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Scientists Detect Direct Evidence of Big Bang's Gravitational Waves


Science & Tech  (tags: cosmology, gravity waves, relativity, discovery, space, research, astronomy, Big Bang, science, scientists, technology )

Michael
- 1342 days ago - iflscience.com
In the most anticipated announcement in physics since the discovery of the Higgs Boson, the first detection of a gravitational wave has been reported.



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Michael O (175)
Monday March 17, 2014, 8:17 pm
By Stephen Luntz

If verified, the find will dispel any lingering doubts about Relativity theory, transform our understanding of the universe's beginning and provide astrophysicists with a new tool to probe the universe. The importance of the detection is hard to overstate.

As part of his General Theory of Relativity, Einstein predicted that acceleration of large masses would cause waves to ripple through space in a manner analogous to ripples on the surface of a pond. Indirect evidence abounds for gravitational waves, but almost a century after Einstein predicted it direct evidence remained elusive - until today's announcement by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The paper is now available on arXiv.

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the left over radiation from a four hundred thousand years after the Big Bang stretched by the expansion of the universe to peak in the microwave part of the spectrum. In the mid 1990s astrophysicists proposed that the polarization of the CMB could provide evidence for gravitational waves from the birth of the universe.

Photons can oscillate in different directions as they travel; up or down, side to side or even in a circular manner clockwise or anticlockwise. Hot sources produce photons with random orientations, but certain forces can create a bias where there is a preponderance of photons oscillating in a particular direction as they travel, making the radiation as a whole polarized.

The CMB was found to have a very slight polarization in 2002 as a result of density perturbations in the universe. Gravitational waves however, would be expected to induce a slightly different form of polarization. However, this pattern is so slight, and so vulnerable to false positives caused by other things, that there has been considerable skepticism that we would be able to detect the gravitational wave-induced polarization, at least with existing instruments.

The Plank space observatory has been studying the CMB since 2009, and some astronomers hoped it would be able to provide the evidence, but in the end the results came from an even more remote location, the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) detector located at the South Pole, where the cold dry air makes microwave astronomy possible.

"Detecting this signal is one of the most important goals in cosmology today. A lot of work by a lot of people has led up to this point," said Prof John Kovac of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and a leader of the BICEP2 collaboration.

Rumors of the discovery leaked well before the announcement leading to considerable debate online. While some astrophysicists were sceptical as to whether such a subtle signal could be detected with confidence, others not involved in the research were given prior access to the data. "I've seen the research; the arguments are persuasive, and the scientists involved are among the most careful and conservative people I know," Professor Marc Kamionkowski of Johns Hopkins University told BBC News.

Technical papers are available and are being poured over by researchers from teams worldwide.

The discovery of the CMB polarization by gravitational wave, should it stand the test of time, settles one question on its own, the debate over whether the early universe was inflationary. According to the most popular, but not universally accepted, theory of the early universe, 10-34 seconds after it began the universe experienced a period of rapid growth – expanding 100 trillion trillion times to something the size of a marble.

An inflationary period would produce larger gravitational waves than would have been generated without. Nevertheless, even most inflationary models do not predict a gravitational wave large and polarizing enough to be detected by BICEP.

The signal BICEP has found is so strong it makes many of the inflationary models of the early universe untenable, and leaves non-inflationary versions completely on the outer, suggesting the energy in the universe at that moment was well very much at the upper end of what was previously thought possible.

One of the reasons gravitational waves are so keenly sought is the hope that they will provide information about the crucial first moments of the universe in ways other instruments cannot. “People talk about the Square Kilometre Array as enabling us to detect the radiation from the Big Bang, but that is not strictly correct, Professor Jesper Munch of Adelaide University told Australasian Science. For the first 300 million years the universe was opaque to all electromagnetic radiation. However, gravitational waves could propagate through this early universe, and we can thus in principle detect signatures from the time of the Big Bang. It is probably the only way we can get signals from the origin of the universe.

Merely detecting a way is exciting, but we want more information than that it exists. The strength of the wave is expected to vary at different wavelengths. Finding out where it is strongest and weakest will tell us a lot about how the inflation occurred. The most important information of all is how energy dense the universe was during this era, and this could potentially be found by comparing wavelengths.

Gravitational wave perturbations from those first moments are directly dependent on the inflation, unlike density perturbations which are modulated by an unknown potential energy function. Consequently they would give us direct evidence of the details of energy of inflation in those first moments.
 

Bob month away P (396)
Wednesday March 19, 2014, 3:58 pm
Thanks Michael
 

Nimue Michelle Pendragon Gaze (339)
Wednesday March 19, 2014, 6:40 pm
Fascinating! Thank you :)
 

DaleLovesOttawa O (198)
Wednesday March 19, 2014, 8:34 pm
Very interesting, quite fascinating. Many thanks.
 

Robert O (12)
Thursday March 20, 2014, 8:49 am
Thanks Michael.
 

Alan Lambert (91)
Thursday March 20, 2014, 1:58 pm
Fascinating
 

Birgit W (160)
Thursday March 20, 2014, 2:16 pm
Interesting, thanks Michael.
 

Past Member (0)
Thursday March 20, 2014, 4:48 pm
From what I understand, this discovery is proof of a multi-verse. If so, this discovery is huge!
 

Past Member (0)
Thursday March 20, 2014, 4:49 pm
Thanks Michael.
 

EARTHDAY IS EVERYDAY (118)
Thursday March 20, 2014, 4:53 pm
Thank you Michael.
 

Tanya W (65)
Friday March 21, 2014, 5:24 am
Wow thanks Michael.
 

Past Member (0)
Friday March 21, 2014, 8:46 am
Interesting.
 

Stephen Brian (23)
Friday March 21, 2014, 8:50 pm
Hi :)

I checked the paper and it's not quite a direct detection of gravitational waves. That will have to wait for something like LIGO to be sensitive enough. What was detected was a pattern in the polarization of light from the Cosmic Microwave Background which is most easily explained by gravitational waves. It's still very important as the only data so far from the CMB, gives no information about conditions when the universe was still so hot that Hydrogen was still ionized. Having achieved the level of sensitivity needed to get data from polarization opens up a whole new window on the early universe and the mechanics which dominate at extremely high temperatures.

Having a clear idea of how to look for gravitational waves, I look forward to the next generation of advances in this field. In particular, once gravitational waves are directly measurable in a laboratory-setting, we may finally be able to put to rest questions about quantum gravity.
 

Panchali Yapa (26)
Saturday March 22, 2014, 1:24 am
Thank you
 

Mitchell D (103)
Saturday March 22, 2014, 7:43 am
If verified, this is similar to the finding that the Earth is round, is not the center of the universe, and is bound to result in a Nobel prize.
Alternet put out some stories about Neil de Grass Tyson's new "Cosmos" upsetting fundamentalists, in a sane universe, which this is not, just by dint of the presence of those fundamentalists, this ought to blow them out of the water!
 

Lois Jordan (63)
Saturday March 22, 2014, 3:31 pm
Noted w/thanks for posting this info, Michael. I saw a couple news reports on this that says scientists are "breaking out the champagne." Mitchell's right (comment above)......about making those comparisons. Apparently, the rightwing blogosphere's wheels are squeaking loudly regarding this. Science is what will lead our way to the future.....not fearmongering fundamentalist quackery!
And MJM (above) mentioned the multiverse.....such exciting info to look forward to! I will not miss an episode of the new "Cosmos".....1st two episodes were great!
 

Dee Jay M (0)
Monday February 22, 2016, 9:47 am
very interesting - thanks for posting
 
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