while reducing fertilizer expenditure and increasing farm-level profitability by 25%.
http://andrewcd.berkeley.edu

Pro-Natura has developed protocols and a field manual for biochar trials that are being used in ongoing trials and demonstrations in Senegal, Mali and Egypt, and has plans to extend activities to Ghana. In Latin America, Pro-Natura is poised to launch biochar production centres, farmer trials and demonstrations. In Haiti, Pro-Natura has started a project to increase vegetable production with Biochar Super Gardens integrated in agroforestry systems. This project is being implemented in partnership with the Papaye Peasant Movement and JTS Semences, with financial support from the French embassy in Haiti. Pro-Natura is also publishing a training manual – “Introduction to Biochar in Tropical Agriculture”.
http://www.pronatura.org/?page_id=521&lang=en

My heroes are the engineers without Borders who have promoted clean cook stoves, Pyrolytic and Gasifing stoves that burn any biomass cleanly and 41% more efficiently. No black-lung no emphysema, no deforestation, all the while building soil carbon for continually sustainable yields. Please look at the work of the Biomass Energy Foundation. At scale, replacement of three rocks in a pot, across Africa would have the health impact equivalent of curing malaria and AIDS combined.
Biomass Energy Foundation (BEF) website http://biomassenergyfndn.org/bef/

Modern Thermal conversion of biomass burns only the hydrocarbons in that biomass, conserving the carbon for the soil. At the large farm or village scale modern pyrolysis reactors can relieve energy poverty, food insecurity and decreased dependency on chemical fertilizers.
Please take a look at this YouTube video by the CEO of CoolPlanet Biofuels, guided by Google's Ethos (and funding along with GE, BP and Conoco) they are now building the reactors that convert 1 ton of biomass to 75 gallons of bio – gasoline and 1/3 tons Biochar for soil carbon sequestration.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkYVlZ9v_0o

For anyone interested in, or confused by, Biochar Soil Technologies, Please view my presentation and slides of this opening talk for the USBI Biochar conference in Sonoma California. This is the third US Biochar conference, after ISU 2010 and Colorado 2009.

http://www.2012.biochar.us.com/

Carbon Conservation for Home, Health, Energy & Climate

http://2012.biochar.us.com/299/2012-us-biochar-conference-presentations

Modern Thermal conversion of biomass burns only the hydrocarbons in that biomass, conserving the carbon for the soil. At the large farm or village scale modern pyrolysis reactors can relieve energy poverty, food insecurity and decreased dependency on chemical fertilizers.
 

JL A. (275)
Saturday February 2, 2013, 7:58 am
Thanks ever so much Erich for adding so much to our understanding of this technology and its benefits! Green star headed your way!
 
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