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Climate Conversations - Chickpea Genome Map to Benefit Poor Farmers


Science & Tech  (tags: africa, asia, middle-east, world, freedoms, ethics, death, GoodNews, goodnews, society, food, diet, prevention, protection, research, safety, science, study, environment, scientists, discovery, investigation, news )

JL
- 661 days ago - trust.org
A team of agricultural researchers from Asia, Australia, Europe& North America, led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), has decoded the genome of the chickpea, a nutritious grain legume for many of the wor



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JL A. (272)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 12:06 pm
Climate Conversations - Chickpea genome map to benefit poor farmers

By Jerome Bossuet | Tuesday at 11:48 AM | Comments ( 0 )

An Ethiopian farmer harvests a drought-tolerant chickpea variety. ICRISAT/Alina Paul-Bossuet

An Ethiopian farmer harvests a drought-tolerant chickpea variety. ICRISAT/Alina Paul-Bossuet

By Jerome Bossuet

A team of agricultural researchers from Asia, Australia, Europe and North America, led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), has decoded the genome of the chickpea, a nutritious grain legume for many of the world’s poor.

This research breakthrough, announced in the journal Nature Biotechnology this week, will help chickpea farmers become more resilient to emerging climate challenges such as rising temperatures, a drier climate and new pests. The chickpea genome map will enable crop breeders to accelerate screening for urgently needed traits such as drought and heat tolerance, early maturity and insect resistance.

“Making the chickpea genome available to the global research community is an important milestone in bringing chickpea improvement into the 21st century to address nutritional security of the poor,” says David Bergvinson, senior programme manager for science and technology at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which has provided funding for this work and other legume research. “We look forward to seeing how researchers around the globe will harness this resource to increase chickpea productivity against the backdrop of climate change in the developing world.”

Domesticated in the Mediterranean region over 7,000 years ago, chickpea is a major grain legume crop, grown globally on 11.5 million hectares. India is the largest producer, accounting for 70 percent of global supply, as well as the biggest consumer.

A highly nutritious staple crop, chickpea is rich in protein (containing two or three times more than cereals), energy, vitamins and minerals. It is the richest source of fibre, a vital part of a healthy diet as it facilitates digestion.

Chickpea is an essential ingredient in Mediterranean and South Indian cuisine, and is cooked in many ways, including channa dal (a spicy soup), curries, flour and dough-based fritters.

It is a crucial source of nutrition for poor families. In India, roasted chickpea flour, called sattu, is the main meal for hard-working manual labourers such as the doliwala tribal porters in the Jharkhand mountainous region because it is energising and affordable.

The U.N. World Food Programme is currently exploring chickpea paste as a ready-to-use food to address malnutrition. It has been provided after floods in India’s Bihar state and as a product called Wawa mum in Pakistan.

HIGHER POTENTIAL

Chickpea also promotes environmentally sustainable agriculture. Being a legume, its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen helps improve soil fertility, and it is often intercropped to increase the yields of other crops.

Because of its deep tap root system, chickpea can withstand drought conditions by extracting water from deeper layers in the soil. As a result, it is often grown as a second crop using residual moisture.

Yet, despite these valuable qualities, chickpea is far from achieving its potential. The average yield is around 800kg/hectare compared with around 2 tonnes/hectare in optimum conditions.

“Chickpea occupies a pride of place in the struggle against protein hunger. In spite of its importance to human nutrition and farmers’ livelihoods, scientific attention to this crop using frontier technologies has been rather limited,” says M.S. Swaminathan, the father of India’s green revolution.

Now the hope is that the chickpea genome breakthrough will help develop this crop, giving yields a much-needed boost – even more important due to the predicted expansion of water-scarce regions and declining soil fertility.

OPEN ACCESS

With the draft genome sequence, scientists identified an estimated 28,269 genes that make up the chickpea plant. And by analysing the genome, scientists have identified candidate genes for disease resistance, drought and heat tolerance and early maturity (plants that grow more quickly can be harvested earlier before dry spells). This will help develop superior and more resilient varieties that are essential to adapt to warmer and drier climates.

Previously, chickpea breeders had about 2,000 genetic markers to screen critical traits. Today, the extensive chickpea genome sequencing - publicly accessible with no intellectual property restrictions - has revealed around several million markers, which will speed up work.

“Having open access to the complete genomes of key staple crops such as chickpea is rapidly changing the work of our plant breeders,” says Frank Rijsberman, CEO of the CGIAR Consortium, an international network of agricultural research centres, including ICRISAT. “It is becoming critically important to the work of CGIAR to develop improved crop varieties.”

For example, researchers may discover what makes certain chickpea varieties survive during dry periods when others fail. Or how to make chickpea more resistant to particularly damaging pests and diseases such as the pod borer insect which causes annual yield losses of 20 to 30 percent in India.

“Having the new chickpea sequence as a reference will significantly speed up and reduce the costs of screening for the ‘good genes’ in the collections of chickpea varieties and wild relatives. Research will be more proactive to respond to future agriculture challenges such as increasing temperature and emerging pests,” says Varshney.

The genome sequence data could possibly halve the time to breed a new variety, which now takes four to eight years, he adds.

William Dar, ICRISAT’s director general, believes the research breakthrough will bring multiple benefits. “In the face of growing global food insecurity and scarcer natural resources, we must reinforce the double role of pulses and chickpea in particular: nutrition and soil fertility,” he explains.

“Investing in modern crop improvement technologies for smallholder farmer crops such as chickpea will help make this staple crop more productive and resilient, for the benefit of many poor farmers and consumers in developing countries,” he adds.

Jerome Bossuet is a communications specialist for ICRISAT.
 

Kit B. (276)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 12:37 pm

Very good to learn this, along with more places growing quinoa and peanuts, some of the most basic foods have a powerful nutrient punch. The problem comes in when commodities markets see some thing selling well or being used more - the prices increase and small farmers can no longer handle the crop. Not worry, I'm sure some GMO conglomerate will step in with some franken food.
 

Dave C. (224)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 12:47 pm
thanks, technology does give us the chance to offset many of our problems.....
 

JL A. (272)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 1:24 pm
You cannot currently send a star to Kit because you have done so within the last week.
You're welcome Dave. You cannot currently send a star to Dave because you have done so within the last week.
You both made excellent points!
 

Melania Padilla (179)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 1:30 pm
Thanks, noted.
 

Elle B. (82)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 1:56 pm
Ty for very interesting news ~ Bullseye and kudos Kit...if we could get the big specs[ulators], OTC's and hedge[bet]HOGS roped in [how about rocketsled rides to Newt's Moon Project?] we'd be a long way down the road to a healed economy...Eat local, organic and Fair Trade. . .chickpeas are very important because Hummus is heavenly--mmmmm-mmmm good :)
 

JL A. (272)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 2:02 pm
You're welcome Melania and Elle.
Excellent observations Elle! You cannot currently send a star to Elle because you have done so within the last week.
 

Gloria picchetti (299)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 5:40 pm
I love chickpeas (garbonzo beans.)
 

Terry V. (30)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 6:08 pm
Many thanks and shared with the group in Bunia,Congo.
 

JL A. (272)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 6:14 pm
You're welcome Terry,
You cannot currently send a star to Gloria because you have done so within the last week.
You cannot currently send a star to Terry because you have done so within the last week.
 

Nancy C. (806)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 6:48 pm
Chickpeas are a farmers and vegetarians gold. I didn't like seeing the Gates Foundation anywhere near the research however. I do hope the projects stay gmo free...
 

JL A. (272)
Thursday January 31, 2013, 7:54 pm
Good points Nancy--thanks for highlighting them for us all!You cannot currently send a star to Nancy because you have done so within the last week.
 

Michael Kirkby (86)
Friday February 1, 2013, 9:44 am
Guess what company Bill Gates owns a huge block of shares in? If you guessed Monsanto, go to the head of the class and pick up a gold star. Tweaking the genome so that it creates a strain that can naturally adapt to harsher climes is one thing; adding chemicals such as Roundup and other Agent Orange derivatives is definitely Frankensteinian.
 

JL A. (272)
Friday February 1, 2013, 11:06 am
You cannot currently send a star to Michael because you have done so within the last week.
 

Sergio Padilla (62)
Wednesday February 6, 2013, 12:23 pm
Interesting
 

Mitchell D. (130)
Saturday February 9, 2013, 10:26 am
This is really a marvelous achievement, and the Gates' organization is to be commended.
Thanks for the post, as it is not that often that we get to hear of good news.
 

JL A. (272)
Saturday February 9, 2013, 2:23 pm
You cannot currently send a star to Mitchell because you have done so within the last week.
 
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