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Terry V (30)
Saturday February 23, 2013, 5:51 pm
How are the batteries disposed of? Are they adding more toxins?etc.???

JL A (281)
Saturday February 23, 2013, 8:43 pm
Absorbent Glass Mat (AGM)

AGM technology was developed in 1985 for military aircraft to reduce weight, increase power handling and improve reliability. The acid is absorbed by a very fine fiberglass mat, making the battery spill-proof. This enables shipment without hazardous material restrictions. The plates can be made flat to resemble a standard flooded lead acid pack in a rectangular case; they can also be wound into a cylindrical cell.

AGM has very low internal resistance, is capable to deliver high currents on demand and offers a relatively long service life, even when deep-cycled. AGM is maintenance free, provides good electrical reliability and is lighter than the flooded lead acid type. It stands up well to low temperatures and has a low self-discharge. The leading advantages are a charge that is up to five times faster than the flooded version, and the ability to deep cycle. AGM offers a depth-of-discharge of 80 percent; the flooded, on the other hand, is specified at 50 percent DoD to attain the same cycle life. The negatives are slightly lower specific energy and higher manufacturing costs that the flooded. AGM has a sweet spot in midsize packs from 30 to 100Ah and is less suitable for large UPS system.

AGM batteries are commonly built to size and are found in high-end vehicles to run power-hungry accessories such as heated seats, steering wheels, mirrors and windshields. NASCAR and other auto racing leagues choose AGM products because they are vibration resistant. AGM is the preferred battery for upscale motorcycles. Being sealed, AGM reduces acid spilling in an accident, lowers the weight for the same performance and allows installation at odd angles. Because of good performance at cold temperatures, AGM batteries are also used for marine, motor home and robotic applications.

Ever since Cadillac introduced the electric starter motor in 1912, lead acid became the natural choice to crank the engine. The classic flooded type is, however, not robust enough for the start-stop function and most batteries in a micro-hybrid car are AGM. Repeated cycling of a regular flooded type causes a sharp capacity fade after two years of use. See Heat, Loading and Battery Life.

As with all gelled and sealed units, AGM batteries are sensitive to overcharging. These batteries can be charged to 2.40V/cell (and higher) without problem; however, the float charge should be reduced to between 2.25 and 2.30V/cell (summer temperatures may require lower voltages). Automotive charging systems for flooded lead acid often have a fixed float voltage setting of 14.40V (2.40V/cell), and a direct replacement with a sealed unit could spell trouble by exposing the battery to undue overcharge on a long drive. See Charging Lead Acid.

AGM and other sealed batteries do not like heat and should be installed away from the engine compartment. Manufacturers recommend halting charge if the battery core reaches 49C (120F). While regular lead acid batteries need a topping charge every six months to prevent the buildup of sulfation, AGM batteries are less prone to this and can sit in storage for longer before a charge becomes necessary. Table 1 spells out the advantages and limitations of AGM.


Spill-proof through acid encapsulation in matting technology

High specific power, low internal resistance, responsive to load

Up to 5 times faster charge than with flooded technology

Better cycle life than with flooded systems

Water retention (oxygen and hydrogen combine to produce water)

Vibration resistance due to sandwich construction

Stands up well to cold temperature


Higher manufacturing cost than flooded (but cheaper than gel)

Sensitive to overcharging (gel has tighter tolerances than AGM)

Capacity has gradual decline (gel has a performance dome)

Low specific energy

Must be stored in charged condition (less critical than flooded)

Not environmentally friendly (has less electrolyte, lead that flooded)

Table 4: Advantages and limitations AGM. The gel system shares many of the characteristics.

Sounds like possibly less toxins from the above.

Types of batteries
Most types of batteries can be recycled. However, some batteries are recycled more readily than others, such as lead-acid automotive batteries (nearly 90% are recycled)and button cells (because of the value and toxicity of their chemicals).Other types, such as alkaline and rechargeable, can also be recycled.
Lead-acid batteries
These batteries include but are not limited to: Car Batteries, Golf Cart Batteries, UPS Batteries, Industrial Fork-Lift Batteries, Motorcycle Batteries, and Commercial Batteries. These can be regular lead acid, sealed lead acid, Gel Type, or absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries.These are recycled by pounding them, neutralizing the acid, and separating the polymers from the lead. The recovered materials are used in a variety of applications, including new batteries.
Silver Oxide Batteries
Used most frequently in watches, toys and some medical devices silver oxide batteries can become highly hazardous at the end of their useful life. After a period of use of approximately five years the batteries may begin to leak their contents which contains mercury, posing a serious health risk. The mercury will begin to corrode the inner shell of the battery. In most jurisdictions there exists legislation to regulate the appropriate handling and disposal of silver oxide batteries in order to minimize the risk to public health and the environment.These are recycled by shredding them and recovering the mercury.

Battery options

United States
Battery recycling is the USA is explained in more detail at the US Environmental Protection Agency.
Also in USA, Batteries Plus Stores recycle many types of batteries as part of the industry recycling initiatives through the Battery Council International organization.

Terry V (30)
Saturday February 23, 2013, 9:08 pm
Dang but you are GOOD = A+ and a HUGE THANK YOU

You cannot currently send a star to J.L. because you have done so within the last week.

JL A (281)
Saturday February 23, 2013, 9:13 pm
Thanks Terry and you are very welcome!

Jaime Alves (52)
Sunday February 24, 2013, 1:36 am
Noted, thanks.!!

Danuta W (1249)
Sunday February 24, 2013, 1:41 am

JL A (281)
Sunday February 24, 2013, 1:43 am
You are welcome Jaime!
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